Publications by authors named "Ho-Seong Han"

305 Publications

The Tokyo 2020 Terminology of Liver Anatomy and Resections: Updates of the Brisbane 2000 system.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

HPB and Liver Transplant Unit, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: The Brisbane 2000 Terminology for Liver Anatomy and Resections, based on Couinaud's segments, did not address how to identify segmental borders and anatomic territories of less than one segment. Smaller anatomic resections including segmentectomies and subsegmentectomies, have not been well defined. The advent of minimally invasive liver resection has enhanced the possibilities of more precise resection due to a magnified view and reduced bleeding, and minimally invasive anatomic liver resection (MIALR) is becoming popular gradually. Therefore, there is a need for updating the Brisbane 2000 system, including anatomic segmentectomy or less. An online "Expert Consensus Meeting: Precision Anatomy for Minimally Invasive HBP Surgery (PAM-HBP Surgery Consensus)" was hosted on February 23, 2021.

Methods: The Steering Committee invited 34 international experts from around the world. The Expert Committee (EC) selected 12 questions and 2 future research topics in the terminology session. The EC created 7 tentative definitions and 5 recommendations based on the experts' opinions and the literature review performed by the Research Committee. Two Delphi Rounds finalized those definitions and recommendations.

Results: This paper presents 7 definitions and 5 recommendations regarding anatomic segmentectomy or less. In addition, two future research topics are discussed.

Conclusions: The PAM-HBP Surgery Consensus has presented the Tokyo 2020 Terminology for Liver Anatomy and Resections. The terminology has added definitions of liver anatomy and resections that were not defined in the Brisbane 2000 system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1091DOI Listing
December 2021

Minimally invasive anatomic liver resection: results of a survey of world experts.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

HPB and Liver Transplant Unit, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: Although the number of minimally invasive liver resection (MILR) has been steadily increasing in many institutions, minimally invasive anatomic liver resection (MIALR) remains a complicated procedure that has not been standardized. We present the results of a survey among expert liver surgeons as a benchmark for standardizing MIALR.

Method: We administered this survey to 34 expert liver surgeons who routinely perform MIALR. The survey contained questions on personal experience with liver resection, inflow/outflow control methods, and identification techniques of intersegmental/sectional planes (IPs).

Results: All 34 participants completed the survey; 24 experts (70%) had more than 11 years of experience with MILR, and over 80% of experts had performed over 100 open resections and MILRs each. Regarding the methods used for laparoscopic or robotic anatomic resection, the Glissonean approach (GA) was a more frequent procedure than the hilar approach (HA). Although hepatic veins were considered essential landmarks, the exposure methods varied. The top three techniques that the experts recommended for identifying IPs were creating a demarcation line, indocyanine green (ICG) negative staining method, and intraoperative ultrasound.

Conclusion: MIALR remains a challenging procedure; however, a certain degree of consensus exists among expert liver surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1094DOI Listing
December 2021

Gallbladder reporting and data system (GB-RADS) for risk stratification of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasonography: an international expert consensus.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The Gallbladder Reporting and Data System (GB-RADS) ultrasound (US) risk stratification is proposed to improve consistency in US interpretations, reporting, and assessment of risk of malignancy in gallbladder wall thickening in non-acute setting. It was developed based on a systematic review of the literature and the consensus of an international multidisciplinary committee comprising expert radiologists, gastroenterologists, gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, and pathologists using modified Delphi method. For risk stratification, the GB-RADS system recommends six categories (GB-RADS 0-5) of gallbladder wall thickening with gradually increasing risk of malignancy. GB-RADS is based on gallbladder wall features on US including symmetry and extent (focal vs. circumferential) of involvement, layered appearance, intramural features (including intramural cysts and echogenic foci), and interface with the liver. GB-RADS represents the first collaborative effort at risk stratifying the gallbladder wall thickening. This concept is in line with the other US-based risk stratification systems which have been shown to increase the accuracy of detection of malignant lesions and improve management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03360-wDOI Listing
December 2021

Long-term outcomes of emergency ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation using a modified desensitization protocol for highly sensitized patients with acute liver failure: A case report.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Nov;25(4):571-574

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Although there is no established desensitization protocol for liver transplantation (LT), desensitization usually entails treatment with rituximab, plasmapheresis, splenectomy, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion together with a local graft. The desensitization protocol is usually initiated 2 to 3 weeks before transplantation. Therefore, patients with acute liver failure warranting urgent LT are usually ineligible for ABO-incompatible (ABOi) LT. For these reasons, several attempts have been made to abridge the desensitization protocol and extend the indication for ABOi living donor LT (LDLT). Here we report a 40-year-old female diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and acute-on-chronic liver failure (model for end-stage liver disease score, 31). In the absence of a suitable compatible liver donor, emergency ABOi LT was planned using a modified desensitization protocol. The preoperative isoagglutinin (IA) titer was 1 : 1,024 and the preoperative T- and B-cell cross-matches were positive. The patient received a single dose of rituximab (375 mg/m) and IVIG (0.8 g/kg) was administered from the anhepatic phase until three days after transplantation. Although the patient developed acute cellular rejection in the early stages after LT, she has maintained a stable graft function, even after 5 years. In summary, a modified desensitization protocol consisting of rituximab and IVIG is a feasible strategy for highly sensitized patients with elevated IA titers indicated for urgent LDLT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.4.571DOI Listing
November 2021

