Publications by authors named "Homeira Rashidi"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recurrent cardiac and skin myxomas along with acromegaly: A case report of carney complex.

ARYA Atheroscler 2020 May;16(3):146-150

Associate Professor, Diabetes Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Carney complex (CNC) is an uncommon multisystem endocrine disorder with significant variability of clinical manifestations including mucocutaneous involvement (pigmented lesions, myxomas, blue nevi, etc.), endocrine tumors (adrenal, pituitary, thyroid glands, or testicles), and non-endocrine tumors [cardiac myxomas, psammomatous melanotic schwannomas (PMS), breast myxomas as well as ductal adenomas, and osteochondromyxomas]. To our knowledge, this is the second report of CNC in Iran, presenting with typical manifestations.

Case Report: A 29-year-old man was referred to our clinic to evaluate the likelihood of CNC because of recurrent cardiac myxomas. He sometimes suffered from self-limited episodes of non-exertional palpitation, dyspnea, weakness, and pallor. He had some features of acromegaly (such as increase in acral size and frontal bossing). The laboratory tests revealed a high insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) level, with no growth hormone (GH) suppression after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a microadenoma (5.79 × 2.80 mm) of the pituitary gland; then, he was diagnosed with CNC, having the following major criteria: recurrent cardiac myxomas, skin myxomas, and acromegaly due to GH pituitary microadenoma, as well as minor criteria: multiple cafe´-au-lait (CAL) spots, several skin tags and moles, and thyroid nodules. In this patient, laboratory tests for Cushing's syndrome were equivocal, whereas pheochromocytoma was proven biochemically but unexpectedly pathology did not confirm it. Rather, the pathology of the right adrenocortical specimen revealed nodular hyperplasia.

Conclusion: For patients with recurrent cardiac myxoma, especially with skin myxoma, the diagnosis of CNC should be considered and the search for other associations should be done even in an asymptomatic patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v16i3.2080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778511PMC
May 2020

The Effect of CYP2C9 Genotype Variants in Type 2 Diabetes on the Pharmacological Effectiveness of Sulfonylureas, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Nephropathy.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2020 18;16:241-248. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Aim: Type 2 diabetes (T2D), as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is predicted to have a prevalence of 629 million by 2045. As diabetic patients show considerable inter-individual variation in response to antidiabetic treatment, this study aimed to investigate the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 as well as the effectiveness and safety of glibenclamide and gliclazide for different genotypes of CYP2C9. Besides, the chronic side effects of T2D including retinal microvasculature complications or retinopathy and renal dysfunction due to nephropathy in different genotypes were considered.

Patients And Methods: The participants including 80 T2D patients treated with glibenclamide or gliclazide were recruited from university hospitals of Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, in the southwest of Iran. Blood samples were collected from the patients at 2.5h after the morning dose of glibenclamide and 12h after the last dose of gliclazide. Genotyping from the extracted DNA was, then, performed using PCR-RFLP. The plasma level of glibenclamide and gliclazide was, in turn, measured by the reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Results: The results showed that the wild-type allele, i.e., CYP2C9*1, occurred in the highest frequency (0.8), while the frequency rates of the mutant allele, i.e., CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were 0.15 and 0.05, respectively. Moreover, no significant association was found between any of the genotypes as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients. The findings also showed that the plasma level of sulfonylureas (i.e., glibenclamide and gliclazide) was the highest in the patients with the CYP2C9*3 allele. It was also found that 75.9% of the patients with variant genotypes had experienced hypoglycemia events. Furthermore, in the absence of wild type allele, a significant increase was observed in retinopathy (p=0.039) and nephropathy (p=0.05).

Conclusion: The findings can provide guidelines for the optimal management of the treatment protocols with sulfonylurea intended to control the T2D complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S230639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308133PMC
September 2020

The effects of ginger supplementation on inflammatory, antioxidant, and periodontal parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with chronic periodontitis under non-surgical periodontal therapy. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2019 6;12:1751-1761. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger supplementation on inflammatory, antioxidant, and periodontal parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) under non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT).

Material And Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, 46 T2DM patients with CP were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups and received either 4 tablets 500 mg (2 g) ginger or placebo twice a day for 8 weeks. All patients were treated with NSPT during the intervention period. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), periodontal indices including clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD), and plaque index were evaluated in all subjects pre- and post-intervention.

