Publications by authors named "Holger Lippold"

20 Publications

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Low Carbon Footprint Recycling of Post-Consumer PET Plastic with a Metagenomic Polyester Hydrolase.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Leipzig University: Universitat Leipzig, Department of Chemistry and Mineralogy, GERMANY.

Our planet is flooded with plastics and the need for sustainable recycling strategies of polymers has become increasingly urgent. Enzyme-based hydrolysis of post-consumer plastic is an emerging strategy for closed-loop recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The polyester hydrolase PHL7 isolated from a compost metagenome completely hydrolyzed amorphous PET films, releasing 91 mg of terephthalic acid per hour and mg of enzyme. Degradation rates of the PET film of 6.8 µm h -1 were monitored by vertical scanning interferometry. Structural analysis indicated the importance of leucine at position 210 for the extraordinarily high PET-hydrolyzing activity of PHL7. Within 24 h, 0.6 mg enzyme g PET -1 completely degraded post-consumer thermoform PET packaging in an aqueous buffer at 70°C without any energy-intensive pretreatments. Terephthalic acid recovered from the enzymatic hydrolysate was used to synthesize virgin PET, demonstrating the potential of polyester hydrolases as catalysts in sustainable PET recycling processes with a low carbon footprint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101062DOI Listing
June 2021

Metal dissociation from humic colloids: Kinetics with time-dependent rate constants.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 22;275:130045. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Studentská 1402/2, 461 17, Liberec 1, Czech Republic.

The mobility of contaminant metals in aqueous subsurface environments is largely controlled by their interaction with humic substances as colloidal constituents of Dissolved Organic Matter. Transport models for predicting carrier-bound migration are based on a competitive partitioning process between solid surface and colloids. However, it has been observed that dissociation of multivalent metals from humic complexes is a slow kinetic process, which is even more impeded with increasing time of contact. Based on findings obtained in isotope exchange experiments, the convoluted time dependence of dissociation was fully described by a complex two-site approach, integrating rate "constants" that are in turn time-dependent. Thus, this study presents the treatment of a particular phenomenon: kinetics within kinetics. The analysis showed that the inertization process does not lead to irreversible binding. Consequently, thermodynamic concepts using equilibrium constants remain applicable in speciation and transport modeling if long time frames are appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130045DOI Listing
July 2021

Quantitative isotopic fingerprinting of thallium associated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in fluvial sediment cores with multiple anthropogenic sources.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 16;266(Pt 3):115252. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Thallium (Tl) is a dispersed trace metal showing remarkable toxicity. Various anthropogenic activities may generate Tl contamination in river sediments, posing tremendous risks to aquatic life and human health. This paper aimed to provide insight into the vertical distribution, risk assessment and source tracing of Tl and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (lead, cadmium, zinc and copper) in three representative sediment cores from a riverine catchment impacted by multiple anthropogenic activities (such as steel-making and Pb-Zn smelting). The results showed high accumulations of Tl combined with associated PTEs in the depth profiles. Calculations according to three risk assessment methods by enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I) and the potential ecological risk index (PERI) all indicated a significant contamination by Tl in all the sediments. Furthermore, lead isotopes were analyzed to fingerprint the contamination sources and to calculate their quantitative contributions to the sediments using the IsoSource software. The results indicated that a steel-making plant was the most important contamination source (∼56%), followed by a Pb-Zn smelter (∼20%). The natural parental bedrock was found to contribute ∼24%. The findings highlight the importance of including multiple anthropogenic sources for quantitative fingerprinting of Tl and related metals by the lead isotopic approach in complicated environmental systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115252DOI Listing
November 2020

Thallium contamination, health risk assessment and source apportionment in common vegetables.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 18;703:135547. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Institute of Environmental Research at Greater Bay, Key Laboratory of Water Quality and Conservation in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Radionuclides Pollution Control and Resources, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, 510006 Guangzhou, China.