Diagnosis and surgical treatment of a rare hepatic angiomyolipoma with internal hemorrhage.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Nov;25(4):532-535

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Although angiomyolipoma (AML) is commonly found in the kidney, its appearance in the liver is rare. The first hepatic AML was reported by Ishak in 1976. Since then, there have been various reports of AML. An AML is a tumour affecting adipocytes, muscle tissues, and blood vessels. Hepatic AML has been associated with tuberous sclerosis. Its spontaneous occurrence has also been noticed. It can have a varied presentation with some being asymptomatic, others presenting with a dull aching pain, while some with disastrous consequences due to rupture and torrential bleeding intra-abdominally. Herein, we present a case of a 47-year-old female with a large hepatic AML having an internal hemorrhage that caused changes in hepatic arteries. In our case, magnetic resonance imaging was unable to establish a diagnosis. Intraoperatively, AML caused dilatation and engorgement of vessels around the porta. Immediately post resection, vessel dilatation and engorgement were reduced on table. Another notable feature was that these changes caused no intra-operative or post-operative hemodynamic changes. We report a case of a huge hepatic AML with internal hemorrhage associated with perihepatic vascular changes having a successful surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.4.532DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparative Study of Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection in Gallbladder Cancer.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si, Republic of Korea.

In recent decades, laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been gradually adopted at high-volume centers, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis. However, LLR in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a controversial issue, and there are few studies of LLR for GBC. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic or open liver resection for GBC. All patients admitted with stage II or III GBC requiring liver resection, together with cholecystectomy and lymphadenectomy, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with thickness of the resected liver specimen >2 cm in pathology reports were included. A total of 56 patients with stage II or III GBC were included in this study; 23 (41.1%) underwent laparoscopic surgery and 33 (58.9%) underwent open surgery. Propensity score matching was performed using a 1:1 matching scheme. After matching, 12 patients were included in each group. The preoperative characteristics of both groups were similar, as were the operative times (laparoscopic versus open group: 237.5 minutes versus 272.5 minutes, respectively;  = .319) and blood loss (300 mL versus 275 mL, respectively;  = .307). The laparoscopic group had a significantly shorter postoperative hospital stay than the open surgery group (4.5 days versus 8 days, respectively;  = .012). There were no major complications in either group. There was no difference between the groups in the number of lymph nodes harvested at surgery ( = .910). There were no differences between the two groups in disease-free ( = .503) or overall ( = .719) survival. LLR extended to GBC provides outcomes similar to those of open surgery. With increasing experience, LLR can be a viable alternative to open surgery for GBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2021.0670DOI Listing
November 2021

Expert Consensus Guidelines: How to safely perform minimally invasive anatomic liver resection.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Kyorin University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The concept of minimally invasive anatomic liver resection (MIALR) is gaining popularity. However, specific technical skills need to be acquired to safely perform MIALR. The "Expert Consensus Meeting: Precision Anatomy for Minimally Invasive HBP Surgery (PAM-HBP Surgery Consensus)" was developed as a special program during the 32nd meeting of the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery (JSHBPS).

Methods: Thirty-four international experts gathered online for the consensus. A Research Committee performed a comprehensive literature review, classifying studies according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network method. Based on the literature review and experts' opinions, tentative recommendations were drafted and circulated among experts using online Delphi Rounds. Finally, formulated recommendations were presented online in the Expert Consensus Meeting of the JSHBPS on February 23rd, 2021. The final recommendations were validated and finalized by the 2nd Delphi Round in May 2021.

Results: Seven clinical questions were selected, and 22 recommendations were formulated. All recommendations reached more than 85% consensus among experts at the final Delphi Round.

Conclusions: The Expert Consensus Meeting for safely performing MIALR has presented a set of clinical guidelines based on available literature and experts' opinions. We expect these guidelines to have a favorable effect on the safe implementation and development of MIALR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1079DOI Listing
November 2021

Minimally invasive liver resection for huge (≥10 cm) tumors: an international multicenter matched cohort study with regression discontinuity analyses.

Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr 2021 Oct;10(5):587-597

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, Singapore General Hospital and Duke-National University Singapore Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The application and feasibility of minimally invasive liver resection (MILR) for huge liver tumours (≥10 cm) has not been well documented.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on 6,617 patients who had MILR for liver tumours were gathered from 21 international centers between 2009-2019. Huge tumors and large tumors were defined as tumors with a size ≥10.0 cm and 3.0-9.9 cm based on histology, respectively. 1:1 coarsened exact-matching (CEM) and 1:2 Mahalanobis distance-matching (MDM) was performed according to clinically-selected variables. Regression discontinuity analyses were performed as an additional line of sensitivity analysis to estimate local treatment effects at the 10-cm tumor size cutoff.