Results: Following 8 weeks of ginger treatment with NSPT, significant reductions were observed in the mean levels of IL-6 (=0.001), hs-CRP (=0.03), TNF-α (=0.007), CAL, and PD (<0.001) in the intervention group. The mean serum levels of SOD and GPx were significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention (=0.001 and 0.002, respectively). At the end of the study, the mean changes of GPx were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (=0.04). Also, after the administration of the ginger with NSPT, significant decrease occurred in the mean change of IL-6 (=0.009), hs-CRP (=0.049), TNF-α (=0.049), CAL (=0.003), and PD (=0.04) compared with the control group.

Conclusion: It is recommended that ginger supplementation along with NSPT may be effective in the improvement of inflammation, oxidative, and periodontal status in T2DM with CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S214333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737165PMC
September 2019

The most appropriate cut-off point of anthropometric indices in predicting the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jul - Aug;13(4):2739-2745. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Diabetes Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Introduction: The association of individuals' anthropometric indices with their development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been investigated in several studies. Taking into account the ethnic differences, this study aimed to determine the most appropriate cut-off points of anthropometric indices in predicting the incidence of MetS and its components in Ahvaz.

Methods: This study is part of a cohort study conducted at the Diabetes Research Center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences on a population of over 20 in Ahvaz during 2009-2014. Of the 592 patients, 505 patients who were not diagnosed with MetS in 2009, were entered into this study. The data analyzed involved demographic information including age and sex, anthropometric information including height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and the ratios between them, laboratory data including blood levels of Triglyceride (TG), Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and clinical data including systolic(S) and diastolic(D)blood pressure(BP). After 5 years, the subjects were re-evaluated for MetS based on the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria and the most appropriate cut-off points of anthropometric indices for the prediction of the incidence of MetS using the Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained.

Results: Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) index with a cut-off point of 0.53 followed by WC with a cut-off point of 87.5 cm had the highest power to predict the incidence of MetS. The cut-off points of WC and Body mass index (BMI) were respectively 89.5 cm and 26 kg/m2 for men, and 83.5 cm and 27.5 kg/m2 for women. All anthropometric indices were able to predict the components of this syndrome (with the exception of low HDL-C). The cut-off point of WC in predicting High FBS, High TG and High BP was 84.5, 84.8, and 86.5 cm, respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, it seems that given its ease of measurement, the WC index is preferred to other indices for predicting the incidence of MetS and its components in clinical screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.009DOI Listing
January 2020

Frequency of type I and II diabetes in newly diagnosed diabetic patients: Measuring C-Peptide level.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 May - Jun;13(3):1833-1835. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Diabetes Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that manifested as hyperglycemia due to the defect in secretion or function of insulin. This study aimed was to survey about frequency type I and II diabetes in newly diagnosed diabetic patients base on c-peptide and anti-glutamate acid decarboxylase (GAD) tests.

Materials & Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective study on 70 diabetic patients aged 15-45 years old who referred to diabetes clinics in Ahvaz city during 2012-2014 and their diabetes was diagnosed for the first time, but their type of diabetes was not clinically definitive. Patients with anti-GAD positive and fasting C-peptide level of less than 0.65 were diagnosed as type I diabetes. Patients with anti-GAD negative fasting C-peptide level of greater than or equal to 0.65 were considered as type II diabetes.

Results: Eighty two patients (49 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 21.64 ± 4.36 years (range 15-34) and a mean BMI of 22.05 ± 4.41 kg/m (range 14-18) were studied. Twenty three patients (28.5%) had type I diabetes and 59 patients (71.95%) had type II diabetes. In patients with type I diabetes, the mean BMI was 24.86 ± 2.36 kg/m and the number of patients with family history (56.22%) was higher. In type II diabetic patients, the number of women (62.71%) was higher than that of men.

Conclusion: Anti-GAD test can be used as a predictive test for early diagnosis of disease and screening of people with a diagnosis of diabetes based on the type of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.04.018DOI Listing
December 2019

Incidence of obesity, overweight and hypertension in children and adolescents in Ahvaz southwest of IRAN: Five-years study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):201-205. Epub 2018 May 22.

Diabetes Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of obesity, overweight and hypertension in children and adolescents aged 10-15 in Ahvaz.

