Publications by authors named "Hitoshi Itoh"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Accuracy of imprint cytology and frozen section histology for intraoperative diagnosis of ovarian epithelial tumors: A comparative study and proposed algorithm.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Jun 23;49(6):682-690. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Appropriate surgical treatment of epithelial ovarian tumors is reliant on intraoperative diagnosis. A retrospective study to compare the diagnostic accuracies of imprint cytology (IC) with frozen section histology (FSH) in these tumors was performed.

Methods: About 78 cases of IC-based and FSH-based diagnoses against the final histopathologic diagnoses in terms of both histologic subtype (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, or clear cell tumor) and behavioral type (benign, borderline, or malignant) were compared. The cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells (nuclear atypia, papillary clusters, adenoma cells, and necrosis) in relation to behavioral types were also evaluated.

Results: While the diagnostic accuracy of IC and FSH were similar with respect to behavioral type (87% and 88%, respectively), the diagnostic accuracy of IC was superior to that of FSH with respect to histologic subtype (83% and 74%, respectively). Among histopathologically confirmed malignant tumors, the diagnostic accuracy of IC (62/64; 97%) was superior to that of FSH (58/64; 91%). The presence of necrosis and absence of adenoma cells were significantly more prevalent among malignant group than among borderline and benign groups (P < .01, for both).

Conclusion: Since the presence of necrosis and absence of adenoma cells around the carcinoma cells appear useful in distinguishing malignant and borderline tumors, it was proposed to include IC for further intraoperative assessment of any tumors initially diagnosed as a borderline tumor by FSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24722DOI Listing
June 2021

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Difficulty Identifying the Original Site in the Uterus.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2020 Dec 20;45(4):156-161. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, 1838 Ishikawa-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0032, Japan.

Diagnosis of malignant uterine tumor with continuous lesions from the uterine body to the cervix, i.e., endometrial or cervical cancer, depends on the main site of the lesions. However, it may be difficult to differentiate advanced cancer that is widespread in the uterus. We experienced a patient who was diagnosed with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) based on histopathological characteristics of SCNEC in the endometrium. This tumor frequently coexists with endometrioid carcinoma, but we had difficulty finding the original site of SCNEC in the endometrium. The patient was a 59-year-old, two-parous woman who underwent hysterectomy after diagnosis of malignant uterine tumor. Preoperative cervical and endometrial histology permitted diagnosis of SCNEC. Imaging showed that most of the anterior uterine wall from the uterine body to cervix was replaced by tumors. Histopathologic findings for the resected uterus showed that most of these tumors were SCNEC, but components of endometrioid carcinoma had developed from the endometrium just beneath the fundus to the lower uterine body. The growth pattern of endometrioid carcinoma was endophytic. Based on this finding, the patient was diagnosed with endometrial SCNEC associated with endometrioid carcinoma. The patient initially responded well after postoperative chemotherapy, but early recurrence led to death at three months after the first treatment. This case shows that SCNEC in the uterine body is likely to coexist with endometrioid carcinoma. These findings are useful to determine the original site in postoperative pathological diagnosis of highly advanced tumors. SCNEC is a rapidly progressive and aggressive tumor in clinical practice, but some cases have a relatively good initial response to chemotherapy and it is important to start treatment early.
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December 2020

Cancer-associated fibroblasts are a useful cytological finding for diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Cytopathology 2020 07;31(4):310-314

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Introduction: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblasts or myofibroblasts that play a crucial role in the invasiveness of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In this study, the cytological features and diagnostic significance of CAFs based on pancreatic duct brushing cytology (PDBC) were evaluated.

Methods: The prevalence of fibrous stroma (FS) including CAFs on PDBC in 42 PDAC cases and 33 benign cases was retrospectively investigated. The average nuclear size of fibroblasts was compared between PDAC and benign cases to distinguish CAFs from normal FS.

Results: Overall, FS was observed in 25 PDAC cases (60%) and eight benign cases (24%). The average nuclear size of FS in PDAC cases was significantly larger than that in benign cases. From the receiver operating characteristics analysis, the cut-off value of the nuclear size of FS for the diagnosis of PDAC was defined as 10.22 µm. FS with nuclei over 10.22 µm in size in PDAC cases had clear prominent nucleoli. In contrast, FS in benign cases had no clear nucleoli. Thus, CAFs on PDBC were considered to be FS with nuclei over 10.22 µm in size and prominent nucleoli. The presence of CAFs on PDBC had 100% positive predictive value and specificity for the diagnosis of PDAC.

Conclusions: This study suggested that CAFs on PDBC could be distinguished from normal FS by large nuclear size (over 10.22 µm) and prominent nucleoli and that CAFs on PDBC may be used for the diagnosis of PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12868DOI Listing
July 2020

Intraoperative squash cytology provides a qualitative intraoperative diagnosis for cases in which frozen section yields a diagnosis of equivocal brain tumour.

Cytopathology 2020 03 10;31(2):106-114. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Objective: We assessed whether intraoperative squash cytology could provide surgeons with a qualitative diagnosis of brain lesions when frozen section diagnosis is equivocal.

Methods: The study included 51 lesions that were diagnosed intraoperatively as equivocal brain tumour on the basis of frozen section. We retrospectively classified the lesions into five groups according to the final histopathological diagnoses (I: malignant lymphomas; II: diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglia tumours; III: pituitary adenomas, IV: metastatic carcinomas; V: others). We assessed the squash cytology features of Groups I-IV and of the specific lesion types, and compared features among the groups.