As an element with well-known toxicity, excessive thallium (Tl) in farmland soils, may threaten food security and induce extreme risks to human health. Identification of key contamination sources is prerequisite for remediation technologies. This study aims to examine the contamination level, health risks and source apportionment of Tl in common vegetables from typical farmlands distributed over a densely populated residential area in a pyrite mine city, which has been exploiting Tl-bearing pyrite minerals over 50 years. Results showed excessive Tl levels were exhibited in most of the vegetables (0.16-20.33 mg/kg) and alarming health risks may induce from the vegetables via the food chain. Source apportionment of Tl contamination in vegetables was then evaluated by using Pb isotope fingerprinting technique. Both vegetables and soils were characterized with overall low Pb/Pb. This indicated that a significant contribution may be ascribed to the anthropogenic activities involving pyrite deposit exploitation, whose raw material and salgs were featured with lower Pb/Pb. Further calculation by binary mixing model suggested that pyrite mining and smelting activities contributed 54-88% to the thallium contamination in vegetables. The results highlighted that Pb isotope tracing is a suitable technique for source apportionment of Tl contamination in vegetables and prime contamination from pyrite mining/smelting activities urges authorities to initiate proper practices of remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135547DOI Listing
February 2020

High contamination risks of thallium and associated metal(loid)s in fluvial sediments from a steel-making area and implications for environmental management.

J Environ Manage 2019 Nov 11;250:109513. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Institute of Environmental Research At Greater Bay, Innovation Center and Key Laboratory of Water Quality and Conservation in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Thallium (Tl) is an uncommon toxic element, with an even greater toxicity than that of As, Hg and Cd. Steel-making industry has been identified as an emerging new significant source of Tl contamination in China. This paper presents a pilot investigation of the contamination and geochemical transfer of Tl and associated metal(loid)s in river sediments affected by long-term waste discharge from the steel-making industry. The results uncovered an overall Tl contamination (1.96 ± 0.42 mg/kg) across a sediment profile of approximately 1.5 m in length, even 10 km downstream the steel plant. Highly elevated contents of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Sb were found in the fluvial sediments, displaying strong positive correlations with Tl contents. Elevated levels of geochemically mobile Tl as well as Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb occurred in the fluvial sediments, signifying anthropogenic imprints from steel production activities at high temperature. Levels of contamination and ecological risk were calculated to be moderate to considerable for Tl, Cu, Zn and high to very high for Cd, Pb, Sb. The results highlight that there is a great challenge in view of potentially considerable Tl pollution due to continuous massive steel production in many other parts of China. It is high time to initiate process-based management of Tl contamination control for the ambient aquifer system in the steel-making area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109513DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of DTPA on europium sorption onto quartz - Batch sorption experiments and surface complexation modeling.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 5;239:124771. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Reactive Transport Department, Permoserstr. 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

Sorption of radionuclides on mineral surfaces retards their migration in the environment of a repository. Presence of organic ligands, however, affects sorption and consequently influences their transport behavior. In this study, we quantify the sorption of Eu(III) onto quartz surfaces as a function of pH in the absence and presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Batch sorption experiments show a pH-dependent sorption of Eu(III) on quartz. The presence of DTPA results in slightly higher sorption of Eu(III) at neutral to slightly acidic pH and considerably lower sorption at alkaline conditions. Sorption experiments were simulated using the Diffuse Double Layer Model (DDLM) with single sorption sites (≡QOH) and monodentate surface complexation. The reactions were established based on the aqueous speciation calculation under the experimental conditions, and the thermodynamic constants of surface reactions were obtained and refined by numerical optimization. Results of surface complexation modeling show the formation of a surface species ≡QOHEuDTPA, explaining the elevated sorption of Eu(III) at neutral to slightly acidic pH. In contrast, dissolved EuDTPA complex species are present at alkaline pH, resulting in an enhanced mobility of Eu(III).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124771DOI Listing
January 2020

Thallium pollution in China and removal technologies for waters: A review.

Environ Int 2019 05 15;126:771-790. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000, China. Electronic address:

Thallium (Tl) is a typical toxic metal, which poses a great threat to human health through drinking water and the food chain (biomagnification). China has rich Tl-bearing mineral resources, which have been extensively explored and utilized, leading to release of large amounts of Tl into the environment. However, research on Tl pollution and removal techniques is relatively limited, because Tl has not been listed within the scope of environmental monitoring in China for several decades. This paper reviewed Tl pollution in wastewater arising from various industries in China, as well as the latest available methods for treating Tl-containing industrial wastewater, in order to give an outlook on effective technologies for controlling Tl pollution. Conventional physical and chemical treatment technologies are efficient at removing trace amounts of Tl, but it proved to be difficult to achieve the stringent environmental standard (≤0.1-5 μg/L) cost-effectively. Adsorption by using newly developed nanomaterials, and metal oxide modified polymer materials and microbial fuel cells are highly promising and expected to become next-generation technologies for remediation of Tl pollution. With the potential for greater Tl contamination in the environment under accelerated growth of industrialization, researches based on lab-scale implementation of such promising treatment technologies should be further expanded to pilot and industrial scale, ensuring environmental protection and the safety of drinking water for sustainable development. Comprehensive insights into experiences of Tl pollution in China and in-depth perspectives on new frontier technologies of Tl removal from wastewaters will also benefit other nations/regions worldwide, which are susceptible to high exposure to Tl likewise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.076DOI Listing
May 2019