Results: Of 2,890 patients with tumours ≥3 cm, there were 205 huge tumors. After 1:1 CEM, 174 huge tumors were matched to 174 large tumors; and after 1:2 MDM, 190 huge tumours were matched to 380 large tumours. There was significantly and consistently increased intraoperative blood loss, frequency in the application of Pringle maneuver, major morbidity and postoperative stay in the huge tumour group compared to the large tumour group after both 1:1 CEM and 1:2 MDM. These findings were reinforced in RD analyses. Intraoperative blood transfusion rate and open conversion rate were significantly higher in the huge tumor group after only 1:2 MDM but not 1:1 CEM.

Conclusions: MILR for huge tumours can be safely performed in expert centers It is an operation with substantial complexity and high technical requirement, with worse perioperative outcomes compared to MILR for large tumors, therefore judicious patient selection is pivotal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/hbsn-21-327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527431PMC
October 2021

International multicentre propensity score-matched analysis comparing robotic versus laparoscopic right posterior sectionectomy.

Br J Surg 2021 Dec;108(12):1513-1520

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, Singapore General Hospital and Duke-National University Singapore Medical School, Singapore.

Background: Minimally invasive right posterior sectionectomy (RPS) is a technically challenging procedure. This study was designed to determine outcomes following robotic RPS (R-RPS) and laparoscopic RPS (L-RPS).

Methods: An international multicentre retrospective analysis of patients undergoing R-RPS versus those who had purely L-RPS at 21 centres from 2010 to 2019 was performed. Patient demographics, perioperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were analysed retrospectively from a central database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed, with analysis of 1 : 2 and 1 : 1 matched cohorts.

Results: Three-hundred and forty patients, including 96 who underwent R-RPS and 244 who had L-RPS, met the study criteria and were included. The median operating time was 295 minutes and there were 25 (7.4 per cent) open conversions. Ninety-seven (28.5 per cent) patients had cirrhosis and 56 (16.5 per cent) patients required blood transfusion. Overall postoperative morbidity rate was 22.1 per cent and major morbidity rate was 6.8 per cent. The median postoperative stay was 6 days. After 1 : 1 matching of 88 R-RPS and L-RPS patients, median (i.q.r.) blood loss (200 (100-400) versus 450 (200-900) ml, respectively; P < 0.001), major blood loss (> 500 ml; P = 0.001), need for intraoperative blood transfusion (10.2 versus 23.9 per cent, respectively; P = 0.014), and open conversion rate (2.3 versus 11.4 per cent, respectively; P = 0.016) were lower in the R-RPS group. Similar results were found in the 1 : 2 matched groups (66 R-RPS versus 132 L-RPS patients).

Conclusion: R-RPS and L-RPS can be performed in expert centres with good outcomes in well selected patients. R-RPS was associated with reduced blood loss and lower open conversion rates than L-RPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab321DOI Listing
December 2021

Impact of Acute Inflammation on the Survival Outcomes of Patients with Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Dig Surg 2021 Nov 3:1-9. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea,

Introduction: The impact of acute inflammation on cancer progression is still not well elucidated. Pancreatic head cancer is occasionally associated with acute cholangitis. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker that indicates presence of acute inflammation.

Methods: We reviewed the patients' data with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2004 and 2018.

Results: Two hundred ninety-one patients were included. Median preoperative CRP was 0.45 mg/dL (0-18.9). Median follow-up duration was 22 months (4-152). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 76.4%, 32.2%, and 22.9%, respectively. Recurrence occurred in 168 cases (57.7%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 53.9%, 27.1%, and 21.9%, respectively. The median OS was higher in normal CRP patients (27 months) than those with elevated CRP (18 months) (log-rank 0.038). The median DFS was higher in normal CRP patients (17 months) than those with elevated CRP (9 months) (log-rank < 0.001). Predictive factors for OS included BMI, CRP, adjuvant therapy, positive lymph nodes, and microvascular invasion. Predictive factors for DFS included CRP, positive lymph nodes, and microvascular invasion.

Conclusion: Preoperative CRP was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS and DFS of patients with resected PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000520063DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of postoperative complications and long-term oncological outcomes in minimally invasive versus open pancreatoduodenectomy for distal cholangiocarcinoma: A propensity score-matched analysis.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Oct 30. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is the only curative therapy for distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCC). There has been no study to compare outcomes between minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy (MIPD) and open pancreatoduodenectomy (OPD) for dCC. The aim of the study is to compare the two operation types for dCC in terms of postoperative and oncologic outcomes.

Methods: Data from 426 patients who underwent MIPD (n = 91) or OPD (n = 335) for dCC from January 2012 to December 2019 at two tertiary hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. After 1:2 propensity score matching, postoperative and oncologic outcomes were compared.

Results: Minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy group showed more favorable results than OPD group in terms of blood loss (MIPD vs OPD, 250 [150-400] vs 400 [200-600], mL, P < .001), and length of hospital stay (19.8 ± 11.3 vs 26.6 ± 14.3 days, P < .001). OPD group showed more favorable results than MIPD group in terms of operation time (MIPD vs OPD, 457 ± 70 vs 398 ± 85 min, P < .001) and harvested lymph nodes (14.9 ± 7.8 vs 20.7 ± 11.5, P < .001). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the R0 resection rate and complications. In long-term survival analysis, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusion: Minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy showed comparable postoperative complications and long-term oncologic survival with OPD in the treatment of dCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1067DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparative long-term outcomes of laparoscopic hepatectomy and radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma located in the anterolateral segments of the liver.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Oct 24. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is considered the standard surgical approach for resecting small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) located in the anterolateral segments of the liver. However, few studies have compared LLR and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in such cases.