Methods: This is a epidemiologic study performed on 176 people aged 10-15 in Ahvaz. In 2009, 300 people underwent weight, height and blood pressure measurements. Five years later, the same people were reassessed for obesity, overweight and hypertension, of whom a total of 176 people agreed to repeat the procedure.

Results: The study included 100 (57%) males and 76 (43%) females. Mean BMI was 22.1 ± 4.3 kg / m2 in year 2014, without any significant difference between the two sexes (P = 0.518). In the same year, the prevalence of obesity and overweight was 26 (14.8%) and 13 (7.4%), respectively. After 5years, BMI increased significantly (P < 0.001). Of the 150 norma participants with normal BMI in 2009, 15 (10%) and 6 (4%) became overweight and obese in 2014 respectively. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased significantly over 5 years P = 0.042 and P < 0.001.

Conclusions: This study shows an increase in mean BMI and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures after 5 years among people aged 10-15 in Ahvaz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.05.021DOI Listing
May 2019

The effects of inhaled corticosteroid on insulin sensitivity in asthmatic patients.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2018 02 19;88(1):892. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

Asthma is an inflammatory disease, which causes airflow limitation and increase insulin resistance. The present study was carried out in order to investigate insulin resistance and the effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) on insulin sensitivity in asthmatic patients. A registered (IRCT201605247411N2) interventional, quasi-experimental trial was performed from 2014 to 2015 in Imam Khomeini hospital Ahvaz, Iran. Patients with mild to moderate asthma participated in this study. Spirometry, fasting blood sugar (FBS), blood sugar 2 hour post prandial (BS2HPP), HbA1C, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), Insulin Level, and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Then Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR] Index calculated. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and McNemar's test using SPSS 20.0 Software. The study consisted of 35 non-diabetic patients suffering from asthma (20 men and 15 women) with a mean age of 36.6 ±12.3 years. Inhaled corticosteroid had a significant effect on spirometric parameters, but it had no significant effect on other variables. At baseline, mean HbA1C, insulin level and HOMA-IR were 5.5%, 10.9 mIU/L and 2.7 respectively. None of these values changed significantly after treatment with inhaled corticosteroid for two months. The results indicated that there is no relationship between ICS and increased insulin resistance in asthmatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2018.892DOI Listing
February 2018

Improving Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Using Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

Iran J Psychiatry 2017 Oct;12(4):281-286

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Depression is a chronic condition comorbid with diabetes type 2 that often remains untreated. Dealing with diabetes is a challenging task for patients and can lead to depression in long term. These two conditions have a negative influence on each other and on the individual's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group cognitive behavior therapy on depression, quality of life in women with diabetes type 2. We conducted a clinical trial among 30 women with diabetes type 2 comorbid with depression. The women were divided randomly into the two groups of and control. Each group consisted of 15 individuals. The intervention group received 10 sessions of group cognitive behavior therapy while the control group didn't. The results suggested that group cognitive-behavior therapy decreased depression symptoms (F=72.17, p<0.001), and improved quality of life of the patients (F=8.82, p<0.05) of the intervention group compared to the control group. The results shows that group cognitive behavior therapy can affect depression symptoms, and consequently patients' quality of life with diabetes type 2.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816918PMC
October 2017

Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in adolescence in Ahvaz, Iran.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2017 Dec 7;11 Suppl 2:S547-S550. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Diabetes Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, 61357-15794, Iran.

Background: High blood pressure is a risk factor for some disease like stroke, coronary heart disease, and renal failure. High blood pressure in children is an increasing health problem.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension age between 10 to 17 years old.

Patients And Methods: This descriptive analytic study was conducted using multiphase sampling method in Ahvaz (Southwest of Iran). A questionnaire include: height, weight, and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures filled for each participant. Blood pressure was measured twice for each person. For the diagnosis of hypertension, the fourth report of the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents of the National Health Institute of United States was used.

Results: Total participants of the study were 1707children and adolescents including 922 boys (54%) and 785 girls (46%). The prevalence of high blood pressure was 1.7% (2.5% in boys and 0.8%). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 9%(7.6% in boys, 10.6% in girls). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased with increasing body mass index.