The mobility of thallium in sediments and source apportionment by lead isotopes.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 6;219:864-874. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Key Laboratory of Water Quality and Conservation in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental Research at Greater Bay, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Thallium (Tl) is a very toxic heavy metal. As a part of ongoing investigations, the mobility, sources and fate of Tl were investigated for sediments from a watershed in the northern part of the Pearl River, South China, whose catchment has been seriously impacted by large-scale PbZn smelting activities onshore. A wide dispersion of severe Tl contamination was observed throughout the depth profiles. A modified IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Europe) sequential extraction procedure of a selected depth profile uncovered an exceptionally high enrichment of Tl in geochemically-mobile fractions (i.e., weak-acid-exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable fractions), on average 5.94 ± 2.19 mg/kg (74.6% ± 5.1% of the total Tl content) not only in the surface sediments but also in deep sediments. The proximal quantitative source apportionment using Pb isotopic fingerprinting technique indicated that a majority (80%-90%) of Tl contamination along the depth profiles is anthropogenically derived from the PbZn smelting wastes. The results highlight the pivotal role of smelting activities in discharging huge amounts of geochemically-mobile Tl to the sediments down to approximately 1 m in length, which is quantitatively evidenced by Pb isotopic tracing technique. Lead isotopes combined with distribution of Tl and Pb contents identified a potential marker for a point source from the PbZn smelter in the river catchment, which also provides a theoretical framework for source apportionment of metal contamination in a larger river/marine system and in other sulfide mining/smelting areas likewise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.041DOI Listing
March 2019

Provenance of uranium in a sediment core from a natural reservoir, South China: Application of Pb stable isotope analysis.

Chemosphere 2018 Feb 23;193:1172-1180. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Life Science, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, 312000, China. Electronic address:

As part of ongoing environmental investigations of U mining impacts, forty-two sediment samples of a nearly-half-meter-long sediment core retrieved from a natural reservoir near an active uranium (U) mining site, South China were analyzed to quantify the extent of U release and identify U release mechanism within the riverine catchment. Enrichment levels of U was dispersed not only in the surface sediments but also in deep sediments across the depth profile. Further analysis by SEM-EDS and XRD indicated that U partitioning in the depth profile was possibly controlled by complicated interplay of leaching and precipitation cycles of U-bearing minerals. Even with the relative complexity of U dispersal processes within the catchment, the Pb isotopic fingerprinting techniques allowed quantification of source inputs of the sediments by using a binary mixing model. The results revealed that along the depth profile, only 6%-50% of the sediment material is anthropogenically derived from the U ore tailing, with the other predominant proportions originated from geogenically natural weathering of granitic bedrocks. This study highlights the use of Pb isotopes as a powerful tool for quantitatively fingerprinting the sources of U dispersal in the sediment core, and natural-occurring U contamination that may become a hidden geoenvironmental health hazard in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.131DOI Listing
February 2018

Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China.

Environ Pollut 2017 May 21;224:445-453. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Innovation Center and Key Laboratory of Waters Safety & Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.025DOI Listing
May 2017

Mobility and transport of copper(II) influenced by the microbial siderophore DFOB: Column experiment and modelling.

Chemosphere 2017 Apr 12;173:326-329. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Reactive Transport Division, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Acid Cu leaching from the European Kupferschiefer ore deposits is a challenge e.g. due to its high carbonate content. In this study, we investigated the transport behaviour of Cu under conditions related to a biohydrometallurgical leaching approach using neutrophil microorganisms in neutral to slightly alkaline solutions. We studied the effect of the microbial siderophore desferrioxamineB (DFOB) as a model leaching organic ligand on Cu mobility in column experiments with kaolinite. The results revealed that DFOB strongly enhances Cu mobility. The breakthrough of Cu occurs considerably earlier in the presence of DFOB than in the absence of the organic ligand. Furthermore, complete elution of Cu was observed at 5 pore volume exchanges faster compared to elution with deionized water. The established geochemical transport model shows good agreement with the experimental data and suggests a maximum efficiency at a Cu to DFOB molar ratio of 1:1. In addition, results of modelling revealed that in the absence of the ligand, a pH increase from 6.5 to 8.5 significantly retarded Cu breakthrough, whereas in the presence of DFOB, Cu breakthrough curves were nearly insensitive to pH changes and close to the breakthrough curve of a non-reactive tracer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.058DOI Listing
April 2017

Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay.

