Publications by authors named "Hoang Van Minh"

166 Publications

Formation of the upper digestive tract by the ileum - right colon for patient with concurrent cancers of the esophagus and the stomach: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 21;85:106232. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Introduction And Importance: A very rare case with presence of both esophageal and gastric cancers raised questions on how to perform optimal surgery for such cases. To date, reports on experimental surgery strategies for these rare cases remained sparse in the literatures.

Case Presentation: A 61-year-old male patient having epigastric abdominal pain and swallowing difficulties for a month prior to the hospital. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy results showed a 2-cm lesion in the esophagus, located around 25 cm away from the teeth arch; and a 2-cm ulcer lesion with high ridge line at the corner of the lesser curvature of stomach. Biopsy results revealed esophageal squamous epithelium carcinoma and poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. The surgery was esophago-gastrectomy with curettage of the lymph nodes and reconstruction of the upper gastrointestinal tract with the ileum - right colon in the left side of the neck.

Clinical Discussion: We did not remain the stomach and performed thoracoscopic Ivor Lewis esophagectomy with chest anastomosis, as in previous studies to prevent cancer recurrence. Here, we performed a new surgical method of reconstruct the upper gastrointestinal tract by connecting the upper part of the esophagus at the neck, to the ileum - right colon.

Conclusions: This case could suggest an effective surgical strategy that the ileum - right colon was an organ to be used in replacing the upper gastrointestinal tract in cases of removing the entire stomach and thoracic esophagus, which could serve as a valuable reference for similar rare cases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106232DOI Listing
July 2021

Mobility restrictions were associated with reductions in COVID-19 incidence early in the pandemic: evidence from a real-time evaluation in 34 countries.

Sci Rep 2021 07 2;11(1):13717. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK.

Most countries have implemented restrictions on mobility to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), entailing considerable societal costs but, at least initially, based on limited evidence of effectiveness. We asked whether mobility restrictions were associated with changes in the occurrence of COVID-19 in 34 OECD countries plus Singapore and Taiwan. Our data sources were the Google Global Mobility Data Source, which reports different types of mobility, and COVID-19 cases retrieved from the dataset curated by Our World in Data. Beginning at each country's 100th case, and incorporating a 14-day lag to account for the delay between exposure and illness, we examined the association between changes in mobility (with January 3 to February 6, 2020 as baseline) and the ratio of the number of newly confirmed cases on a given day to the total number of cases over the past 14 days from the index day (the potentially infective 'pool' in that population), per million population, using LOESS regression and logit regression. In two-thirds of examined countries, reductions of up to 40% in commuting mobility (to workplaces, transit stations, retailers, and recreation) were associated with decreased cases, especially early in the pandemic. Once both mobility and incidence had been brought down, further restrictions provided little additional benefit. These findings point to the importance of acting early and decisively in a pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92766-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253807PMC
July 2021

COVID-19 and ASEAN responses: Comparative policy analysis.

Prog Disaster Sci 2020 Dec 22;8:100129. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Scholars and policy-makers agree that cross-border and multi-sector cooperation are essential components of coordinated efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 infections. This paper examines the responses of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nation) member countries to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the limits of regional cooperation. ASEAN has pre-existing cooperative frameworks in place, including regional health security measures, which, at least theoretically, could assist the region's efforts to formulate cooperative responses to containing a global pandemic. With its overarching "One Vision, One Identity, One Community", ASEAN cooperation has extended to include region-wide disaster responses, framed as "One Asean, One Response". Using content analysis, this paper examines media statements and policies from ASEAN member states and the ASEAN Secretariat to assess the collective response to COVID-19 during the period from January to August 2020. By identifying gaps and opportunities in government responses to COVID-19 as the virus spread throughout Southeast Asia, this paper provides new insights as well as recommendations for the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577870PMC
December 2020

Patient-Centered Care: Transforming the Health Care System in Vietnam With Support of Digital Health Technology.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 4;23(6):e24601. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Behavioural Sciences Unit, Health Services Research and Implementation Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Over the recent decades, Vietnam has attained remarkable achievements in all areas of health care. However, shortcomings including health disparities persist particularly with a rapidly aging population. This has resulted in a shift in the disease burden from communicable to noncommunicable diseases such as dementia, cancer, and diabetes. These medical conditions require long-term care, which causes an accelerating crisis for the health sector and society. The current health care system in Vietnam is unlikely to cope with these challenges.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to explore the opportunities, challenges, and necessary conditions for Vietnam in transforming toward a patient-centered care model to produce better health for people and reduce health care costs.

Methods: We examine the applicability of a personalized and integrated Bespoke Health Care System (BHS) for Vietnam using a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat analysis and examining the successes or failures of digital health care innovations in Vietnam. We then make suggestions for successful adoption of the BHS model in Vietnam.