Methods: We retrospectively compared the short- and long-term outcomes of 101 patients who underwent LLR and 264 patients who underwent RFA because of a newly diagnosed single, small (≤4 cm) HCC located in the anterolateral segments of the liver. By applying 1:1 propensity score matching, we matched 61 patients in both groups.

Results: Although the 5-year overall survival rates were similar (83.6% vs 84.5%; P = .913), the 5-year disease-free survival rate was greater in the LLR group (56.4% vs 41.8%; P = .009). In patients with an α-fetoprotein level of ≥100 ng/mL, the 5-year overall (100% vs 80.0%; P = .022) and disease-free survival (76.6% vs 45.5%; P = .006) rates were greater in the LCC group.

Conclusions: For patients with a single, small HCC located in the anterolateral segments of the liver, LLR was associated with similar complication and overall survival rates, but better disease-free survival compared with RFA. LLR may be recommended for patients with higher α-fetoprotein levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1064DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical Impact of Unexpected Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis in Surgery for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;13(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

Radiologically identified para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis is contraindicated for pancreatic cancer (PC) surgery. There is no clinical consensus for unexpected intraoperative PALN enlargement. To analyze the prognostic role of unexpected PALN enlargement in resectable PC, we retrospectively reviewed data of 1953 PC patients in a single tertiary center. Patients with unexpected intraoperative PALN enlargement (group A1, negative pathology, = 59; group A2, positive pathology, = 13) showed median overall survival (OS) of 24.6 (95% CI: 15.2-33.2) and 13.0 (95% CI: 4.9-19.7) months, respectively. Patients with radiological PALN metastasis without other metastases (group B, = 91) showed median OS of 8.6 months (95% CI: 7.4-11.6). Compared with group A1, groups A2 and B had hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.79 (95% CI, 1.4-5.7) and 2.67 (95% CI: 1.8-4.0), respectively. Compared with group A2, group B had HR of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.5-1.9). Multivariable analysis also showed positive PALN as a negative prognostic factor (HR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.2-5.3), whereas positive regional lymph node did not (HR 1.32 95% CI: 0.8-2.3). Thus, unexpected malignant PALN has a negative prognostic impact comparable to radiological PALN metastasis. This results suggests prompt pathologic evaluation for unexpected PALN enlargements is needed and on-site modification of surgical strategy would be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431119PMC
September 2021

Association between oncological outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastasis and additional gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 10 2;10(10):10213-10221. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown to be superior to contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in studies, there is no adequate data on its impact on overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with colorectal liver metastasis. Our objective was to study the benefit afforded by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with colorectal liver metastasis, especially in terms of overall survival and recurrence-free survival.

Methods: Patients who underwent surgical treatment for colorectal liver metastasis between January 2003 and December 2018 were divided into groups depending on the pro-operative imaging carried out. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were compared between both groups.

Results: Totally, 480 cases were included. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI detected 220 new lesions in 123 cases. Presence of metastatic nodules was confirmed by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in 33 of the 55 patients (60.0%) with indeterminate nodules on contrast-enhanced CT. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI detected significantly more nodules than contrast-enhanced CT (932 vs. 673, respectively, P<0.001). There was no difference in the 5-year overall survival (P=0.390) or in the 3-month (85.1% vs. 86.7%, respectively, P=0.790), 6-month (78.0% vs. 81.7%, respectively, P=0.570), or 1-year (65.7% vs. 69.6%, respectively, P=0.446) recurrence-free survival in patients examined with contrast-enhanced CT or gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

Conclusions: Although gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT, its utilization does not significantly affect the recurrence-free survival of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1470DOI Listing
October 2021

Initial experience with a robotic hepatectomy program at a high-volume laparoscopic center: single-center experience and surgical tips.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1132

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Despite the development of laparoscopic surgery, there are still inherent limitations associated with conventional laparoscopic instruments such as restrictions in movement and an inability for articulation. Robotic surgery may help to overcome the limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to present our initial experience with robotic hepatectomy (RH) and discuss the steps required to develop an RH program at a high-volume laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data for 14 consecutive patients who underwent RH between 2017 and 2018. Clinicopathological characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared with those reported in previous studies. The operation time of each procedure was analyzed to assess RH proficiency based on experience.

Results: Of the 14 patients, 12 patients (85.7%) underwent robotic major hepatectomy. Median patient age was 54.5 years, while median body mass index (BMI) was 25.2 kg/m. The median operation time was 360 (range: 145-544) min. The median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 300 (range: 50-1,400) mL. Conversion to open surgery was not required in any case. The median length of hospital stay was 5 (range: 4-14) days. Major complications occurred in 2 patients (14.2%), although both recovered without sequelae. The time required for hilar dissection, docking, and parenchymal transection gradually decreased after the first two cases of RH.

