Publications by authors named "Holland Galante"

3 Publications

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Early nighttime testosterone peaks are correlated with GnRH-induced testosterone in a diurnal songbird.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Oct 21;312:113861. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Evolutionary Physiology Research Group, Seewiesen, Germany; University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, Konstanz, Germany.

Experimental manipulation has established testosterone as a potent, pleiotropic regulator coordinating morphology, physiology and behavior. However, the relationship of field-sampled, unmanipulated testosterone concentrations with traits of interest is often equivocal. Circulating testosterone varies over the course of the day, and recent reports indicate that testosterone is higher during the night in diurnal songbirds. Yet, most field studies sample testosterone during the morning. Sampling at times when levels and individual variation are low may be one reason relationships between testosterone and other traits are not always observed. Testosterone is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) initiating the endocrine cascade. Research has examined GnRH-induced testosterone levels with traits of interest, yet the relevance of these induced levels and their relationship with endogenously produced levels are not fully clear. Using photostimulated male great tits (Parus major) we tested the hypotheses that circulating testosterone levels peak during the night and that GnRH-induced testosterone concentrations are positively related to nightly testosterone peaks. Blood was sampled during first, middle or last third of night. One week later, baseline and GnRH-induced testosterone levels were sampled during mid-morning. Morning baseline testosterone levels were low compared with night-sampled levels that peaked during the first third of the night. Further, GnRH-induced testosterone was strongly positively correlated with levels observed during the first third of the night. These data suggest that morning testosterone samples likely do not reflect an individual's endogenous peak. Instead, GnRH-induced testosterone levels do approximate an individual's nightly peak and may be an alternative for birds that cannot easily be sampled at night in the field. These findings are likely to have implications for research aimed at relating traits of interest with natural variation in sex steroid hormone levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2021.113861DOI Listing
October 2021

Ubiquitin-binding site 2 of ataxin-3 prevents its proteasomal degradation by interacting with Rad23.

Nat Commun 2014 Aug 21;5:4638. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

1] Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E Canfield, Scott Hall Room 3108, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA [2] Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E Canfield, Scott Hall Room 3108, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA [3] Cancer Biology Program, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E Canfield, Scott Hall Room 3108, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Polyglutamine repeat expansion in ataxin-3 causes neurodegeneration in the most common dominant ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Since reducing levels of disease proteins improves pathology in animals, we investigated how ataxin-3 is degraded. Here we show that, unlike most proteins, ataxin-3 turnover does not require its ubiquitination, but is regulated by ubiquitin-binding site 2 (UbS2) on its N terminus. Mutating UbS2 decreases ataxin-3 protein levels in cultured mammalian cells and in Drosophila melanogaster by increasing its proteasomal turnover. Ataxin-3 interacts with the proteasome-associated proteins Rad23A/B through UbS2. Knockdown of Rad23 in cultured cells and in Drosophila results in lower levels of ataxin-3 protein. Importantly, reducing Rad23 suppresses ataxin-3-dependent degeneration in flies. We present a mechanism for ubiquitination-independent degradation that is impeded by protein interactions with proteasome-associated factors. We conclude that UbS2 is a potential target through which to enhance ataxin-3 degradation for SCA3 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237202PMC
August 2014

Female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, are responsive to visual stimuli but unselective of stimulus characteristics.

J Exp Biol 2014 Sep 10;217(Pt 18):3254-62. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 3209 N. Maryland Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA.

The visual ecology of nocturnal anurans is poorly understood, but there is growing evidence that vision plays a role in important behaviors such as mate choice. While several recent studies have demonstrated that females are responsive to visual cues when selecting mates, the forces responsible for these preferences are unknown. We investigated the responsiveness of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to video playbacks of calling conspecific males in which we varied attributes of the vocal sac, a conspicuous visual characteristic of calling males and a target of female choice in other species. Females responded surprisingly strongly to the video playbacks, but did so indiscriminately with respect to variation in vocal sac characteristics. We followed up on these results with a series of additional tests that examined female responses to abstract stimuli. Females continued to respond to such stimuli, leading us to conclude that their behavior was related to a generalized phototactic response. Because of this, we were unable to make conclusions regarding female preferences for vocal sac characteristics. Nonetheless, our results are significant in two respects. First, we illustrate that despite much effort into improving video playback methodologies, challenges remain, and we offer our experimental design as a method to ensure that appropriate conclusions can be drawn from such studies. Second, we argue that the female phototactic response has potentially significant behavioral implications and in general the consequences of anuran visual preferences deserve further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.106666DOI Listing
September 2014
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