Results: The BHS model of patient-centered care empowers patients to become active participants in their own health care. Vietnam's current policy, social, technological, and economic environment favors the transition of its health care system toward the BHS model. Nevertheless, the country is in an early stage of health care digitalization. The legal and regulatory system to protect patient privacy and information security is still lacking. The readiness to implement electronic medical records, a core element of the BHS, varies across health providers and clinical practices. The scarcity of empirical evidence and evaluation regarding the effectiveness and sustainability of digital health initiatives is an obstacle to the Vietnamese government in policymaking, development, and implementation of health care digitalization.

Conclusions: Implementing a personalized and integrated health care system may help Vietnam to address health care needs, reduce pressure on the health care system and society, improve health care delivery, and promote health equity. However, in order to adopt the patient-centered care system and digitalized health care, a whole-system approach in transformation and operation with a co-design in the whole span of a digital health initiative developing process are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214185PMC
June 2021

Food insecurity and brain health in adults: A systematic review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 28:1-16. Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Food insecurity has been associated with adverse effects on physical health and well-being in both high and low-income countries, but effects on brain health are not clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between food insecurity and important brain health outcomes in adults including depression, stroke, cognitive impairment and dementia. Electronic databases were searched to find studies which investigated relations between food insecurity and predefined brain health outcomes. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria for review of which 23 were conducted in high income countries and seven in low- or middle-income countries. Most studies (n = 24) were cross-sectional, five were prospective and 1 was a case-control design. Seven studies reporting outcomes relating to cognitive performance and 24 relating to depression. No studies investigated relations between food insecurity and stroke or dementia. There was substantial heterogeneity in the populations studied as well as measures of food insecurity and outcomes which made comparisons between studies difficult. Overall, the findings highlighted that individuals who were food insecure had increased likelihood of depressive symptoms and poorer global cognition than those who were food secure. It is possible that social support and food aid programmes attenuate the effects of food insecurity on depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to determine whether interventions to alleviate food insecurity can benefit brain health in vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1932721DOI Listing
May 2021

Outpatient satisfaction with primary health care services in Vietnam: Multilevel analysis results from The Vietnam Health Facilities Assessment 2015.

Health Psychol Open 2021 Jan-Jun;8(1):20551029211015117. Epub 2021 May 9.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.

Patient satisfaction has implications for resource distribution across primary, secondary, and tertiary care, as well as accessibility of quality services and equity of service delivery. This study assessed outpatient satisfaction with health services and explored the determinants at the individual and contextual levels in Vietnam. Data on 4372 outpatients were extracted from the Vietnam Health Facility Assessment survey 2015. Three levels of logistic regression were applied to examine the association between outpatient satisfaction and three types of explanatory variables. Outpatients satisfied with their community health center or district hospital accounted for relatively high proportions (85% and 73%, respectively). Patients' age, occupation, and individual characteristics were significant predictors of patient satisfaction, whereas provincial level factors were not significantly associated with the dependent variable. When individual-level characteristics were controlled, outpatients who had a longer waiting time for health services were less likely to report being satisfied. Interventions for improving outpatient satisfaction should pay attention to simplifying the health procedure at health facilities to reduce patients' waiting time and increase their examining time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20551029211015117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114273PMC
May 2021

Financial toxicity due to breast cancer treatment in low- and middle-income countries: evidence from Vietnam.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Background: This study examined the financial toxicity faced by breast cancer (BC) patients in Vietnam and the factors associated with the risk and degree of that toxicity.

Methods: A total of 309 BC patients/survivors completed an online survey (n=209) or a face-to-face interview (n=100) at two tertiary hospitals. Descriptive statistics and χ tests were used to identify and analyse the forms and degree of financial toxicity faced by BC patients/survivors. A Cragg hurdle model assessed variation in risk and the degree of financial toxicity due to treatment.

Results: 41% of respondents faced financial toxicity due to BC treatment costs. The mean amount of money that exceeded BC patients/survivors' ability to pay was 153 million Vietnamese Dong (VND) ($6602) and ranged from 2.42 million VND to 1358 million VND ($104-58,413). A diagnosis at stage II or III of BC was associated with 16.0 and 18.0 million VND (~$690-777) more in the degree of financial toxicity compared with patients who were diagnosed at stage 0/I, respectively. Being retired or married or having full (100%) health insurance was associated with a decrease in the degree of financial toxicity.

Conclusions: A significant proportion of Vietnamese BC patients/survivors face serious financial toxicity due to BC treatment costs. There is a need to consider the introduction of measures that would attenuate this hardship and promote uptake of screening for the reduction in financial toxicity as well as the health gains it may achieve through earlier detection of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06210-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Coping strategies and social support among caregivers of patients with cancer: a cross-sectional study in Vietnam.

