Publications by authors named "Hoda Anton-Culver"

369 Publications

Germline variants and breast cancer survival in patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 5;11(1):19787. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Breast Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer. Identification of germline variants associated with survival in aggressive types of breast cancer may inform understanding of breast cancer progression and assist treatment. In this analysis, we studied the associations between germline variants and breast cancer survival for patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis. We used data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) including 1062 women of European ancestry with metastatic breast cancer, 606 of whom died of breast cancer. We identified two germline variants on chromosome 1, rs138569520 and rs146023652, significantly associated with breast cancer-specific survival (P = 3.19 × 10 and 4.42 × 10). In silico analysis suggested a potential regulatory effect of the variants on the nearby target genes SDE2 and H3F3A. However, the variants showed no evidence of association in a smaller replication dataset. The validation dataset was obtained from the SNPs to Risk of Metastasis (StoRM) study and included 293 patients with metastatic primary breast cancer at diagnosis. Ultimately, larger replication studies are needed to confirm the identified associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99409-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492709PMC
October 2021

Disease-Associated Risk Variants in ANRIL are Associated with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Presence in Primary Melanomas in the Population-Based GEM Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Background: Genome-wide association studies have reported that genetic variation at ANRIL (CDKN2B-AS1) is associated with risk of several chronic diseases including coronary artery disease, coronary artery calcification, myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. ANRIL is located at the CDKN2A/B locus, which encodes multiple melanoma tumor suppressors. We investigated the association of these variants with melanoma prognostic characteristics.

Methods: The Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study enrolled 3,285 European origin participants with incident invasive primary melanoma. For each of ten disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near ANRIL, we used linear and logistic regression modeling to estimate, respectively, the per allele mean changes in log of Breslow thickness and odds ratios (ORs) for presence of ulceration and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). We also assessed effect modification by tumor NRAS/BRAF mutational status.

Results: Rs518394, rs10965215, and rs564398 passed false discovery and were each associated (P {less than or equal to} 0.005) with TILs, although only rs564398 was independently associated (P = 0.0005) with TILs. Stratified by NRAS/BRAF mutational status, rs564398*A was significantly positively associated with TILs among NRAS/BRAF mutant, but not wildtype, cases. We did not find SNP associations with Breslow thickness or ulceration.

Conclusions: ANRIL rs564398 was associated with TIL presence in primary melanomas, and this association may be limited to NRAS/BRAF mutant cases.

Impact: Pathways related to ANRIL variants warrant exploration in relationship to TILs in melanoma, especially given the impact of TILs on immunotherapy and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0686DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of germline genetic variants with breast cancer-specific survival in patient subgroups defined by clinic-pathological variables related to tumor biology and type of systemic treatment.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 08 18;23(1):86. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients.

Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15).

Results: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy.

Conclusions: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01450-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371820PMC
August 2021

Elevated risk thresholds predict endocrine risk-reducing medication use in the Athena screening registry.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Aug 3;7(1):102. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Risk-reducing endocrine therapy use, though the benefit is validated, is extremely low. The FDA has approved tamoxifen and raloxifene for a 5-year Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) risk ≥ 1.67%. We examined the threshold at which high-risk women are likely to be using endocrine risk-reducing therapies among Athena Breast Health Network participants from 2011-2018. We identified high-risk women by a 5-year BCRAT risk ≥ 1.67% and those in the top 10% and 2.5% risk thresholds by age. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of current medication use based on these thresholds using logistic regression. One thousand two hundred and one (1.2%) of 104,223 total participants used medication. Of the 33,082 participants with 5-year BCRAT risk ≥ 1.67%, 772 (2.3%) used medication. Of 2445 in the top 2.5% threshold, 209 (8.6%) used medication. Participants whose 5-year risk exceeded 1.67% were more likely to use medication than those whose risk was below this threshold, OR 3.94 (95% CI = 3.50-4.43). The top 2.5% was most strongly associated with medication usage, OR 9.50 (8.13-11.09) compared to the bottom 97.5%. Women exceeding a 5-year BCRAT ≥ 1.67% had modest medication use. We demonstrate that women in the top 2.5% have higher odds of medication use than those in the bottom 97.5% and compared to a risk of 1.67%. The top 2.5% threshold would more effectively target medication use and is being tested prospectively in a randomized control clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00306-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8333106PMC
August 2021

Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk.

Br J Cancer 2021 Oct 2;125(8):1135-1145. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk.

Methods: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy.

Results: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect.

Conclusion: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01432-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of Perioperative Outcomes for Radical Nephrectomy Based on Surgical Approach for Masses Greater than 10cm.

J Endourol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

UCI, 8788, 333 City Blvd. West, Suite 2100, Orange, California, United States, 92868.