Conclusions: The prevalence of high blood pressure was found to be lower than other studies in our country. The prevalence of the high blood pressure in boys was significantly higher than girls. This study, like other studies showed high correlation between being overweight and an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2017.04.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Impact of diabetic ketoacidosis on thyroid function tests in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2017 Nov 14;11 Suppl 1:S57-S59. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, 61357-15794, Iran. Electronic address:

The aim of current study was to evaluate the function of thyroid during diabetic acidosis, just after the treatment and two weeks after the treatment. This was the analytic study. The study subjects included 20 patients, aged 18-36 years old, with type1 diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis. All subjects were evaluated for thyroid function tests such as triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), T3 resin uptake (T3RU), free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), before treatment. After completing DKA treatment and two weeks after discharge, the thyroid function tests were repeated on the subjects and the results were analyzed using paired T-test, ANOVA or repeated measure and Pearson correlation tests. the current study showed that the mean levels of T3 and T4 were at hyperthyroid range and lower than normal before the treatment and significantly increased after the treatment (P<0.001). The serum levels of T3RU, FT4 and T4 were at the normal range, but their mean level increased significantly following the treatment progression (P<0.001).A significant relationship was observed among blood pH and the serum levels of FT3 and T3, before the treatment; the lower pH, the lower levels of FT3 and T3. The results of the current study showed that DKA causes euthyroid sick syndrome. The disease complications were resolved two weeks after treatment and the severity of acidosis was the main factor to decrease the level of active form of thyroid hormones such as FT3 and T3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.12.001DOI Listing
November 2017

The prevalence of metabolic disorders in various phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: a community based study in Southwest of Iran.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2014 Sep 16;12:89. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy, associated with metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic features of various phenotypes of this syndrome are still debatable. The aim of present study hence was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal features of PCOS phenotypes in comparison to a group of healthy control.

Methods: A total of 646 reproductive-aged women were randomly selected using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method. The subjects were divided into five phenotypes: A (oligo/anovulation + hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovaries), B (oligo/anovulation + hyperandrogenism), C (hyperandrogenism + polycystic ovaries) and D (oligo/anovulation + polycystic ovaries). Hormonal and metabolic profiles and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among these groups were compared using ANCOVA adjusted for age and body mass index.

Results: Among women with PCOS (n = 85), those of groups A and C had higher serum levels of insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared to PCOS women of group D. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and glucose in group A were higher than in other phenotypes, whereas the metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among group B.

Conclusions: Women who had all three components of the syndrome showed the highest level of metabolic disturbances indicating that metabolic screening of the severest phenotype of PCOS may be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-12-89DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180586PMC
September 2014

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors among children and adolescents of Ahvaz aged 10 - 19.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2014 28;13:53. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Health research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 61357-15794, Iran.

Background: Population-based studies for prevalence of metabolic syndrome (M.S) in children and adolescents are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to assess the Prevalence of M.S and correlated factors among children and adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in Ahvaz.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical population- based study, 2246 children and adolescents, 10-19 years old (1113 male and 1133 female) in Ahvaz, were evaluated. Anthropometry, biochemical measurement and blood pressure (BP) were assessed. Modified ATP III criteria 2005 were used for M.S. definition. Center for disease and Control preventions (CDC) percentile were applied to define cut off points of waist circumference and BP.

Results: Prevalence of M.S. was 9% (95% CI: 8-10%) with prevalence in male 11% (95% CI: 10-12%) and female 7% (95% CI 6-8%). Among individuals with M.S, triglyceride (TG) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were the most common components (33.5% and 24.1%, respectively). Prevalence of M.S was higher in overweight persons comparing to participants with at risk and normal weight group (in male: 24.1%, 14.3% and 9.9% respectively P = 0.0001), (in female: 22.6%, 18.3% and 4.5% respectively P = 0.0001). Among the correlated factors of M.S age (P = 0.0006), sex and BMI (P = 0.0001) had significant differences between subjects with and without M.S. whereas there was no significant difference between two groups in ethnicity, history of breast fed, birth weight neonatal ICU admission, maternal history(GDM, gestational HTN, Parity) and family history of HTN, obesity and DM (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: This study shows high prevalence of M.S in Children and Adolescents in south west of Iran (Ahvaz) especially in overweight persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-13-53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4031928PMC
May 2014

To what extent does the use of the Rotterdam criteria affect the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome? A community-based study from the Southwest of Iran.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014 Mar 18;174:100-5. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: There are limited data on the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome at the community level: heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and lack of universal agreement on definitions of each criterion for population-based studies complicate comparability of the existing literature. This study aimed to assess the impact of using three principal definitions for polycystic ovary syndrome on its reported prevalence in a large community-based study conducted in the Southwest of Iran.