J Contam Hydrol 2016 09 16;192:146-151. Epub 2016 Jul 16.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. (160)Tb, (152)Eu and (14)C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2016.07.006DOI Listing
September 2016

Thallium dispersal and contamination in surface sediments from South China and its source identification.

Environ Pollut 2016 Jun 31;213:878-887. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou, 510045, China.

Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential element in humans and it is considered to be highly toxic. In this study, the contents, sources, and dispersal of Tl were investigated in surface sediments from a riverine system (the western Pearl River Basin, China), whose catchment has been contaminated by mining and roasting of Tl-bearing pyrite ores. The isotopic composition of Pb and total contents of Tl and other relevant metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ni) were measured in the pyrite ores, mining and roasting wastes, and the river sediments. Widespread contamination of Tl was observed in the sediments across the river, with the highest concentration of Tl (17.3 mg/kg) measured 4 km downstream from the pyrite industrial site. Application of a modified Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) sequential extraction scheme in representative sediments unveiled that 60-90% of Tl and Pb were present in the residual fraction of the sediments. The sediments contained generally lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios compared with the natural Pb isotope signature (1.2008 and 2.0766 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively). These results suggested that a significant fraction of non-indigenous Pb could be attributed to the mining and roasting activities of pyrite ores, with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb (1.1539) and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb (2.1263). Results also showed that approximately 6-88% of Tl contamination in the sediments originated from the pyrite mining and roasting activities. This study highlights that Pb isotopic compositions could be used for quantitatively fingerprinting the sources of Tl contamination in sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.03.023DOI Listing
June 2016

Thallium transformation and partitioning during Pb-Zn smelting and environmental implications.

Environ Pollut 2016 May 1;212:77-89. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Innovation Center and Key Laboratory of Waters Safety & Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Thallium (Tl) is a toxic and non-essential heavy metal. Raw Pb-Zn ores and solid smelting wastes from a large Pb-Zn smelting plant - a typical thallium (Tl) pollution source in South China, were investigated in terms of Tl distribution and fractionation. A modified IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement, Europe) sequential extraction scheme was applied on the samples, in order to uncover the geochemical behavior and transformation of Tl during Pb-Zn smelting and to assess the potential environmental risk of Tl arising from this plant. Results showed that the Pb-Zn ore materials were relatively enriched with Tl (15.1-87.7 mg kg(-1)), while even higher accumulation existed in the electrostatic dust (3280-4050 mg kg(-1)) and acidic waste (13,300 mg kg(-1)). A comparison of Tl concentration and fraction distribution in different samples clearly demonstrated the significant role of the ore roasting in Tl transformation and mobilization, probably as a result of alteration/decomposition of related minerals followed by Tl release and subsequent deposition/co-precipitation on fine surface particles of the electrostatic dust and acidic waste. While only 10-30% of total Tl amounts was associated with the exchangeable/acid-extractable fraction of the Pb-Zn ore materials, up to 90% of total Tl was found in this fraction of the electrostatic dust and acidic waste. Taking into account the mobility and bioavailability of this fraction, these waste forms may pose significant environmental risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.046DOI Listing
May 2016

Comparative characterization of two natural humic acids in the Pearl River Basin, China and their environmental implications.

J Environ Sci (China) 2010 ;22(11):1695-702

Key Laboratory of Water Safety and Protection, Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Two humic acids (HAs) were isolated from contaminated river sediments present under comparative conditions in the Pearl River Basin, China. YFHA (the HA extracted at an open pyrite mining area in Yunfu) exhibited a lower absorption intensity for certain bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectra, a lower E4/E6 value (the UV absorbances at 465 nm (E4) and 665 nm (E6)), a lower apparent molecular weight, a lower polarity and a lower oxygen functionality in comparison with GZHA (the HA isolated at an urban living area in Guangzhou). All these differences indicated a higher degree of humification of YFHA than GZHA. Overall, the enrichment patterns of permanent heavy metals in the studied HAs were similar to those in corresponding sediments. In particular, YFHA exhibited high enrichment of trace element Tl, a characteristic concomitant from the mining of the pyrite minerals. The adsorption isotherms of two HAs for goethite and pyrolusite, two representative geological materials, conformed to the Langmuir equation. Based on the qualitative relationships between the Langmuir constants of the adsorption isotherms and the chemical characteristics of HAs, the main mechanism of HA adsorption on these materials was suggested to be hydrophobic interaction. This study highlighted the promising use of HA as a peculiar bio-indicator of uncommon trace metal contaminations. The HA adsorption mechanism on representative geological materials further provided a theoretical basis for the study on the unusual metal behavior in complex environmental settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1001-0742(09)60308-9DOI Listing
February 2011