Introduction and Objective Robotic-assisted radical nephrectomy (RRN) is increasingly utilized as an alternative to laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) but there are concerns over costs and objective benefit. In the setting of very large renal masses (>10 cm), comparison between techniques is limited and it is unclear whether a robotic approach confers any perioperative benefit over LRN or open radical nephrectomy (ORN). In this study, perioperative outcomes of RRN, LRN, and ORN for very large renal masses are compared. Methods Using the National Cancer Database, patients were identified who underwent radical nephrectomy for kidney tumors >10 cm diagnosed from 2010-2015. Patients were analyzed according to surgical approach. Perioperative outcomes, including conversion to open, length of stay, readmission rates, positive surgical margins, and 30 and 90-day mortality were compared among cohorts. Results A total of 9288 patients met inclusion criteria (RRN = 842, LRN = 2326, ORN = 6120). Compared to ORN, recipients of RRN or LRN had similar rates of 30-day readmission and 30- and 90-day mortality. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in RRN (-1.73 days ±0.19; p<0.0001) and LRN (-1.40 days ±0.12; p<0.0001) compared to ORN. LRN had a higher rate of conversion to open compared to RRN (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.10-1.98; p=0.0087). Conversion to open from RRN or LRN added 1.3 additional days of inpatient stay. Over the study period, RRN use increased from 4.1% to 14.8%, LRN from 20.9% to 25.6%, while ORN use decreased from 75% to 59.6%. Conclusions Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly utilized in very large renal masses. RRN has lower rates of conversion to open but produces comparable perioperative outcomes to LRN. Minimally invasive approaches have a shorter length of inpatient stay but otherwise report similar surgical margin status, readmission rates, and mortality rates compared to open radical nephrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.1164DOI Listing
June 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 07 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322933PMC
July 2021

Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in All of Us Research Program Participants, January 2-March 18, 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

All of Us Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: With limited SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity in the US at the start of the epidemic (January - March), testing was focused on symptomatic patients with a travel history throughout February, obscuring the picture of SARS-CoV-2 seeding and community transmission. We sought to identify individuals with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the early weeks of the US epidemic.

Methods: All of Us study participants in all 50 US states provided blood specimens during study visits from January 2 to March 18, 2020. A participant was considered seropositive if they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA and the EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 ELISA in a sequential testing algorithm. Sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott and EUROIMMUNE ELISAs and the net sensitivity and specificity of the sequential testing algorithm were estimated with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: The estimated sensitivity of Abbott and EUROIMMUN was 100% (107/107 [96.6%, 100%]) and 90.7% (97/107 [83.5%, 95.4%]), respectively. The estimated specificity of Abbott and EUROIMMUN was 99.5% (995/1,000 [98.8%, 99.8%]) and 99.7% (997/1,000 [99.1%, 99.9%), respectively. The net sensitivity and specificity of our sequential testing algorithm was 90.7% (97/107 [83.5%, 95.4%]) and 100.0% (1,000/1,000 [99.6%, 100%]), respectively. Of the 24,079 study participants with blood specimens from January 2 to March 18, 2020, 9 were seropositive, 7 of whom were seropositive prior to the first confirmed case in the states of Illinois, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Mississippi.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate SARS-CoV-2 infections weeks prior to the first recognized cases in 5 US states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384413PMC
June 2021

Metabolically Healthy/Unhealthy Overweight/Obesity Associations With Incident Heart Failure in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 04 29;14(4):e007297. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine (A.R.C.H., N.D.W.), UC Irvine School of Medicine, University of California.

Background: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF); however, how metabolic weight groups relate to HF risk, especially in postmenopausal women, has not been demonstrated.

Methods: We included 19 412 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 without cardiovascular disease from the Women's Health Initiative. Normal weight was defined as a body mass index ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m and waist circumference <88 cm and overweight/obesity as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m or waist circumference ≥88 cm. Metabolically healthy was based on <2 and unhealthy ≥2 cardiometabolic traits: triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg or blood pressure medication, fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL or diabetes medication, and HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) <50 mg/dL. Risk factor-adjusted Cox regression examined the hazard ratios (HRs) for incident hospitalized HF among metabolically healthy normal weight (reference), metabolically unhealthy normal weight, metabolically healthy overweight/obese, and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese.

Results: Among our sample, 455 (2.34%) participants experienced HF hospitalizations over a mean follow-up time of 11.3±1.1 years. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, HF risk was greater in metabolically unhealthy normal weight (HR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.01-2.72], =0.045) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese individuals (HR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.35-2.80], =0.0004), but not metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.78-1.71], =0.48). Subdividing the overweight/obese into separate groups showed HRs for metabolically unhealthy obese of 2.62 (95% CI, 1.80-3.83; <0.0001) and metabolically healthy obese of 1.52 (95% CI, 0.98-2.35; =0.06).