AIMS Public Health 2021 11;8(1):1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Research on coping strategies and social support among Vietnamese cancer caregivers remains limited. In this study, we aim to examine the relationships between types of coping strategies utilized and social support among cancer caregivers. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three main cancer hospitals in the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Vietnam. The 28-item Brief COPE Inventory (BCI) Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were utilized. Descriptive statistics and multivariate linear regression were performed. Active coping, acceptance and positive reframing were the most used coping strategies among participants, while substance use was the least commonly used. Level of social support was positively correlated with the utilization of coping mechanisms. Receiving high social support and utilizing positive coping strategies enables caregivers to mitigate their caregiving burden, control the situation and enhance their own quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2021001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870390PMC
December 2020

Anxiety among the Vietnamese Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Social Work Practice.

Soc Work Public Health 2021 02 17;36(2):142-149. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Policy and Health Economics, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi city, Vietnam.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis and threatening human lives, especially vulnerable groups. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported anxiety and to examine associated factors among the Vietnamese population during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study in Vietnam was conducted in April 2020. An online survey was used to do the rapid assessment. Among 1,249 participants, the prevalence of self-reported anxiety was 8.5%. In the multivariable regression models, significant factors for self-reported anxiety were people aged 60 years old or older, rural areas, and COVID-related music-video-watching. Implications for social work practice were also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2020.1871461DOI Listing
February 2021

Self-reported psychological distress among caregivers of patients with cancer: Findings from a health facility-based study in Vietnam 2019.

Health Psychol Open 2020 Jul-Dec;7(2):2055102920975272. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.

In Vietnam, little is elucidated in scientific literatures about the mental health of caregivers of people with cancer. We conducted a cross-sectional study to report the situation and correlates of self-reported psychological distress among caregivers of cancer patients in Vietnam in 2019. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. A total of 16.5% of the study participants had psychological distress. Respondent's mean score of negative emotion was 7.6 ± 2. Educational level and type of support were significantly associated with having psychological distress among caregivers. Gender, occupation, financial difficulty, treatment belief and social support significantly correlated to psychological distress level of caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102920975272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720337PMC
December 2020

Prevalence of smoking among health science students in Vietnam in 2018 and associated factors: A cross-sectional study.

Health Psychol Open 2020 Jul-Dec;7(2):2055102920967244. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.

Smoking is a global health problem among health science students. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of smoking and to examine associated factors among health science students from five universities in Vietnam. Among 5946 participants (95.0% response rate), the smoking prevalence was 19.2% (95% CI:17.4-21.0%) among male students and 2.9% (95% CI:2.4-3.5%) among female students. In the multivariable regression models, significant factors for smoking were the perceived financial burden, the respondent's year in university, a non-self-determined motivation profile, self-reported depression and/or anxiety, the level of vigorous physical activity, and alcohol drinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102920967244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597576PMC
October 2020

Patterns of behavioral risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Vietnam: A narrative scoping review.

Health Psychol Open 2020 Jul-Dec;7(2):2055102920967248. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Vietnam Association of Psychology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

This review describes both magnitude and patterns of major behavioral risk factors for NCDs. Positive changes in tobacco use were identified, though this is far to meet the established expectation. Harmful alcohol consumption was reported, especially for males. Only small proportion of the population consumed an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables daily. Average salt intake was approximately doubled, in comparison to WHO's recommendations. Physical activity has shifted gradually negatively, but future trends are unpredictable. An organized surveillance system should be developed initially with adequate tools and public resources to maintain and ensure sustainability over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102920967248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588771PMC
October 2020

Effectiveness of clinical breast examination as a 'stand-alone' screening modality: an overview of systematic reviews.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 9;20(1):1070. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Background: There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of clinical breast examination (CBE) and conflicting recommendations regarding its usefulness as a screening tool for breast cancer. This paper provides an overview of systematic reviews that assessed the effectiveness of CBE as a 'stand-alone' screening modality for breast cancer compared to no screening and focused on its value in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews reporting the effectiveness of CBE published prior to October 29, 2019. The main outcomes assessed were mortality and down staging. The AMSTAR 2 checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of the reviews including risk of bias.

Results: Eleven systematic reviews published between 1993 and 2019 were identified. There was no direct evidence that CBE reduced breast cancer mortality. Indirect evidence suggested that a well-performed CBE achieved the same effect as mammography regarding mortality despite its apparently lower sensitivity (40-69% for CBE vs 77-95% for mammography). Greater sensitivity was recorded among younger and Asian women. Moreover, CBE contributed between 17 and 47% of the shift from advanced to early stage cancer.

