Publications by authors named "Holly Dabelko-Schoeny"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

White and Black Differences in Perceived Access to Health and Community Services and Self-Rated Health in an Age-Friendly Community Assessment.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Jun 11:7334648211023251. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Age-Friendly Innovation Center, Columbus, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to identify the race differences in perceived access to health and community services and self-rated health (SRH) among White and Black older adult participants of an age-friendly community assessment.

Methods: Responses ( = 313) to a baseline assessment of Columbus, Ohio, residents aged ≥50 years were analyzed.

Results: Significant differences were found between White and Black older adults regarding SRH, with Black older adults reporting lower SRH. Black older adults reported significantly lower perceived access to 11 out of the 13 health and community services. There were no significant differences by race regarding ratings of Columbus and personal neighborhoods as a place for people to live as they age. Regression analyses found income was a significant predictor of SRH for both White and Black older adults.

Discussion: Opportunities to increase perceived access and knowledge of health and community services for older adults through targeted, equitable interventions are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07334648211023251DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 and the Need for Adult Day Services.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 07 7;22(7):1333-1337. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

COVID-19 has shone a harsh light on the inequities of health care in the United States, particularly in how we care for older people. We summarize some of the effects of lockdown orders on clients, family caregivers, and staff of adult day service programs throughout the United States, which may serve as a counterpoint to scientific evidence suggesting a lack of efficacy of these programs. Given the ramifications of state lockdown orders for users and staff of the long-term services and support system, we provide recommendations to better support community-based programs and those they serve. Specifically, (1) adult day programs should be classified as essential, (2) a focus on the value of adult day and similar programs is needed, and (3) an exploration of new ways to finance home and community-based services is warranted. Such advances in policy and science would help to integrate adult day services more effectively into the broader health care landscape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103140PMC
July 2021

: The Challenges and Benefits of Formal Volunteering among Low-Income Diverse Older Adults.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2021 Jun 8;64(4):388-404. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Age Friendly Columbus and Franklin County, Blackburn Community Recreation Center, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Volunteering is often considered an important component of productive and active aging. Although there is a rich body of literature on the predictors and outcomes of volunteering among the general older adults in the United States (U.S.), few studies have explored the unique volunteering experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse older adults. Given the growing number of diverse older adults and the importance of optimizing their contributions to society, this study investigates the challenges and benefits of volunteering among low-income diverse older adults. We conducted eight 90-minute focus groups in six languages (English, Nepali, Khmer, Somali, Russian, and Chinese) with 70 older volunteers attending a Senior Companions monthly training in a U.S. Midwestern metropolitan area. Data analysis followed the Rapid and Rigorous Qualitative Data Analysis (RADaR) technique and thematic analysis through an interactive team approach. Three overarching themes highlighted the of volunteering: (1) transportation, (2) community emergencies and workload, and (3) family caregiving; and three themes reflected the of volunteering: (1) stress-relief, (2) training and information, and (3) peer support and socialization. Study findings shed light on diverse older adults' unique volunteering experiences with implications for recruitment and retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2021.1897723DOI Listing
June 2021

Volunteering Served as a Transitional Role That Enhances the Well-Being and Cognitive Health Among Older Adults With Cognitive Impairments.

J Appl Gerontol 2020 Dec 24:733464820982731. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Objectives: We examined whether volunteering among older adults with cognitive impairments serves as a transitional role that can enhance these older persons' well-being and cognitive health.

Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we selected older adults with cognitive impairments ( = 472) and developed linear mixed models to assess associations between volunteering and health outcomes.

Results: Volunteers in our sample were mostly females, non-Hispanic whites, those with higher income, and those with a high-school diploma. Volunteering was associated with higher levels of self-rated health, and consistent participation in volunteer work was related to stronger feelings of purpose in life. Cognitive health slightly improved over time only among those who volunteered.

Discussion: We demonstrate that cognitive impaired older adults' participation in the volunteer role can benefit cognitive health while strengthening their late life resilience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464820982731DOI Listing
December 2020

Determinants of Fall Prevention Guideline Implementation in the Home- and Community-Based Service Setting.

Gerontologist 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Objectives: Home- and community-based service (HCBS) recipients often possess multiple fall risk factors, suggesting that the implementation of evidence-based fall prevention guidelines may be appropriate for the HCBS setting. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the determinants of fall prevention guideline implementation and the potential strategies that can support implementation in HCBS organizations.