Conclusions: Metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese and metabolically unhealthy normal weight are associated with an increased risk of HF in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007297DOI Listing
April 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 04 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021

CYP3A7*1C allele: linking premenopausal oestrone and progesterone levels with risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 26;124(4):842-854. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry.

Results: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10).

Conclusions: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01185-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884683PMC
February 2021

A Population-Based Study of Genes Previously Implicated in Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):440-451. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

From Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (C. Hu, S.N.H., R.G., K.Y.L., J.N., J.L., S. Yadav, N.J.B., T.L., J.E.O., C.S., C.M.V., E.C.P., F.J.C.); Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health (H.H., C.G., D.J.H., P.K.), Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University (K.A.B., J.R.P., L.R.), and Brigham and Women's Hospital (H.E.) - all in Boston; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany (R.S., J.K.); Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (C.B.A., S. Yao), and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (R.T.) - both in New York; the University of California, Irvine (H.A.-C., A.Z.), Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (L.B., H.M., S.N., J.N.W.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (C. Haiman), and Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (E.M.J., A.W.K.) - all in California; the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, Milwaukee (P.A.), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (E.S.B., I.M.O., A.T.-D.); the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick (E.V.B.); the Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta (B.D.C., S.M.G., M.G., J.M.H., E.J.J., A.V.P.); the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (D.J.H.); the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (C.K., P.A.N.) and the Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington (S.L.) - both in Seattle; the Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu (L.L.M.); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC (K.M.O., D.P.S., J.A.T., C.W.); Vanderbilt University, Nashville (T.P., S.R.); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (D.E.G.); and the Department of Medicine and the Basser Center for BRCA, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.M.D., K.L.N.).

Background: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants.

Methods: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed.

Results: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in and were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in , were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Conclusions: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127622PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Polygenic Risk Score and Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 11 5;107(5):837-848. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Pathology, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10 percentile and 20.5% at the 90 percentile of PRS. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675034PMC
November 2020

Association of Known Melanoma Risk Factors with Primary Melanoma of the Scalp and Neck.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 11 20;29(11):2203-2210. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Scalp and neck (SN) melanoma confers a worse prognosis than melanoma of other sites but little is known about its determinants. We aimed to identify associations between SN melanoma and known risk genes, phenotypic traits, and sun exposure patterns.

Methods: Participants were cases from the Western Australian Melanoma Health Study ( = 1,200) and the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study ( = 3,280). Associations between risk factors and SN melanoma, compared with truncal and arm/leg melanoma, were investigated using binomial logistic regression. Facial melanoma was also compared with the trunk and extremities, to evaluate whether associations were subregion specific, or reflective of the whole head/neck region.

Results: Compared with other sites, increased odds of SN and facial melanoma were observed in older individuals [SN: OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92-1.80, = 0.016; Face: OR = 4.57, 95% CI = 3.34-6.35, < 0.001] and those carrying -rs12203592*T (SN: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.12-1.63, = 0.002; Face: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.10-1.50, = 0.001). Decreased odds were observed for females (SN: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.37-0.64, < 0.001; Face: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.53-0.82, < 0.001) and the presence of nevi (SN: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.89, = 0.006; Face: OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.52-0.83, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Differences observed between SN melanoma and other sites were also observed for facial melanoma. Factors previously associated with the broader head and neck region, notably older age, may be driven by the facial subregion. A novel finding was the association of -rs12203592 with both SN and facial melanoma.

Impact: Understanding the epidemiology of site-specific melanoma will enable tailored strategies for risk factor reduction and site-specific screening campaigns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641988PMC
November 2020

Expanding Our Understanding of Ovarian Cancer Risk: The Role of Incomplete Pregnancies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 03;113(3):301-308

Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention and Genetics Program, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated.

Methods: A pooled analysis of 10 470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16 942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race and ethnicity, age, and education level and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses.

Results: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (2-sided Ptrend < .001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer.

Conclusions: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936053PMC
March 2021

Menopausal hormone therapy prior to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer is associated with improved survival.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 09 6;158(3):702-709. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Gynaecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival.

Methods: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery.

Results: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival.

Conclusions: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.06.481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487048PMC
September 2020

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Sociodemographic and metabolic risk characteristics associated with metabolic weight categories in the Women's Health Initiative.

Cardiovasc Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 15;9(2):42-48. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Medicine, UC Irvine School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

To identify sociodemographic and metabolic correlates of weight categories in postmenopausal women.

Methods: The Women's Health Initiative enrolled 161 808 postmenopausal women ages 50-79. We included those free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and with CVD risk factors and biomarkers ( = 19 412). Normal weight was defined as a BMI ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m and waist circumference <88 cm and overweight/obesity as a BMI ≥25 kg/m or waist circumference ≥88 cm. Metabolically healthy was based on <2 and metabolically unhealthy ≥2 traits: triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or antihypertensives or diuretics, fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dl or diabetes medication, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <50 mg/dl. Polytomous multinomial logistic regression with generalized link logit function provided the odds of metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUHO) according to demographic and risk factor measures.