Conclusions: CBE merits attention from health system and service planners in LMICs where a national screening programme based on mammography would be prohibitively expensive. In particular, it is likely that considerable value would be gained from conducting implementation scientific research in countries with large numbers of Asian women and/or where younger women are at higher risk.

Registration: PROSPERO, registration number CRD42019126798 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07521-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653771PMC
November 2020

Rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic: Vietnam government's experience and preliminary success.

J Glob Health 2020 Dec;10(2):020502

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit all corners of the world, challenging governments to act promptly in controlling the spread of the pandemic. Due to limited resources and inferior technological capacities, developing countries including Vietnam have faced many challenges in combating the pandemic. Since the first cases were detected on 23 January 2020, Vietnam has undergone a 3-month fierce battle to control the outbreak with stringent measures from the government to mitigate the adverse impacts. In this study, we aim to give insights into the Vietnamese government's progress during the first three months of the outbreak. Additionally, we relatively compare Vietnam's response with that of other Southeast Asia countries to deliver a clear and comprehensive view on disease control strategies.

Methods: The data on the number of COVID-19 confirmed and recovered cases in Vietnam was obtained from the Dashboard for COVID-19 statistics of the Ministry of Health (https://ncov.vncdc.gov.vn/). The review on Vietnam's country-level responses was conducted by searching for relevant government documents issued on the online database 'Vietnam Laws Repository' (https://thuvienphapluat.vn/en/index.aspx), with the grey literature on Google and relevant official websites. A stringency index of government policies and the countries' respective numbers of confirmed cases of nine Southeast Asian countries were adapted from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (https://www.bsg.ox.ac.uk/research/research-projects/coronavirus-government-response-tracker). All data was updated as of 24 April 2020.

Results: Preliminary positive results have been achieved given that the nation confirmed no new community-transmitted cases since 16 April and zero COVID-19 - related deaths throughout the 3-month pandemic period. To date, the pandemic has been successfully controlled thanks to the Vietnamese government's prompt, proactive and decisive responses including mobilization of the health care systems, security forces, economic policies, along with a creative and effective communication campaign corresponding with crucial milestones of the epidemic's progression.

Conclusions: Vietnam could be one of the role models in pandemic control for low-resource settings. As the pandemic is still ongoing in an unpredictable trajectory, disease control measures should continue to be put in place in the foreseeable short term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.020502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567433PMC
December 2020

Addressing Unintentional Exclusion of Vulnerable and Mobile Households in Traditional Surveys in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi: a Mixed-Methods Feasibility Study.

J Urban Health 2021 02 27;98(1):111-129. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

The methods used in low- and middle-income countries' (LMICs) household surveys have not changed in four decades; however, LMIC societies have changed substantially and now face unprecedented rates of urbanization and urbanization of poverty. This mismatch may result in unintentional exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations. We compare three survey method innovations with standard survey methods in Kathmandu, Dhaka, and Hanoi and summarize feasibility of our innovative methods in terms of time, cost, skill requirements, and experiences. We used descriptive statistics and regression techniques to compare respondent characteristics in samples drawn with innovative versus standard survey designs and household definitions, adjusting for sample probability weights and clustering. Feasibility of innovative methods was evaluated using a thematic framework analysis of focus group discussions with survey field staff, and via survey planner budgets. We found that a common household definition excluded single adults (46.9%) and migrant-headed households (6.7%), as well as non-married (8.5%), unemployed (10.5%), disabled (9.3%), and studying adults (14.3%). Further, standard two-stage sampling resulted in fewer single adult and non-family households than an innovative area-microcensus design; however, two-stage sampling resulted in more tent and shack dwellers. Our survey innovations provided good value for money, and field staff experiences were neutral or positive. Staff recommended streamlining field tools and pairing technical and survey content experts during fieldwork. This evidence of exclusion of vulnerable and mobile urban populations in LMIC household surveys is deeply concerning and underscores the need to modernize survey methods and practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00485-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873174PMC
February 2021

Overweight and obesity among Vietnamese school-aged children: National prevalence estimates based on the World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force definition.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(10):e0240459. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Overweight and obesity is a severe global health issue in both developed and developing nations. This study aims to estimate the national prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Vietnam.

Method: We conducted a national cross-sectional study on 2788 children aged from 11-14 years old from September to November 2018. We applied the WHO 2007 and IOTF criteria to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among participants. Poison regression analysis with cluster sampling adjustment was employed to assess associated factors with obesity and overweight. Metadata on sociodemographic characteristics, physical measurements, and lifestyle behaviors were also extracted to investigate these factors in association with overweight and obesity prevalence.