Sorption of thallium(I) onto geological materials: influence of pH and humic matter.

Chemosphere 2011 Feb 20;82(6):866-71. Epub 2010 Nov 20.

Guangzhou University (GU), Key Laboratory of Waters Safety & Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, 510006 Guangzhou, China.

The sorption behaviour of the severely toxic heavy metal thallium (Tl) as a monovalent cation onto three representative materials (goethite, pyrolusite and a natural sediment sampled from a field site) was examined as a function of pH in the absence and presence of two natural humic acids (HAs), using 204Tl(I) as a radiotracer. In order to obtain a basic understanding of trends in the pH dependence of Tl(I) sorption with and without HA, sorption of HAs and humate complexation of Tl(I) as a function of pH were investigated as well. In spite of the low complexation between Tl(I) and HAs, the presence of HAs results in obvious alterations of Tl(I) sorption onto pyrolusite and sediment. An influence on Tl(I) sorption onto goethite was not observed. Predictions of Kd (distribution coefficient) for Tl(I) on goethite in the presence of HAs, based on a linear additive model, agree well with the experimental data, while a notable disagreement occurs for the pyrolusite and sediment systems. Accordingly, it is suggested that HAs and goethite may act as a non-interacting sorbent mixture under the given conditions, but more complex interactions may take place between the HAs and the mineral phases of pyrolusite or sediment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.089DOI Listing
February 2011

Effect of humic matter on metal adsorption onto clay materials: testing the linear additive model.

J Contam Hydrol 2009 Oct 11;109(1-4):40-8. Epub 2009 Aug 11.

Institut für Interdisziplinäre Isotopenforschung, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Migration of contaminants with low affinity for the aqueous phase is essentially governed by interaction with mobile carriers such as humic colloids. Their impact is, however, not sufficiently described by interaction constants alone since the humic carriers themselves are subject to a solid-liquid distribution that depends on geochemical parameters. In our study, co-adsorption of the REE terbium (as an analogue of trivalent actinides) and humic acid onto three clay materials (illite, montmorillonite, Opalinus clay) was investigated as a function of pH. (160)Tb(III) and (131)I-labelled humic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing experiments at very low concentrations to mimic probable conditions in the far-field of a nuclear waste repository. Humate complexation of Tb was examined by anion and cation exchange techniques, also considering competitive effects of metals leached from the clay materials. The results revealed that desorption of metals from clay barriers, occurring in consequence of acidification processes, is generally counteracted in the presence of humic matter. For all clay materials under study, adsorption of Tb was found to be enhanced in neutral and acidic systems with humic acid, which is explained by additional adsorption of humic-bound Tb. A commonly used composite approach (linear additive model) was tested for suitability in reconstructing the solid-liquid distribution of Tb in ternary systems (Tb/humic acid/clay) on the basis of data determined for binary subsystems. The model can qualitatively explain the influence of humic acid as a function of pH, but it failed to reproduce our experimental data quantitatively. It appears that the elementary processes (metal adsorption, metal-humate complexation, humic acid adsorption) cannot be considered to be independent of each other. Possible reasons are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2009.07.009DOI Listing
October 2009

Joint influence of surfactants and humic matter on PAH solubility. Are mixed micelles formed?

Chemosphere 2008 Feb 5;70(11):1979-86. Epub 2007 Nov 5.