Results: Among the 19 412 postmenopausal women, 2369 (12.2%) participants had prevalent diabetes. Advanced age was associated with an increased odds of MUHNW as compared with the MHNW after adjusting for covariates [odds ratio (OR) 1.04,  < 0.0001]. Black/African American ethnicity was associated with a decreased odds of MUHNW (OR 0.64,  < 0.0001) and MUHO (OR 0.77,  = 0.0004), while an increased odds for MHO (OR 1.50,  < 0.0001) as compared with White MHNW.

Conclusions: Advanced age and ethnicity are important indicators of metabolic weight categories among postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/XCE.0000000000000194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228778PMC
June 2020

Contribution of Germline Predisposition Gene Mutations to Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 12;112(12):1213-1221

Departments of Health Sciences Research, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA.

Background: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies.

Methods: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer.

Results: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer.

Conclusions: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735769PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

Combined Associations of a Polygenic Risk Score and Classical Risk Factors With Breast Cancer Risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 03;113(3):329-337

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72 284 cases and 80 354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression and a newly developed case-only method for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history) and, on average, 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936056PMC
March 2021

A California Cancer Registry Analysis of Urothelial and Non-urothelial Bladder Cancer Subtypes: Epidemiology, Treatment, and Survival.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 06 16;18(3):e330-e336. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Urology, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA.

Introduction: We evaluated epidemiologic trends and survival for bladder cancer histologic subtypes in California patients by comparing urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and non-urothelial subtypes including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (ADC), and small-cell carcinoma (SmCC).

Materials And Methods: The California Cancer Registry (CCR) was queried for incident bladder cancer cases from 1988 to 2012. Epidemiologic trends based on tumor histology were described. The primary outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS). Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression survival analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 72,452 bladder cancer cases (66,260 UCB, 1390 SCC, 587 ADC, 370 SmCC, and 3845 other) were included. The median age was 72 years (range, 18-109 years). ADC was more common in younger patients. Male:female ratios varied among cancer types (3.1:1 in UCB, 2.9:1 in SmCC, 1.6:1 in ADC, and 0.9:1 in SCC). Most non-urothelial cases (> 60%) presented at advanced stages, whereas most UCB cases (80.6%) were localized. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the best 5-year DSS and overall survival (OS) in UCB, whereas the worst outcomes were seen with SCC and SmCC (P < .0001). Multivariable analysis controlling for age, gender, tumor stage, and grade demonstrated that non-urothelial histologic subtypes were associated with significantly worse DSS compared with UCB (SCC hazard ratio [HR], 2.612; SmCC HR, 1.641; and ADC HR, 1.459; P < .0001).

Conclusions: Non-urothelial bladder cancers have worse oncologic outcomes than UCB in California patients. SCC and SmCC are associated with the worst DSS based on univariable and multivariable analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.01.002DOI Listing
June 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Incidence of diabetes according to metabolically healthy or unhealthy normal weight or overweight/obesity in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative.

Menopause 2020 06;27(6):640-647

Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, UC Irvine School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA.

Objective: To determine the relationship of metabolic weight categories with incident diabetes mellitus (DM) in postmenopausal women.

Methods: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) enrolled 161,808 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years. We included those with cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers and free of CVD and prevalent DM (n = 17,043) at baseline. Normal weight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m, and waist circumference (WC) <88 cm and overweight/obesity as a BMI ≥25 kg/m or WC ≥88 cm. Metabolically healthy was based on <2 and metabolically unhealthy ≥2 traits of the following: triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg, or antihypertensives or diuretics, fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL or DM medication, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <50 mg/dL. Cox regression was performed to determine the risk of incident DM among metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUHO).

Results: Among our sample, 2,253 (13.3%) participants developed DM over a mean ± standard deviation follow-up time of 15.6 ± 3.4 years. Compared with MHNW (n = 162 incident DM cases), an increased risk of incident DM was observed in MUHNW (n = 102 cases) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-2.88, P < 0.0001), MHO (n = 624 cases) (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.40-2.00, P < 0.0001), and MUHO (n = 1,365 cases) (HR 4.51, 95% CI 3.82-5.35, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Among postmenopausal women, MUHNW and MHO confer an approximate doubling in the risk and MUHO more than a four-fold increased risk for developing DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001512DOI Listing
June 2020

A network analysis to identify mediators of germline-driven differences in breast cancer prognosis.

Nat Commun 2020 01 16;11(1):312. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14100-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965101PMC
January 2020
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