Results: The prevalences of overweight and obesity in Vietnamese children were 17.4% and 8.6%, respectively by WHO Z-score criteria, and 17.1% and 5.4%, according to the IOTF reference. Using WHO Z-score yielded a higher prevalence of obesity than the IOTF and CDC criteria of all ages and both sexes. The proportions of overweight and obesity were substantially higher among boys than girls across ages. Parental BMI was shown to be a significant factor associated with overweight/obesity status in both girls and boys. Only for boys, age (PR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90) and belonging to ethnic minorities (PR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.76) were significant risk factors for overweight/obesity.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Vietnam, especially in boys.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240459PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549813PMC
December 2020

Self-reported non-communicable diseases and associated socio-demographic status among ethnic minority populations in Vietnam, 2019.

Health Psychol Open 2020 Jul-Dec;7(2):2055102920954707. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of self-reported non-communicable diseases among ethnic minority populations in Vietnam and related factors. A total of 5033 individuals aged 15 years and older who belonged to ethnic minority populations from 12 provinces in Vietnam completed a household survey. The overall prevalence of self-reported non-communicable diseases was 12.4% (95% CI: 11.5%-13.4%). Cardiovascular diseases were the most prevalent, followed by diabetes. Ethnicity was shown to have an independently significant correlation to having any non-communicable diseases. Older people, near-poor and non-poor people had significantly higher odds of having non-communicable diseases as compared to younger and poor people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102920954707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495520PMC
September 2020

Tobacco and Alcohol Use Among Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2020 11 10;32(8):387-397. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

This study investigates the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol uses and associated factors among 12 ethnic minorities in Vietnam in 2019. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 5172 people aged ≥15 years. The prevalence of smoking and drinking was 19.7% and 29.9%, respectively, and significantly higher among men than women. These numbers were heterogeneous across ethnic minorities. Smoking prevalence was high among Ba Na (25.9%), Cham An Giang (22.3%), Khmer (23.5%), La Hu (26.3%), Ta Oi (30.7%), and Bru Van Kieu (29.6%) ethnicities whereas that of Gie Trieng and Mnong ethnicities was low (3.7% and 9.5%, respectively). Drinking prevalence ranged from 1.4% in Cham An Giang ethnicity to 68.6% in Ba Na ethnicity. A wide ethnic disparity on tobacco and alcohol use could be explained by the ethnic variation of lifestyles, social norms, and cultural features. Our findings suggest the need to develop ethnic-specific interventions to mitigate the smoking and drinking prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539520956444DOI Listing
November 2020

A qualitative assessment of factors influencing implementation and sustainability of evidence-based tobacco use treatment in Vietnam health centers.

Implement Sci 2020 09 9;15(1):73. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Public Health Policy and Management, School of Global Public Health, New York University, 715 Broadway, New York, NY, 10012, USA.

Background: Effective strategies are needed to increase implementation and sustainability of evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) in public health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (VQuit) found that a multicomponent implementation strategy was effective in increasing provider adherence to TDT guidelines in commune health center (CHCs) in Vietnam. In this paper, we present findings from a post-implementation qualitative assessment of factors influencing effective implementation and program sustainability.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 52) with 13 CHC medical directors (i.e., physicians), 25 CHC health care providers (e.g., nurses), and 14 village health workers (VHWs) in 13 study sites. Interviews were transcribed and translated into English. Two qualitative researchers used both deductive (guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research) and inductive approaches to analysis.

Results: Facilitators of effective implementing of TDT included training and point-of-service tools (e.g., desktop chart with prompts for offering brief counseling) that increased knowledge and self-efficacy, patient demand for TDT, and a referral system, available in arm 2, which reduced the provider burden by shifting more intensive cessation counseling to a trained VHW. The primary challenges to sustainability were competing priorities that are driven by the Ministry of Health and may result in fewer resources for TDT compared with other health programs. However, providers and VHWs suggested several options for adapting the intervention and implementation strategies to address challenges and increasing engagement of local government committees and other sectors to sustain gains.

Conclusion: Our findings offer insights into how a multicomponent implementation strategy influenced changes in the delivery of evidence-based TDT. In addition, the results illustrate the dynamic interplay between barriers and facilitators for sustaining TDT at the policy and community/practice level, particularly in the context of centralized public health systems like Vietnam's. Sustaining gains in practice improvement and clinical outcomes will require strategies that include ongoing engagement with policymakers and other stakeholders at the national and local level, and planning for adaptations and subsequent resource allocations in order to meet the World Health Organization's goals promoting access to effective treatment for all tobacco users.

Trial Registration: NCT02564653 , registered September 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01035-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488010PMC
September 2020

Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation in Minority Ethnic People in Vietnam and Some Sociodemographic Associations: A 2019 National Survey.

Environ Health Insights 2020 4;14:1178630220946342. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Achieving access to clean water and basic sanitation remains as major challenges in Vietnam, especially for vulnerable groups such as minority people, despite all the progress made by the Millennium Development Goal number 7.C.