Conclusions: From our initial experience, RH might be considered as a feasible procedure in the liver resection, even in major hepatectomy. In addition, surgeons with sufficient experience in LH could rapidly adapt for RH. However, we have to make a system for education and monitoring of this innovative surgery for the patients' safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350693PMC
July 2021

Usefulness of artificial intelligence for predicting recurrence following surgery for pancreatic cancer: Retrospective cohort study.

Int J Surg 2021 Sep 10;93:106050. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Division of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Dong-A University Hospital, Pusan, South Korea.

Background: or Purpose: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of mortality in the world with the overall 5-year survival rate of 6%. The survival of patients with PDAC is closely related to recurrence and therefore it is necessary to identify the risk factors for recurrence. This study uses artificial intelligence approaches and multi-center registry data to analyze the recurrence of pancreatic cancer after surgery and its major determinants.

Methods: Data came from 4846 patients enrolled in a multi-center registry system, the Korea Tumor Registry System (KOTUS). The random forest and the Cox proportional-hazards model (the Cox model) were applied and compared for the prediction of disease-free survival. Variable importance, the contribution of a variable for the performance of the model, was used for identifying major predictors of disease-free survival after surgery. The C-Index was introduced as a criterion for validating the models trained.

Results: Based on variable importance from the random forest, major predictors of disease-free survival after surgery were tumor size (0.00310), tumor grade (0.00211), TNM stage (0.00211), T stage (0.00146) and lymphovascular invasion (0.00125). The coefficients of these variables were statistically significant in the Cox model (p < 0.05). The C-Index averages of the random forest and the Cox model were 0.6805 and 0.7738, respectively.

Conclusions: This is the first artificial-intelligence study with multi-center registry data to predict disease-free survival after the surgery of pancreatic cancer. The findings of this methodological study demonstrate that artificial intelligence can provide a valuable decision-support system for treating patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer. However, at present, further studies are needed to demonstrate the actual benefit of applying machine learning algorithms in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2021.106050DOI Listing
September 2021

The Impact of Neoadjuvant Treatment on Survival in Patients Undergoing Pancreatoduodenectomy With Concomitant Portomesenteric Venous Resection: An International Multicenter Analysis.

Ann Surg 2021 11;274(5):721-728

Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, CHLC, Lisbon, Portugal.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) critically influenced microscopically complete resection (R0) rates and long-term outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with portomesenteric vein resection (PVR) from a diverse, world-wide group of high-volume centers.

Summary Of Background Data: Limited size studies suggest that NAT improves R0 rates and overall survival compared to upfront surgery in R/BR-PDAC patients.

Methods: This multicenter study analyzed consecutive patients with R/BR-PDAC who underwent PD with PVR in 23 high-volume centers from 2009 to 2018.

Results: Data from 1192 patients with PD and PVR were collected and analyzed. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 60-73] years and 52% were males. Some 186 (15.6%) and 131 (10.9%) patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) alone and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, respectively. The R0/R1/R2 rates were 57%, 39.3%, and 3.2% in patients who received NAT compared to 46.6%, 49.9%, and 3.5% in patients who did not, respectively (P =0.004). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in patients receiving NAT was 79%, 41%, and 29%, while for those that did not it was 73%, 29%, and 18%, respectively (P <0.001). Multivariable analysis showed no administration of NAT, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, R1/R2 resection, no adjuvant chemotherapy, occurrence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher postoperative complications within 90 days, preoperative diabetes mellitus, male sex and portal vein involvement were negative independent predictive factors for OS.

Conclusion: Patients with PDAC of the pancreatic head expected to undergo venous reconstruction should routinely be considered for NAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005132DOI Listing
November 2021

Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma - Novel Benchmark Values for Surgical and Oncological Outcomes From 24 Expert Centers.

Ann Surg 2021 11;274(5):780-788

Multi-Organ Transplant and HPB Surgical Oncology, Division of General Surgery, University Health Network, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The aim of this study was to define robust benchmark values for the surgical treatment of perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHC) to enable unbiased comparisons.

Background: Despite ongoing efforts, postoperative mortality and morbidity remains high after complex liver surgery for PHC. Benchmark data of best achievable results in surgical PHC treatment are however still lacking.

Methods: This study analyzed consecutive patients undergoing major liver surgery for PHC in 24 high-volume centers in 3 continents over the recent 5-year period (2014-2018) with a minimum follow-up of 1 year in each patient. Benchmark patients were those operated at high-volume centers (≥50 cases during the study period) without the need for vascular reconstruction due to tumor invasion, or the presence of significant co-morbidities such as severe obesity (body mass index ≥35), diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases. Benchmark cutoff values were derived from the 75th or 25th percentile of the median values of all benchmark centers.

Results: Seven hundred eight (39%) of a total of 1829 consecutive patients qualified as benchmark cases. Benchmark cut-offs included: R0 resection ≥57%, postoperative liver failure (International Study Group of Liver Surgery): ≤35%; in-hospital and 3-month mortality rates ≤8% and ≤13%, respectively; 3-month grade 3 complications and the CCI: ≤70% and ≤30.5, respectively; bile leak-rate: ≤47% and 5-year overall survival of ≥39.7%. Centers operating mostly on complex cases disclosed better outcome including lower post-operative liver failure rates (4% vs 13%; P = 0.002). Centers from Asia disclosed better outcomes.