Research Design And Methods: Semi-structured interview and focus groups data were collected from 26 HCBS professionals representing the home-delivered meals, personal care, and wellness programs. Qualitative codes were mapped to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) by means of directed content analysis. The COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research (COREQ) checklist was used to report the findings of this study.

Results: We identified seven major determinants of guideline implementation: recipient needs and resources, cosmopolitanism, external policy and incentives, networks and communication, compatibility, available resources, and knowledge/beliefs. Strategies to support guideline implementation included the involvement of recipient and caregiver feedback, building fall prevention networks, and conducting educational meetings for HCBS staff.

Discussion And Implications: Falls and fall-related injuries will continue to plague the older adult community unless innovative approaches to fall prevention are developed and adopted. The implementation of fall prevention guidelines in the HCBS setting can help mitigate fall risk among a highly vulnerable older adult population and may be facilitated through the application of multifaceted implementation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnaa133DOI Listing
September 2020

The use of community advisory boards in pragmatic clinical trials: The case of the adult day services plus project.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2021 Jan-Mar;40(1):16-26. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

School of Public Health, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Community advisory boards (CABs) have become increasingly common and important in translational research in health care including studies focusing on home and community-based services. CABs are composed of stakeholders who share interest in research projects and typically include patients/clients, practitioners, community members, policymakers, and researchers. CABs advise researchers on issues ranging from research design and recruitment to implementation and dissemination. In this article, the researchers detail their experiences with the CAB for a pragmatic clinical trail of Adult Day Services (ADS) Plus, an education and support intervention for family caregivers of older adults with dementia using adult day services. Lessons learned, guidelines, and best practices are then presented for developing and working with a CAB in healthcare research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621424.2020.1816522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855735PMC
August 2020

Using Community-Based Participatory Research Strategies in Age-Friendly Communities to Solve Mobility Challenges.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2020 07 27;63(5):447-463. Epub 2020 May 27.

Age-Friendly Communities, Columbus and Franklin County, College of Social Work, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The number of older adults is steadily increasing in the United States and across the globe. Aging is linked to an increased risk of disability. Disabilities that limit one or more major life activities such as seeing, hearing, walking, and motor skills impact a person's ability to drive a car. Low utilization of alternative transportation by older adults and people with disabilities may put them at risk for social isolation. Social isolation is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. While communities are challenged to create available, acceptable, accessible, adaptable and affordable mobility options, there are widely held, inaccurate biases around older adults' abilities to contribute to the development and improvement of alternative transportation options. Gerontological social workers are well-positioned to address this bias. This paper presents a case study of a large metropolitan county in the Midwest where community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were used to engage older residents to support the development of alternative transportation options supporting the tenets of environmental justice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2020.1769787DOI Listing
July 2020

Does Self-Efficacy and Team Leader Equity Matter for Older Workers' Mental Health?

Gerontologist 2020 08;60(6):996-1004

The Ohio State University College of Social Work, Columbus.

Background And Objectives: Prolonged working life is not necessarily associated with good mental health. Despite the importance of healthy working life in later years, little research has been conducted on predictors of mental health in the workplace among older workers. This study aimed to investigate how personal (self-efficacy) and team (leader equity) factors are associated with older workers' mental health through work engagement.

Research Design And Methods: We analyzed responses of 508 U.S. workers aged 50 years and older from the Age and Generations Study data using structural equation modeling.

Results: Results showed that perceived self-efficacy was a strong predictor of mental health. Also, work engagement was a powerful mechanism for promoting older adults' mental health; engagement partially mediated the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and mental health, and fully mediated the relationship between team leader equity and mental health.

Discussion And Implications: The findings highlight how important it is for employers to invest in human capital development, suggesting human resource programs should focus on strategies that target older adults' engagement through tailored self-efficacy programs and inclusive leadership training programs. Such attempts would contribute to enhancing the mental health of older workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnz191DOI Listing
August 2020

Age-friendly communities and perceived disconnectedness: the role of built environment and social engagement.