Objectives: The study aimed to describe the access to improved water sources and sanitation of the ethnic minority people in Vietnam based on a national survey and to identify associated factors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 with a sample size of 1385 ethnic minority households in 12 provinces in Vietnam. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to examine the probability of having access to improved water sources and sanitation and sociodemographic status at a significance level of  < .05.

Results: The access to improved water sources and sanitation was unequal among the ethnic minority people in Vietnam, with the lowest access rate in the northern midland and mountainous and Central Highland areas and the highest access rate in the Mekong Delta region. Some sociodemographic variables that were likely to increase the ethnic minority people's access to improved water sources and/or sanitation included older age, female household heads, household heads with high educational levels, religious households, and households in not poor status.

Conclusion And Recommendations: The study suggested more emphasis on religion for improving the ethnic minority's access to improved water sources and sanitation. Besides, persons of poor and near-poor status and with low educational levels should be of focus in future water and sanitation intervention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178630220946342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412927PMC
August 2020

Relationship between family functioning and health-related quality of life among methadone maintenance patients: a Bayesian approach.

Qual Life Res 2020 Dec 6;29(12):3333-3342. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Purpose: To examine the relationship of family functioning on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among methadone maintenance patients using the Bayesian approach.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 182 patients at Go Vap Methadone Clinic, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Family functioning and HRQoL were measured by the APGAR scale and World Health Organization Quality of Life short-form instrument (WHOQoL-BREF), respectively. Directed Acyclic Graphs were used to present the conceptual framework and to identify a set of confounders of the relationship between family functioning and HRQoL. Bayesian multivariable linear regressions were fitted with four different priors to determine the effect size of the relationship of interest.

Results: The mean score of APGAR was 6.0 (SD = 3.3), and the mean scores of HRQoL were from 47.1 (SD = 17.6) in the social relationships dimension to 69.0 (SD = 10.3) in the environment dimension. Patients with a higher score of family functioning were likely to have a higher score of HRQoL, with coefficients and 95% highest density interval (HDI) greater than 0 in all priors. Family functioning had the most substantial impact on the psychological health dimension, with 99.9% to 100% and 44.6% to 83.7% of posterior distribution greater than 1 and 2, in different priors, respectively.

Conclusion: Family functioning is intimately associated with HRQoL. Treatment plans for patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment should aim to involve the families appropriately and effectively to maximize the benefits for patients and improve their overall well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02598-zDOI Listing
December 2020

The Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services Among Ethnic Minority Populations in Vietnam.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 06 5;8(3):723-731. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Behavior and Health Education, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Previous studies have observed lower utilization of maternal healthcare services by ethnic minority groups in Vietnam compared with the majority Kinh community. This study sought to assess the utilization of maternal healthcare service-associated factors within 12 ethnic minority groups.

Method: The cross-sectional study enrolled 996 women from 12 ethnic minority groups in Vietnam in 2019. Women had pregnancy outcomes in the last 5 years. The two variables for maternal healthcare utilization were [1] a minimum of four antenatal contacts and [2] health facility-based delivery. We examined the association of individual characteristics of maternal healthcare services using multilevel modeling. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.

Results: This nationally representative study found that 34.1% of women from ethnic minority backgrounds had four or more antenatal contacts during pregnancy, ranging from 8.3% in Mong community to 80.2% in Cham An Giang. Most of the women (94.4%) delivered at health facilities. Factors independently correlated with having fewer than four antenatal contacts included being illiterate, early marriage, unemployment, religious affiliation, household economy, and distance to the nearest health facility. Factors significantly associated with home delivery were living in the most disadvantaged areas and having fewer than four antenatal contacts.

Conclusion: Substantial inequity exists in antenatal coverage both within ethnic minority groups and between socio-economic groups. The low coverage of having at least four antenatal contacts and its' correlates with facility-based delivery suggests that the government should focus efforts on increasing the number of antenatal contacts for ethnic minority women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00832-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Improvement in Compliance With Smoke-Free Environment Regulations at Hotels and Restaurants in Vietnam After an Administrative Intervention.

Environ Health Insights 2020 7;14:1178630220939927. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

World Health Organization, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Introduction: Vietnam is among the countries with the highest smoking prevalence among male adults, as well as high prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure at indoor places. In many countries, including Vietnam, exposure to tobacco smoking is greatest in restaurants/bars and hotels. This study aims to analyze the compliance of hotels and restaurants to smoke-free environment regulations before and after an intervention.

Methods: Direct observations were done at the receptions, conference rooms, designated smoking areas, restaurants, and lobbies of 140 hotels and the dining rooms, kitchens, and toilets of 160 restaurants before and after an intervention. The intervention was a training course conducted by police officers followed by 3 monthly supervision visits by police officers. Compliance with smoke-free enviornment regulations was observed and assessed to generate a compliance score for each location and overall. Tobit regression was used to examine the relationship between compliance scores and the intervention and other variables such as hotel and restaurant characteristics.

