Publications by authors named "Hlamatsi Moutlana"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ultrasound Hepatic Vein Ratios Are Associated With the Development of Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anaesthesiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objective: The authors investigated the use of hepatic venous and right-heart ultrasound parameters in predicting cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (AKI).

Design: This was a prospective, contextual, descriptive two-center study. Blood tests,clinical and ultrasound data were obtained preoperatively, and postoperative day one, and day four. The hepatic vein, inferior vena cava, and right-heart Doppler ultrasound parameters were obtained and analyzed.

Setting: The sites of the study were Johannesburg, South Africa, and Aarhus, Denmark.

Participants: Adult patients who satisfied inclusion criteria, between August 2019 and January 2020, were included, with a total of 152 participants.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 68 (55-73) years, predominantly male, and the majority were hypertensive. Of 152 patients analyzed, 54 (35%) patients developed AKI. Among these, 37 (69%) were classified as Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage I, 11 (20%) as stage II, while six (11%) were stage III. Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.10 p = 0.031), The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.80, p = 0.005], and preoperative serum creatinine (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p = 0.013) were predictive of AKI. Those who developed AKI had experienced longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times (p < 0.001). Preoperatively, hepatic vein S-wave measurements were significantly higher in patients with AKI (p < 0.05). On postoperative day one (D1), the hepatic vein flow ratios of patients with AKI were significantly decreased, driven by low S waves and high D waves, and accompanied by significantly elevated central venous pressure (CVP) levels. CVP levels on D1 postoperatively were predictive of AKI (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55, p = 0.001). Measurements of right ventricular (RV) base, tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE), and inferior vena cava were not associated with the development of AKI (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: There was an association between the development of AKI and a decrease in hepatic flow ratios on D1, driven by low S-wave and high D-wave velocities. The presence of venous congestion was reflected by significantly elevated CVP values, which were independently associated with AKI on D1. RV base and TAPSE measurements were, however, not associated with AKI. These parameters may reflect perioperative circumstances, including prolonged CPB times and potential fluid management, which can be modified in this period.
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July 2021

Dengue and the heart.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jul 20;32:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Anaesthesiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Email:

Background: Peri-operative morbidity and mortality are increased in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Pre-operative risk stratification is imperative for optimisation and a better outcome.

Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective, contextual study. A consecutive convenience sampling method was used. Eighty-nine patients who underwent mitral valve surgery at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital between January 2014 and December 2015 were enrolled. The objectives of the study were to describe the demographic profile of the patients presenting for rheumatic mitral valve surgery, describe their peri-operative cardiovascular and echocardiographic parameters, and risk stratify according to their clinical and echocardiographic parameters. Demographic, echocardiographic and laboratory data as well as the cardiovascular examination were analysed. Descriptive statistics using proportions (percentages), means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile ranges) were used where appropriate.

Results: A total of 102 patients were reviewed. Thirteen were excluded due to significant missing data. Of the 89 analysed, all had demographic data, 81 had cardiovascular clinical examination data, 82 had echocardiographic data and 52 had laboratory data. Forty-seven patients presented with mitral regurgitation (MR) and 35 had mitral stenosis (MS). Data included two mixed mitral valve disease patients with predominant regurgitation who were classified under the MR group. In total, 45% (39 patients) had arrhythmias and 49% (42 patients) had congestive cardiac failure at presentation for surgery. The overall mean (SD) pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 57 (20) mmHg and mean (SD) left atrial size was 53 (11) mm. Those with MS presented with mean (SD) mitral valve area of 0.9 (0.2) cm. Of the analysed MR patients, 51% presented with left ventricular ejection fraction < 60% and 55% with left ventricular end-systolic diameter > 40 mm. Among the analysed MS patients, 59% had mitral valve area < 1 cm. A substantial number (49% MR and 54% MS) of collected records were not eligible for analysis and stratification using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (ACC/AHA) guidelines for valvular heart disease due to missing vital information. Of the 24 MR patients analysed utilising the 2014/2017 AHA/ACC guidelines, 13 had asymptomatic severe MR (stage C) and 11 had symptomatic severe MR (stage D). One patient had progressive MS (stage B), eight had asymptomatic severe MS (stage C) and seven had symptomatic severe MS (stage D).

Conclusions: The majority of those who could be stratified presented in stages C and D of disease progression; however, they also presented with concomitant clinical and echocardiographic features that placed them at high risk of perioperative morbidity.
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July 2021

Factors associated with acute kidney injury and mortality during cardiac surgery.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Feb 3;32:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Anaesthesiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to contribute towards the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and peri-operative morbidity and mortality. There are several patient, anaesthetic and surgical factors that contribute to its occurrence. It is imperative to know the profile of a patient who is likely to develop this complication to mitigate for modifiable risks. This study aimed at describing a profile of AKI in an adult patient (over the age of 18 years) following cardiac surgery on CPB. Factors associated with the development of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) are described, as well as the relationship between CSA-AKI and in-hospital mortality.

Methods: This was a contextual, descriptive and retrospective single-centre study with data of 476 adult patients admitted post cardiac surgery between January 2016 and December 2017. Data were collected from Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH) in South Africa. All adult patients who presented for elective cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass graft), valvular, aortic and other cardiac surgery on CPB were included. Peri-operative factors such as patient demographics, baseline renal function, co-morbid factors, length of CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, degree of hypothermia, use of assist devices, and post-operative serum creatinine (SCr) levels were collected. Incomplete essential peri-operative data and data for patients who presented on renal replacement therapy (RRT) already were excluded. AKI was defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria.

Results: One hundred and thirty-five (28%) patients developed CSA-AKI and 20, 5 and 3% were in KDIGO 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Older age ( = 0.024), female gender ( = 0.015), higher serum creatinine level ( = 0.025), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ( = 0.025) were associated with the development of CSA-AKI, while a history of hypertension was predictive. Forty-six of the 476 patients died. Mortality rates were significantly higher in those with AKI compared to those without [28 (21%) vs 18 (5%), respectively ( = 0.001)]. The incidence was significantly worse in those with severe kidney injury, as evidenced by mortality rates of 44 versus 5% between KDIGO 3 and KDIGO 1 ( < 0.001). Pre-operative eGFR and CSA-AKI requiring RRT were significantly associated with mortality, while pre-operative eGFR was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-0.99, = 0.019).

Conclusions: A history of hypertension was predictive of the development of CSA-AKI, and pre-operative eGFR was an independent predictor of mortality in this cohort. Both factors are modifiable.
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February 2021