J Aging Health 2020 10 26;32(9):937-948. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

To examine the effect of access to outdoor space and buildings and social or community events on elders' perceived disconnectedness. Data were from a representative survey conducted as part of an age-friendly community initiative in a large midwestern city in the United States. Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to examine the relationships between environment, engagement, and connection. Having access to ramps to enter buildings reduced the odds of perceived disconnectedness by 79%, participation in social or community events reduced the odds of perceived disconnectedness by 83%. The odds of perceived disconnectedness for elders "not sure" of their access to public buildings were around 6 times that of those without access, holding all else constant. Ensuring access to ramps to enter buildings, disseminating information about the accessibility of parks and buildings, and social or community events may reduce elders' perceived disconnectedness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898264319865421DOI Listing
October 2020

Embedding caregiver support in community-based services for older adults: A multi-site randomized trial to test the Adult Day Service Plus Program (ADS Plus).

Contemp Clin Trials 2019 08 22;83:97-108. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

University of Minnesota, School of Nursing, 308 SE Harvard St, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States of America. Electronic address:

There are over five million people in the United States living with dementia. Most live at home and are cared for by family. These family caregivers often assume care responsibilities without education about the disease, skills training, or support, and in turn become at risk for depression, burden, and adverse health outcomes when compared to non-dementia caregivers. Despite over 200 caregiver interventions with proven benefits, many caregivers lack access to these programs. One approach to enhance access is to embed evidence-based caregiver support programs in existing community-based services for people with dementia such as adult day services (ADS). Here we describe the protocol for an embedded pragmatic trial designed to augment standard ADS known as ADS Plus. ADS Plus provides family caregivers with support via education, referrals, and problem-solving techniques over 12 months, and is delivered on-site by existing ADS staff. Embedding a program in ADS requires an understanding of outcomes and implementation processes in that specific context. Thus, we deploy a hybrid design involving a cluster randomized two-group trial to evaluate treatment effects on caregiver wellbeing, ADS utilization, as well as nursing home placement. We describe implementation practices in 30 to 50 geographically and racially/ethnically diverse participating sites. Clinical trial registration #: NCT02927821.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2019.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069225PMC
August 2019

Access to Employment, Volunteer Activities, and Community Events and Perceptions of Age-Friendliness: The Role of Social Connectedness.

J Appl Gerontol 2020 09 5;39(9):1016-1024. Epub 2019 May 5.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of access to employment, volunteer opportunities, and community events on older adults' perception of age-friendliness and feelings of connectedness. Data were from an age-friendly community survey conducted in a Midwestern city in the United States. We analyzed the responses of 264 older adult residents (50 years and older) using path analysis. Results showed that access to community events, job resources, and connectedness were predictors of older adults' perceptions of age-friendliness of their community, and that connectedness mediated the relationship between access to community events and perceived age-friendliness. The findings help to refine the concept of an age-friendly community from older adults' perspectives and emphasize the importance of fostering interactions through community events to enhance older adults' feelings of connectedness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464819847588DOI Listing
September 2020

Foundations of social work practice in the field of aging: a competency-based approach. 2 Edition.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2019 Apr 24:1-3. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a College of Social Work , The Ohio State University , Columbus , OH , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2019.1610133DOI Listing
April 2019

Integration of post-acute care and hospice care in adult day services.

Geriatr Nurs 2018 May - Jun;39(3):356-357. Epub 2018 May 11.

College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2018.04.012DOI Listing
October 2018

Staff Perceptions of Adult Day Centers Providing Post-Acute Care for Persons With Dementia.

J Appl Gerontol 2020 02 20;39(2):192-200. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of adult day services (ADS) staff and hospital discharge planners regarding the feasibility of ADS to provide post-acute care (PAC) for persons with dementia. We conducted key informant interviews with emergency department (ED) and inpatient hospital discharge planners ( = 9), and two focus groups with ADS staff ( = 15) representing five ADS programs. Four thematic categories were identified from the discharge planners, including concerns for patients, factors influencing discharge, experience with ADS, and conditions for ADS referrals. Four categories identified from ADS staff interviews include public lack of knowledge of ADS, communication challenges, ADS to prevent hospitalization and ED visits, and barriers to providing PAC. Lack of knowledge about ADS, the role of family in PAC decisions, and the lack of reimbursement for PAC in ADS were identified as the most significant drivers in the ability of ADS to provide PAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464818757001DOI Listing
February 2020

A Comprehensive Evaluation of a Lifelong Learning Program: Program 60.