Results: Before the intervention, the highest compliance rates were found for "no tobacco advertisement" and "no cigarette selling" regulations (95%-100%) in almost all sites in hotels and restaurants. The lowest compliance rates were found for "having nonsmoking signs." The rate of compliance with all regulations was only 5% for hotels and 0.06% of restaurants. Improvement after intervention was clearly observed, in the rate of compliance with all regulations by more hotels (15.7%) and overall compliance scores of hotels and restaurants.

Conclusions: The intervention with participation of the police officers proved to be effective in improving compliance with smoke-free regulations. It is recommended to continue this intervention in the same areas as well as to expand the intervention to other areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178630220939927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343365PMC
July 2020

Review of Public Financing for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sectors in Vietnam.

Environ Health Insights 2020 6;14:1178630220938396. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Vietnam declared its national roadmap towards Sustainable Development Goals number 6 by 2030. However, specific supporting programmes and financial means to proceed with the roadmap have not been passed on. Evidence on the financing for water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) being allocated or spent has not been well documented in Vietnam. This study aimed to obtain an overview and assessed the public funding across the WASH sector of Vietnam in 3 fiscal years 2016, 2017, and 2018.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for information about the public financing for WASH at both national and sub-national levels. An activity-based costing approach was applied to determine WASH-related public expenditure. Fourteen focus group discussions with key stakeholders were used to identify the WASH activities and to access financial reports of these relevant institutions. TrackFin methodology was used to assemble the public financing for WASH in Vietnam.

Results: The public expenditure of WASH declined by about 30.7% over the 3 fiscal years, from US $2016 million in 2016 to US $1397 million in 2018. Meanwhile, this expenditure allocated to the poor or mountainous areas increased by 3 folds. The highest proportion of WASH public funding was invested in sanitation through large network systems (59.07% of the total public expenditure), whereas the lowest was in hygiene promotion and handwashing facilities. The domestic budget was still the main source of public financing for WASH services, with 2 largest shares coming from government revenues (47.24%) and repayable loans (20.49%).

Conclusion: The main source of financing for WASH was from the government, yet its public expenditure has been decreased. A refined roadmap with specific steps for a sustainable WASH financing system in Vietnam, particularly to leverage government and private sector resources, is required to ensure no one is left behind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178630220938396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338735PMC
July 2020

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Indoor Workplaces in Viet Nam and Associated Factors: Findings from Two Rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS) 2010 and 2015.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 Jul 1;21(S1):33-38. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

World Health Organization, Country Office for Viet Nam, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Objectives: This paper explores changes in the level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at indoor workplaces between 2010 and 2015 in Viet Nam and the association between the exposure and various demographic factors, using data from Viet Nam's Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS) 2010 and 2015.

Methods: Data was pooled from the two GATS surveys and analysed using descriptive and Poisson regression analyses.

Results: There was a highly statistically significant reduction in the level of SHS exposure at indoor workplaces from 55.9% to 42.6% (p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.S1.33DOI Listing
July 2020

Vietnam Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment, 2018.

Environ Health Insights 2020 22;14:1178630220924658. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Vice-Rector, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: The Global Climate Risk Index 2020 ranked Vietnam as the sixth country in the world most affected by climate variability and extreme weather events over the period 1999-2018. Sea level rise and extreme weather events are projected to be more severe in coming decades, which, without additional action, will increase the number of people at risk of climate-sensitive diseases, challenging the health system. This article summaries the results of a health vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessment conducted in Vietnam as evidences for development of the National Climate Change Health Adaptation Plan to 2030.

Methods: The assessment followed the first 4 steps outlined in the World Health Organization's Guidelines in conducting "Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments." A framework and list of indicators were developed for semi-quantitative assessment for the period 2013 to 2017. Three sets of indicators were selected to assess the level of (1) exposure to climate change and extreme weather events, (2) health sensitivity, and (3) adaptation capacity. The indicators were rated and analyzed using a scoring system from 1 to 5.

Results: The results showed that climate-sensitive diseases were common, including dengue fever, diarrheal, influenza, etc, with large burdens of disease that are projected to increase. From 2013 to 2017, the level of "exposure" to climate change-related hazards of the health sector was "high" to "very high," with an average score from 3.5 to 4.4 (out of 5.0). For "health sensitivity," the scores decreased from 3.8 in 2013 to 3.5 in 2017, making the overall rating as "high." For "adaptive capacity," the scores were from 4.0 to 4.1, which meant adaptive capacity was "very low." The overall V&A rating in 2013 was "very high risk" (score 4.1) and "high risk" with scores of 3.8 in 2014 and 3.7 in 2015 to 2017.