Study Design: A total of 646 reproductive-age women were randomly selected using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome was estimated according to the National Institutes of Health, the Androgen Excess Society and the Rotterdam criteria, using universal assessment of ultrasonographic parameters, hormonal profiles and clinical histories.

Results: The mean age of participants was 33.2 years and 36.9% of them were overweight. The estimated prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in this population based study was 14.1% using the Rotterdam criteria, 12% by the Androgen Excess Society criteria, and 4.8% according to the National Institutes of Health recommendation.

Conclusions: Using the Rotterdam versus the National Institutes of Health criteria increased the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome 2.9-fold. This indicates the need for more studies on the long-term consequences of the additional cases diagnosed using the Rotterdam criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2013.12.018DOI Listing
March 2014

Evaluation of only the chin or lower abdomen for predicting hirsutism.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Sep;17(5):896-8

Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Hirsutism is defined as the growth of terminal hair in a male pattern in women; it affects 5-15% of women.

Objective: The aim of this study is evaluation of only the chin or lower abdomen for predicting hirsutism.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional diagnostic study, we randomly selected 695 women aged 15-45 years. The examiners scored the subjects on a scale of 0 - 4 for terminal hair growth on nine different body areas according to the Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) scoring system in a form given to the examiners before the examination. An FG score of 8 or more was considered diagnostic of hirsutism. If the sum of the FG scores for the chin or lower abdomen was 2 or more, the test result was assumed to be positive. Statistical analysis was performed using the MacNemar test, and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The age group with the highest prevalence rate was 21-25 years. From the 695 subjects examined, 81 subjects (11.7%) had an FG score of 8 or more with a resultant prevalence rate of 11.7% for hirsutism. In our study population, 39% of the patients had an FG score of 2 or more for the chin or lower abdomen, and 61% of the patients had an FG score of less than 2 for the chin or lower abdomen.

Conclusion: Evaluating terminal hair growth on the chin or lower abdomen for predicting hirsutism seems to be an acceptable screening method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.117239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784875PMC
September 2013

The prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011 Nov 1;9:144. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is no clear and contemporaneous method for screening of idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at the community level and current estimates regarding their prevalence are limited. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of IH and PCOS in a randomly selected sample of reproductive aged female participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS).

Methods: One thousand and two women, aged 18-45 years, were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women who participated in the TLGS. Those women with either hirsutism or menstrual dysfunction were assessed for biochemical hyperandrogenemia; whereas those participants with hirsutism per se were further assessed for subclinical menstrual dysfunction. PCOS were diagnosed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) criteria. IH was defined as hirsutism without clinical or sub clinical menstrual dysfunction or biochemical hyperandrogenemia (BH).

Results: The mean±SD of age of study population was 29.2±8.7 years. Estimated prevalences of idiopathic hirsutism and pure menstrual dysfunction were 13.0% (95% CI: 10.9%-15.1%) and 1.5%(95% CI: 1.1%-1.9%), respectively. The prevalence of PCOS was 8.5% (95% CI: 6.8%-10.2%); more than one third of these cases would possibly have remained undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, had we not assessed them for subclinical menstrual dysfunction or biochemical hyperandrogenemia.

Conclusions: These data from a large representative and non selected population of women confirm the concept that IH and PCOS are the two most common gynecological endocrinopathies among reproductive aged women. The estimated prevalence of these conditions is highly influenced by their screening methods at the community level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-9-144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214199PMC
November 2011

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Zahedan, southeast Iran.

Ann Nutr Metab 2011 8;58(1):37-41. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: Several studies show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Asia. Data regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in southeast Iran are inadequate.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Zahedan, a sunny area in southeast Iran.

Subjects And Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was performed on 993 apparently healthy subjects. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vit D), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured.

Results: Inadequate vitamin D status was diagnosed in 94.7% of the subjects (25-OH vit D <30 ng/ml). The frequencies of deficiency (<20 ng/ml), insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), sufficiency (30-150 ng/ml), and toxicity (>150 ng/ml) were 85.2, 9.5, 5.3, and 0.0%, respectively.

Conclusion: The results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is common in the population of Zahedan. Based on our results, fortification of milk and the use of supplements is suggested in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000323749DOI Listing
August 2011