Int J Aging Hum Dev 2016 Dec 28;84(1):88-106. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

1 The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Lifelong learning programs meet older adults' educational needs and further support their health and well-being leading to more successful aging. In particular, university-based lifelong learning programs have provided older adults with opportunities to not only develop skills and knowledge but also expand new social networks with people of different ages. This study evaluated a university-based lifelong learning program, Program 60, to identify the relationships between participants' experiences in the program and their quality of life. An online survey was employed, and 107 participants completed the self-report survey. The participants reported that classes helped increase their emotional satisfaction and that they enjoyed taking classes with younger students. Their experiences in the program reliably predicted psychological and social elements of their quality of life ( p = .004 and p = .019, respectively). Study results provide helpful information for the development of lifelong learning programs that are responsive to the increasing demands of older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091415016668352DOI Listing
December 2016

Beyond respite: the role of adult day services in supporting dementia caregivers.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2015 Apr-Jun;34(2):101-12

a School of Social Work , University of Montana , Missoula , Montana , USA.

Adult day services (ADS) are the leading provider of community-based care for persons with dementia and their caregivers. While the provision of caregiver respite is well-documented, little is known about the provision of other forms of dementia caregiver support. Logistic regression analyses of ADS providers (N = 297) in the MetLife Study indicated that the number of hours of social work support was a significant predictor of case management services, while nonprofit status was a significant predictor of caregiver education and support groups. These findings have implications for practice and policy related to this growing provider of dementia services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621424.2015.1040939DOI Listing
December 2015

Heterogeneity within adult day services: a focus on centers that serve younger adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2014 ;33(2):77-88

a University of Montana, Missoula , Montana , USA.

As the population of younger adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to grow, adult day services is positioned to be a key provider of community-based care and support. In this article, researchers examine how adult day centers that serve younger adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities differ from centers that serve older and mixed age groups. One-way analyses of variance and post hoc analyses of 490 adult day services centers (N = 490) revealed significant differences in terms of participant, staffing, and organizational characteristics. These findings have important implications for service providers, researchers, and policy makers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621424.2014.907554DOI Listing
October 2015

The effectiveness of adult day services for older adults: a review of the literature from 2000 to 2011.

J Appl Gerontol 2014 Mar 4;33(2):130-63. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Adult Day Service (ADS) centers offer a variety of services to meet the needs of older adults and their caregivers. During the last decade, ADS has received increased attention due to shifts in policy toward home and community-based services for an aging population. This article reviews the effectiveness of ADS from 2000 to the present, with particular attention given to caregiver and participant outcomes, health care utilization, and future directions in ADS research. Multiple databases were searched to identify relevant research and 61 articles were selected for review based on inclusion criteria. The results of this review emphasize the need to implement and test more specific interventions targeting the needs of the ADS population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464812443308DOI Listing
March 2014

The state of adult day services: findings and implications from the MetLife National Study of Adult Day Services.

J Appl Gerontol 2013 Sep 25;32(6):729-48. Epub 2012 Jun 25.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

With approximately 4,600 centers serving over 260,000 persons each day, adult day services (ADS) continues to be a growing sector within the long-term care industry. However, due to the absence of national data, a full and detailed understanding of the ADS industry has been limited. In the first national study since 2002, researchers collected descriptive and programmatic data on a randomly selected sample (N = 557) of ADS facilities across the United States. Results indicated substantial changes in facility characteristics (e.g., size, staffing), participant characteristics (e.g., age, care needs), service provision (e.g., psychosocial, nursing, and medical services), and financing and funding (e.g., rates, reimbursement). Data suggested that the ADS industry has an increased capacity to serve as a provider of comprehensive health care for families and as a platform for chronic disease management. Implications for public policy makers, providers, and researchers are discussed in light of the current health care environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464812447284DOI Listing
September 2013

Resident transitions to assisted living: a role for social workers.