Conclusion: Surgery for PHC remains associated with high morbidity and mortality with now the availability of benchmark values covering 21 outcome parameters, which may serve as key references for comparison in any future analyses of individuals, group of patients or centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005103DOI Listing
November 2021

Author Correction: Laparoscopic isolated caudate lobe resection.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 14;11(1):14783. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gumi-ro, 173, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13620, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94379-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280197PMC
July 2021

Management of indeterminate hepatic nodules and evaluation of factors predicting their malignant potential in patients with colorectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 07 2;11(1):13744. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gumi-ro 173, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13620, Republic of Korea.

Some liver nodules remain indeterminate despite hepatocyte-specific contrast MRI in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). Our objective was to study the natural course and evaluate possible treatment strategies for indeterminate nodules. We retrospectively evaluated patients in whom MRI revealed 'indeterminate' or 'equivocal' nodules between January 2008 and October 2018. Patients were followed up until October 2019 or until death (median, 18 months; (1-130 months)). The incidence of patients with indeterminate nodules on MRI was 15.4% (60 of 389). The sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative ultrasound for detecting indeterminate nodules were 73.68% and 93.75%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 96.6%. Over half of the patients followed up had benign nodules (58.8%). By comparing characteristics of patients with benign or malignant nodules in the follow up group, the ratio of positive lymph nodes to total number of lymph nodes resected (pLNR) was significantly greater in patients with malignant nodules (P = 0.006). Intraoperative ultrasound could be considered as an adjunct to MRI in patients with indeterminate nodules owing to its high positive predictive value. The pLNR could be used to help select which patients can undergo conservative therapy, at least in metachronous CRLM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93339-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253834PMC
July 2021

Multicenter Propensity Score-Based Study of Laparoscopic Repeat Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Subgroup Analysis of Cases with Tumors Far from Major Vessels.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Hepato-Biliary Surgery and Transplantation, Hepatobiliary Centre, Paul Brousse Hospital, Villejuif 94800, France.

Less morbidity is considered among the advantages of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for HCC patients. However, our previous international, multi-institutional, propensity score-based study of emerging laparoscopic repeat liver resection (LRLR) failed to prove this advantage. We hypothesize that these results may be since the study included complex LRLR cases performed during the procedure's developing stage. To examine it, subgroup analysis based on propensity score were performed, defining the proximity of the tumors to major vessels as the indicator of complex cases. Among 1582 LRLR cases from 42 international high-volume liver surgery centers, 620 cases without the proximity to major vessels (more than 1 cm far from both first-second branches of Glissonian pedicles and major hepatic veins) were selected for this subgroup analysis. A propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed based on their patient characteristics, preoperative liver function, tumor characteristics and surgical procedures. One hundred and fifteen of each patient groups of LRLR and open repeat liver resection (ORLR) were earned, and the outcomes were compared. Backgrounds were well-balanced between LRLR and ORLR groups after matching. With comparable operation time and long-term outcome, less blood loss (283.3±823.0 vs. 603.5±664.9 mL, = 0.001) and less morbidity (8.7 vs. 18.3 %, = 0.034) were shown in LRLR group than ORLR. Even in its worldwide developing stage, LRLR for HCC patients could be beneficial in blood loss and morbidity for the patients with less complexity in surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268302PMC
June 2021

Solo single incision laparoscopic S8 non-anatomical resection and left lateral sectionectomy.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.995DOI Listing
May 2021

Minimally Invasive Versus Open Pancreatectomy for Right-Sided and Left-Sided G1/G2 Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Multicenter Matched Analysis with an Inverse Probability of Treatment-Weighting Method.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Nov 9;28(12):7742-7758. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: Limited evidence exists for the safety and oncologic efficacy of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PNETs) according to tumor location. This study aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of MIS and open surgery (OS) for right- or left-sided NF-PNETs.

Methods: The study collected data on patients who underwent surgical resection (pancreatoduodenectomy, distal/total/central pancreatectomy, duodenum-preserving pancreas head resection, or enucleation) of a localized NF-PNET between January 2000 and July 2017 at 14 institutions. The inverse probability of treatment-weighting method with propensity scores was used for analysis.

Results: The study enrolled 859 patients: 478 OS and 381 MIS patients. A matched analysis by tumor location showed no differences in resection margin, intraoperative blood loss, or complications between MIS and OS. However, MIS was associated with a longer operation time for right-sided tumors (393.3 vs 316.7 min; P < 0.001) and a shorter postoperative hospital stay for left-sided tumors (8.9 vs 12.9 days; P < 0.01). The MIS group was associated with significantly higher survival rates than the OS group for right- and left-sided tumors, but survival did not differ for the patients divided by tumor grade and location. Multivariable analysis showed that MIS did not affect survival for any tumor location.