Conclusions: Adaptation actions of the health sector are urgently needed to reduce the vulnerability to climate change in coming decades. Eight adaptation solutions, among recommendations of V&A assessment, were adopted in the National Health Climate Change Adaptation Plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178630220924658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309337PMC
June 2020

Describing the pattern of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam.

Glob Health Action 2020 12;13(1):1776526

Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health , Hanoi, Vietnam.

Given the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the huge negative impacts it is causing, researching on COVID-19-related issues is very important for designing proactive and comprehensive public health interventions to fight against the pandemic. We describe the characteristics of COVID-19 patients detected in the two phases of the epidemic in Vietnam. Data used in this paper were mainly obtained from the official database of the Ministry of Health of Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Stata 16 software. As of 18 May 2020, the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases detected in Vietnam was 324, 16 cases from 4 cities and provinces in the first phase (during 20 days, 0.8 cases detected per day) and 308 cases from 35 cities, provinces in the second phase (during 76 days, 4.1 cases detected per day). Vietnam has mobilized its entire political system to fight the COVID-19 and achieved some initial successes. We found both similarities and differences between the two phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam. We demonstrated that the situation of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam is getting more complicated and unpredictable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1776526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480474PMC
December 2020

Breast Cancer messaging in Vietnam: an online media content analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 19;20(1):966. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Breast cancer incidence is increasing in Vietnam with studies indicating low levels of knowledge and awareness and late presentation. While there is a growing body of literature on challenges faced by women in accessing breast cancer services, and for delivering care, no studies have sought to analyse breast cancer messaging in the Vietnamese popular media. The aim of this study was to investigate and understand the content of messages concerning breast cancer in online Vietnamese newspapers in order to inform future health promotional content.

Methods: This study describes a mixed-methods media content analysis that counted and ranked frequencies for media content (article text, themes and images) related to breast cancer in six Vietnamese online news publications over a twelve month period.

Results: Media content (n = 129 articles & n = 237 images) sampled showed that although information is largely accurate, there is a marked lack of stories about Vietnamese women's personal experiences. Such stories could help bridge the gap between what information about breast cancer is presented in the Vietnamese media, and what women in Vietnam understand about breast cancer risk factors, symptoms, screening and treatment.

Conclusions: Given findings from other studies indicating low levels of knowledge and women with breast cancer experiencing stigma and prejudice, more nuanced and in-depth narrative-focused messaging may be required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09092-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304170PMC
June 2020

Multilevel Analysis of 24-Hour Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Associated Factors among Police Officers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Biomed Res Int 2020 16;2020:7494906. Epub 2020 May 16.

Hanoi University of Public Health, 1A Duc Thang, Dong Ngac, Bac Tu Liem District, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Due to long-hour outdoor working environment, policemen have been subjected to tremendous health risks including blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In tropical countries, the temperature is extremely harsh which may get peak at above 40 Celsius degrees or drops under 8 Celsius degrees. However, the existing data on the effects of weather variation on BP and HR among police task force has been scarce in Vietnam.

Aims: This study aimed to describe the variation of 24-hour BP and HR and identify factors associated with BP and HR for further appropriate interventions in order to reduce health risks from occupational exposure.

Methods: Multilevel regression analysis (MLRA) was applied with two levels of influent factors. 24-hour holter measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and HR values were the first level which should then be nested in the second level (individual). 24-hour temperature and humidity variations were extracted, respectively, from Hanoi Hydrometeorology Department. All individual characteristics and risk behaviours were measured within 24 studying hours.

Results: Temperature and humidity were major factors that influenced (74%-78%) the variation of BP and HR among the policemen population. When each of the Celsius degree temperature or percentage humidity increases, the SBP goes down by 0.44 (0.11-0.77) and by 0.2 (0.33-0.77), respectively, and the DBP goes down by 0.21 (-0.05-0.48) and by 0.12 (0.02-0.22), respectively, and vice versa. Interaction between temperature and humidity was significantly influent to SBP. The farther the time section from the first time section (0-6AM) the more the variation of the BP and HR. Transition from winter to summer made SBP and DBP decrease and vice versa. Individual characteristics including body mass index (BMI), bad life styles, and stress contributed 22% to 26% to the variation of BP and HR. Traffic policemen were at the greatest risks of the outdoor ambient variation in comparison with the firefighters and office-based policemen.

Conclusion: Designing and equipping appropriate uniform and outdoor facilities could help to reduce influence of temperature and humidity variation in the outdoor workplace. Besides, training and educating programs that aimed at controlling BMI, risk behaviours, and stress for police taskforce, especially the traffic policemen, should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7494906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255014PMC
March 2021
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