Health Soc Work 2012 Aug;37(3):147-54

College of Social Work, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide, geographically representative purposive sample of Medicaid Assisted Living Waiver providers (N = 28). Findings suggest a positive relationship between the availability of a social worker and the frequency and importance of resident preadmission education in several areas. Results also suggest a gap between what AL providers believe is important for resident transitions and what is actually happening in their facilities. Social workers may play a significant role in providing preadmission education and are well positioned to address the unmet psychosocial needs of residents and family members during the transition to AL. Future studies should specifically examine the contributing role of social workers during the period of adjustment to AL and the effect of social work services on the well-being of AL residents and families in AL settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hls020DOI Listing
August 2012

Adult day services: a service platform for delivering mental health care.

Aging Ment Health 2013 28;17(2):207-14. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to understand the degree to which mental health services targeting anxiety and depression disorders are offered by adult day services (ADS) centers in the US. In addition, researchers wanted to determine whether staffing and organizational characteristics are associated with the provision of medication management, individual counseling, and group counseling for participants with anxiety or depression.

Method: Data were drawn from the MetLife National Study of ADS. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine which staffing and organizational factors were associated with the provision of services to treat anxiety and depression.

Results: Approximately, three in four adult day programs provided medication management for the treatment of anxiety and depression while 38% provided individual counseling and almost 30% group counseling. Programs offering medication management were more likely to have more registered nurse (RN) service hours available per shift and higher costs. Programs that provided individual and group counseling for participants with anxiety or depression were more likely to have more hours of RN and social work services available and a lower percentage of participants who pay privately for services.

Conclusion: The results suggest that ADS are well positioned to act as a platform for delivering mental health care to older persons with anxiety or depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2012.724653DOI Listing
August 2013

Civic engagement for nursing home residents: a call for social work action.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2010 Apr;53(3):270-82

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1162, USA.

Civic engagement has been found to be associated with a number of emotional and physical benefits for older adults. For those residing in nursing homes, however, opportunities for civic engagement are limited. Societal barriers such as ageism and practical issues such as transportation can limit their access to activities that promote civic engagement. In this article, we review past research on civic engagement for older adults and explore the challenges and barriers faced by nursing home residents. We conclude with a call for social work professionals to develop, implement, and evaluate interventions that increase civic engagement opportunities for this undervalued group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634371003648323DOI Listing
April 2010

Civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations: piloting an intervention for adult day health participants.

Gerontologist 2010 Oct 15;50(5):694-701. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1162, USA.

Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic engagement in this growing and often overlooked population.

Design And Methods: A convenience sample was recruited from 2 adult day health centers (N = 43). A multicomponent intervention was implemented comprising education, service, and recognition phases. Using a nonequivalent switching replications design, researchers compared participants receiving the civic engagement intervention with participants receiving treatment as usual.

Results: In terms of feasibility, the intervention was unproblematic and amenable to this population; however, challenges existed in data collection. Participants receiving the intervention reported higher, yet nonsignificant, levels of purpose in life, self-esteem, and perceived physical health when compared with those in the control group. However, 5 weeks following the withdrawal of the intervention, participants reported a significant decrease in self-esteem and perceived physical health.

Implications: Civic engagement interventions appear to be quite feasible and possibly beneficial for older adults with physical and cognitive limitations, such as those enrolled in adult day health programs. Future studies should examine the nature and amount of engagement needed to maximize the benefits of such interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnq019DOI Listing
October 2010

In their own words: participants' perceptions of the impact of adult day services.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2010 Feb;53(2):176-92

College of Social Work, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Despite the growth in the number of adult day services programs providing long-term care in the United States, researchers have struggled to consistently identify the benefits of the services to older adult participants. Instead of identifying participant outcomes driven by administrative databases, funding requirements or accreditation expectations, this study attempted to identify outcomes through the lived experiences of the older adult participants through one-on-one interviews after 3 months of attendance. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of older adult participants and to build theoretical understandings that connect experiences with outcomes. Twenty-eight semistructured interviews were conducted with older adults attending 4 day health programs administered by 1 organization in a large mid-west City. Three main program experiences were identified: social connections with participants, empowering relationships with staff, and participation and enjoyment of activities and services. These experiences seemed to be associated with perceived improvements in psychosocial well-being and a perceived decrease in burden or dependence on the caregiver. The findings provide theoretical connections that are helpful for exploring the impact of adult day services based on participant perspectives. Results suggest a need for further examination of the role social workers play in supporting psychosocial services within adult day programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634370903475936DOI Listing
February 2010
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