Conclusion: The short-term outcomes offered by MIS were comparable with those of OS except for a longer operation time for right-sided NF-PNETs. The oncologic outcomes were not compromised by MIS regardless of tumor location or grade. These findings suggest that MIS can be performed safely for selected patients with localized NF-PNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10092-0DOI Listing
November 2021

Development and External Validation of Survival Prediction Model for Pancreatic Cancer Using Two Nationwide Databases: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and Korea Tumor Registry System-Biliary Pancreas (KOTUS-BP).

Gut Liver 2021 11;15(6):912-921

Department of Statistics and Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Several prediction models for evaluating the prognosis of nonmetastatic resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been developed, and their performances were reported to be superior to that of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. We developed a prediction model to evaluate the prognosis of resected PDAC and externally validated it with data from a nationwide Korean database.

Methods: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were utilized for model development, and data from the Korea Tumor Registry System-Biliary Pancreas (KOTUS-BP) database were used for external validation. Potential candidate variables for model development were age, sex, histologic differentiation, tumor location, adjuvant chemotherapy, and the AJCC 8th staging system T and N stages. For external validation, the concordance index (C-index) and time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were evaluated.

Results: Between 2004 and 2016, data from 9,624 patients were utilized for model development, and data from 3,282 patients were used for external validation. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, age, sex, tumor location, T and N stages, histologic differentiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for resected PDAC. After an exhaustive search and 10-fold cross validation, the best model was finally developed, which included all prognostic variables. The C-index, 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 5-year time-dependent AUCs were 0.628, 0.650, 0.665, 0.675, and 0.686, respectively.

Conclusions: The survival prediction model for resected PDAC could provide quantitative survival probabilities with reliable performance. External validation studies with other nationwide databases are needed to evaluate the performance of this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl20306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8593502PMC
November 2021

Four-Tier Pathologic Tumor Regression Grading System Predicts the Clinical Outcome in Patients Who Undergo Surgical Resection for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Gut Liver 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Background/aims: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly utilized in patients with borderline or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, the pathologic evaluation of tumor regression is not routinely performed or well established. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of three tumor regression grading systems frequently used in LAPC and to determine the correlation between pathologic and clinical response.

Methods: We included a total of 38 patients with LAPC who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent resection. Pathologic tumor regression was graded based on the College of American Pathologists (CAP), Evans, and MD Anderson grading systems.

Results: One out of 38 patients (2.6%) achieved a pathologic complete response. Unlike other grading systems (Evans, p=0.063; MD Anderson, p=0.110), the CAP grading system was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.043). Pathologic N stage (p=0.023), margin status (p=0.044), and radiologic response (p=0.016) correlated with overall survival. In the multivariate analysis, CAP 3 was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (p=0.026). The CAP grading system correlated with the radiologic response (p=0.007) but not the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level (p=0.333).

Conclusions: The four-tier CAP pathologic tumor regression grading system predicted the clinical outcome in LAPC patients who underwent resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, a more comprehensive pathologic evaluation is warranted in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl20312DOI Listing
April 2021

Development, validation, and comparison of a nomogram based on radiologic findings for predicting malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: An international multicenter study.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Although we previously proposed a nomogram to predict malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and validated it in an external cohort, its application is challenging without data on tumor markers. Moreover, existing nomograms have not been compared. This study aimed to develop a nomogram based on radiologic findings and to compare its performance with previously proposed American and Korean/Japanese nomograms.

Methods: We recruited 3708 patients who underwent surgical resection at 31 tertiary institutions in eight countries, and patients with main pancreatic duct >10 mm were excluded. To construct the nomogram, 2606 patients were randomly allocated 1:1 into training and internal validation sets, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated using 10-fold cross validation by exhaustive search. This nomogram was then validated and compared to the American and Korean/Japanese nomograms using 1102 patients.

Results: Among the 2606 patients, 90 had main-duct type, 900 had branch-duct type, and 1616 had mixed-type IPMN. Pathologic results revealed 1628 low-grade dysplasia, 476 high-grade dysplasia, and 502 invasive carcinoma. Location, cyst size, duct dilatation, and mural nodule were selected to construct the nomogram. AUC of this nomogram was higher than the American nomogram (0.691 vs 0.664, P = .014) and comparable with the Korean/Japanese nomogram (0.659 vs 0.653, P = .255).

Conclusions: A novel nomogram based on radiologic findings of IPMN is competitive for predicting risk of malignancy. This nomogram would be clinically helpful in circumstances where tumor markers are not available. The nomogram is freely available at http://statgen.snu.ac.kr/software/nomogramIPMN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.962DOI Listing
April 2021

Tailored adjuvant gemcitabine versus 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid based on hENT1 immunohistochemical staining in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A biomarker stratified prospective trial.

Pancreatology 2021 Jun 4;21(4):796-804. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of tailored adjuvant chemotherapy according to human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) expression in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA).

Methods: Patients who underwent pancreatectomy for PDA were enrolled prospectively. According to intra-tumoral hENT1 expression, the high hENT1 (≥50%) group received gemcitabine and the low hENT1 (<50%) group received 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid (5-FU/FA). The propensity score-matched control consisted of patients who received hENT1-independent adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary outcome was recurrence free survival (RFS) and the secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and toxicities.