Institut für Interdisziplinäre Isotopenforschung, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Mobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by surfactants, present at contaminated sites or deliberately introduced for remediation purposes, is inevitably associated with the influence of humic substances, which are ubiquitous in natural systems. Therefore, the solubilizing effects of anthropogenic and natural amphiphiles must be considered in their combined action since synergistic or antagonistic effects may be expected, for instance, as a consequence of mixed micellization. In this paper, solubilization of (14)C-labeled pyrene in single-component and mixed solutions of surfactants and humic acid (coal-derived) was investigated up to the micellar concentration range. At low concentrations, antagonistic effects were observed for systems with cationic as well as anionic surfactants. Solubility enhancements in the presence of humic acid were canceled on addition of a cationic surfactant (DTAB) since charge compensation at humic colloids entailed precipitation. Solubility was also found to be decreased in the presence of an anionic surfactant (SDS), which was attributed to a competitive effect in respect of pyrene-humic interaction. This explanation is based on octanol-water partitioning experiments with radiolabeled humic acid, yielding evidence of different interaction modes between humic colloids and cationic/anionic surfactants. At higher concentrations, the effects of humic acid and SDS were found to be additive. Thus, a formation of mixed micelles is very unlikely, which was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography of mixed systems. It can be concluded that remediation measures on the basis of micellar solubilization are not significantly affected by the presence of natural amphiphilic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.09.040DOI Listing
February 2008

Energetics and surface properties of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E in a two-phase fermentation system with 1-decanol as second phase.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2006 Jun;72(6):4232-8

Department of Bioremediation, Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

The solvent-tolerant strain Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E was grown in batch fermentations in a 5-liter bioreactor in the presence and absence of 10% (vol/vol) of the organic solvent 1-decanol. The growth behavior and cellular energetics, such as the cellular ATP content and the energy charge, as well as the cell surface hydrophobicity and charge, were measured in cells growing in the presence and absence of 1-decanol. Although the cells growing in the presence of 1-decanol showed an about 10% reduced growth rate and a 48% reduced growth yield, no significant differences were measured either in the ATP and potassium contents or in the energy charge, indicating that the cells adapted completely at the levels of membrane permeability and energetics. Although the bacteria needed additional energy for adaptation to the presence of the solvent, they were able to maintain or activate electron transport phosphorylation, allowing homeostasis of the ATP level and energy charge in the presence of the solvent, at the price of a reduced growth yield. On the other hand, significantly enhanced cell hydrophobicities and more negative cell surface charges were observed in cells grown in the presence of 1-decanol. Both reactions occurred within about 10 min after the addition of the solvent and were significantly different after killing of the cells with toxic concentrations of HgCl2. This adaptation of the surface properties of the bacterium to the presence of solvents seems to be very similar to previously observed reactions on the level of lipopolysaccharides, with which bacteria adapt to environmental stresses, such as heat shock, antibiotics, or low oxygen content. The results give clear physiological indications that the process with P. putida DOT-T1E as the biocatalyst and 1-decanol as the solvent is a stable system for two-phase biotransformations that will allow the production of fine chemicals in economically sound amounts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02904-05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489673PMC
June 2006

Prediction of the adaptability of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E to a second phase of a solvent for economically sound two-phase biotransformations.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2005 Nov;71(11):6606-12

Department of Bioremediation, Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

The strain Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E was tested for its ability to tolerate second phases of different alkanols for their use as solvents in two-liquid-phase biotransformations. Although 1-decanol showed an about 10-fold higher toxicity to the cells than 1-octanol, the cells were able to adapt completely to 1-decanol only and could not be adapted in order to grow stably in the presence of a second phase of 1-octanol. The main explanation for this observation can be seen in the higher water and membrane solubility of 1-octanol. The hydrophobicity (log P) of a substance correlates with a certain partitioning of that compound into the membrane. Combining the log P value with the water solubility, the maximum membrane concentration of a compound can be calculated. With this simple calculation, it is possible to predict the property of an organic chemical for its potential applicability as a solvent for two-liquid-phase biotransformations with solvent-tolerant P. putida strains. Only compounds that show a maximum membrane concentration of less than 400 mM, such as 1-decanol, seem to be tolerated by these bacterial strains when applied in supersaturating concentrations to the medium. Taking into consideration that a solvent for a two-liquid-phase system should possess partitioning properties for potential substrates and products of a fine chemical synthesis, it can be seen that 1-decanol is a suitable solvent for such biotransformation processes. This was also demonstrated in shake cultures, where increasing amounts of a second phase of 1-decanol led to bacteria tolerating higher concentrations of the model substrate 3-nitrotoluene. Transferring this example to a 5-liter-scale bioreactor with 10% (vol/vol) 1-decanol, the amount of 3-nitrotoluene tolerated by the cells is up to 200-fold higher than in pure aqueous medium. The system demonstrates the usefulness of two-phase biotransformations utilizing solvent-tolerant bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.11.6606-6612.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1287635PMC
November 2005