Results: Between May 2015 and June 2017, we enrolled 44 patients with resected PDA. During a median follow-up period of 28.5 months, the intention-to-treat population showed much longer median RFS [22.9 (95% CI, 11.3-34.5) vs. 10.9 (95% CI, 6.9-14.9) months, P = 0.043] and median OS [36.2 (95% CI, 26.5-45.9) vs. 22.1 (95% CI, 17.7-26.6) months, P = 0.001] compared to the controls. Among 5 patients in the low hENT1 group who discontinued treatment, 2 patients receiving 5-FU/FA discontinued treatment due to drug toxicities (febrile neutropenia and toxic epidermal necrolysis).

Conclusion: Tailored adjuvant chemotherapy based on hENT1 staining provides excellent clinical outcomes among patients with resected PDA.

Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02486497.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.02.022DOI Listing
June 2021

International Delphi Expert Consensus on Safe Return to Surgical and Endoscopic Practice: From the Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative.

Ann Surg 2021 07;274(1):50-56

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Departments of Surgery and Medical Education, Springfield, Illinois.

Objective: The aim of this work is to formulate recommendations based on global expert consensus to guide the surgical community on the safe resumption of surgical and endoscopic activities.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused marked disruptions in the delivery of surgical care worldwide. A thoughtful, structured approach to resuming surgical services is necessary as the impact of COVID-19 becomes better controlled. The Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative sought to formulate, through rigorous scientific methodology, consensus-based recommendations in collaboration with a multidisciplinary group of international experts and policymakers.

Methods: Recommendations were developed following a Delphi process. Domain topics were formulated and subsequently subdivided into questions pertinent to different aspects of surgical care in the COVID-19 crisis. Forty-four experts from 15 countries across 4 continents drafted statements based on the specific questions. Anonymous Delphi voting on the statements was performed in 2 rounds, as well as in a telepresence meeting.

Results: One hundred statements were formulated across 10 domains. The statements addressed terminology, impact on procedural services, patient/staff safety, managing a backlog of surgeries, methods to restart and sustain surgical services, education, and research. Eighty-three of the statements were approved during the first round of Delphi voting, and 11 during the second round. A final telepresence meeting and discussion yielded acceptance of 5 other statements.

Conclusions: The Delphi process resulted in 99 recommendations. These consensus statements provide expert guidance, based on scientific methodology, for the safe resumption of surgical activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189258PMC
July 2021

Laparoscopic isolated caudate lobe resection.

Sci Rep 2021 02 22;11(1):4328. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gumi-ro, 173, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13620, Republic of Korea.

Previously, isolated caudate lobectomy was rarely performed and the caudate lobe was usually resected along with other segments. Isolated caudate lobe resection is a challenging procedure even for an experienced surgeon. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and outcomes of laparoscopic isolated caudate lobectomy and to compare these with the open technique. We retrospectively analyzed 21 patients who underwent isolated caudate lobectomy between January 2005 and December 2018 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Patients who underwent either anatomical or non-anatomical resection of the caudate lobe were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they underwent laparoscopic or open surgery. Intra-operative and postoperative outcomes were compared with a median follow-up of 43 months (4-149). A total of 21 patients were included in the study. Of these, 12 (57.14%) underwent laparoscopic and nine (42.85%) underwent open caudate lobectomy. Median operation time (204.5 vs. 200 minutes, p = 0.397), estimated blood loss (250 vs. 400 ml, p = 0.214) and hospital stay (4 vs. 7 days, p = 0.298) were comparable between laparoscopy and open group. The overall post operative complication rate was similar in both groups (p = 0.375). The 5-year disease free survival rate (42.9% vs 60.0%, p = 0.700) and the 5-year overall survival rate (76.2% vs 64.8%, p = 0.145) was similar between laparoscopy and open group. Our findings demonstrate that with increasing surgical expertise and technological advances, laparoscopic isolated caudate lobectomy can become a feasible and safe in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82262-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900101PMC
February 2021

Effect of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program on hospital stay and 90-day readmission after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single, tertiary center experience in Korea.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2021 Feb 1;100(2):76-85. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: Despite increasing number of reports on Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program (ERAS) and readmission after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) from Western countries, there are very few reports on this topic from Asian countries. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ERAS on hospital stay and readmission and to identify reasons and risk factors for readmission after PD.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 670 patients who underwent open PD from January 2003 to December 2017. The patients were classified into ERAS (n = 352) and non-ERAS (n = 318) groups. Patients' characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and readmission rates were compared.

Results: There were no significant differences in the postoperative complication rates between the groups. The mean postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the ERAS group (24.5 18.0 days, P < 0.001), but the 90-day readmission rate was similar in the 2 groups (9.1% 8.5%, P = 0.785). Complications associated with pancreatic fistula (42.4%) were the most common cause for readmission. In the multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.24; P = 0.034), preoperative non-jaundice (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009) and severe postoperative complications (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.34-7.26; P < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for readmission.

Conclusion: The results confirmed that the ERAS program for PD was beneficial in reducing postoperative stay without increasing readmission risks. To decrease readmission rates, prudent discharge planning and medical support should be considered in patients who experience severe complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2021.100.2.76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870429PMC
February 2021
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