Results: The four groups differed in a range of salient cytomorphological features: lymphoglandular bodies in Group I (eight of nine cases), cytoplasmic fibrillary processes in Group II (six of eight cases), low-grade nuclear atypia in Group III (seven of seven cases), and large nuclei (approximately 80 μm ) and nuclear crush artefacts in Group IV (seven of nine cases).

Conclusion: Findings of lymphoglandular bodies on intraoperative squash cytology can be considered characteristic of malignant lymphomas, while cytoplasmic fibrillary processes indicate diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumours. We conclude that squash cytology could yield a qualitative intraoperative diagnosis in over 25% of cases for which frozen section yields a diagnosis of equivocal brain tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12798DOI Listing
March 2020

Analysis of key clinical features for achieving complete remission in stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Respir Res 2019 Nov 21;20(1):263. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Respiratory Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.

Background: Although development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and various molecular target agents has extended overall survival time (OS) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a complete cure remains rare. We aimed to identify features and treatment modalities of complete remission (CR) cases in stages III and IV NSCLC by analyzing long-term survivors whose OS exceeded 3 years.

Methods: From our hospital database, 1,699 patients, registered as lung cancer between 1 Mar 2004 and 30 Apr 2011, were retrospectively examined. Stage III or IV histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC patients with chemotherapy initiated during this period were enrolled. A Cox proportion hazards regression model was used. Data collection was closed on 13 Feb 2017.

Results: There were 164 stage III and 279 stage IV patients, including 37 (22.6%) and 51 (18.3%) long-term survivors and 12 (7.3%) and 5 (1.8%) CR patients, respectively. The long-term survivors were divided into three groups: 3 ≤ OS < 5 years, 5 years ≤ OS with tumor, and 5 years ≤ OS without tumor (CR). The median OS of these groups were 1,405, 2,238, and 2,876 days in stage III and 1,368, 2,503, and 2,643 days in stage IV, respectively. The mean chemotherapy cycle numbers were 16, 20, and 10 in stage III and 24, 25, and 5 in stage IV, respectively. In the stage III CR group, all patients received chemoradiation, all oligometastases were controlled by radiation, and none had brain metastases. Compared with non-CR patients, the stage IV CR patients had smaller primary tumors and fewer metastases, which were independent prognostic factors for OS among long-term survivors. The 80% stage IV CR patients received radiation or surgery for controlling primary tumors, and the surgery rate for oligometastases was high. Pathological findings in the stage IV CR patients revealed that numerous inflammatory cells existed around and inside resected lung and brain tumors, indicating strong immune response.

Conclusions: Multiple line chemotherapies with primary and oligometastatic controls by surgery and/or radiation might achieve cure in certain advanced NSCLC. Cure strategies must be changed according to stage III or IV. This study was retrospectively registered on 16 Jun 2019 in UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number UMIN000037078).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1235-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873580PMC
November 2019

MicroRNA-204-5p: A novel candidate urinary biomarker of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer Sci 2019 Jun 24;110(6):1897-1908. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11 tRCC) is a rare sporadic pediatric kidney cancer caused by constitutively active TFE3 fusion proteins. Tumors in patients with Xp11 tRCC tend to recur and undergo frequent metastasis, in part due to lack of methods available to detect early-stage disease. Here we generated transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the human PRCC-TFE3 fusion gene in renal tubular epithelial cells, as an Xp11 tRCC mouse model. At 20 weeks of age, mice showed no histological abnormalities in kidney but by 40 weeks showed Xp11 tRCC development and related morphological and histological changes. MicroRNA (miR)-204-5p levels in urinary exosomes of 40-week-old Tg mice showing tRCC were significantly elevated compared with levels in control mice. MicroRNA-204-5p expression also significantly increased in primary renal cell carcinoma cell lines established both from Tg mouse tumors and from tumor tissue from 2 Xp11 tRCC patients. All of these lines secreted miR-204-5p-containing exosomes. Notably, we also observed increased miR-204-5p levels in urinary exosomes in 20-week-old renal PRCC-TFE3 Tg mice prior to tRCC development, and those levels were equivalent to those in 40-week-old Tg mice, suggesting that miR-204-5p increases follow expression of constitutively active TFE3 fusion proteins in renal tubular epithelial cells prior to overt tRCC development. Finally, we confirmed that miR-204-5p expression significantly increases in noncancerous human kidney cells after overexpression of a PRCC-TFE3 fusion gene. These findings suggest that miR-204-5p in urinary exosomes could be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of patients with Xp11 tRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549932PMC
June 2019

Vessel Morphologies of the Brain in Cytological Squash Preparations Are Useful for Intraoperative Diagnosis of High-Grade Astrocytomas.

Acta Cytol 2018 5;62(3):223-230. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether intraoperative cytological evaluation of squash preparations is of benefit for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas.

Methods: Squash preparations of 42 astrocytomas were classified histologically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 classification system as grade II (n = 12), grade III (n = 11), and grade IV (n = 19) and were divided into 2 groups, namely a low-grade group (grade II) and a high-grade group (grades III and IV). The focus was on morphological cell and vessel characteristics, namely nuclear atypia, chromatin pattern, nuclear enlargement, variation in nuclear size, the presence of nucleoli, mitosis, tumor necrosis, cell density, multibranched vessels, and vascular dilatation, and these characteristics were compared between the low- and high-grade groups.

Results: Nuclear atypia, the presence of coarse chromatin, variations in nuclear size, and cell density ≥200 per high-power field were significantly more prevalent in high- than in low-grade astrocytomas (p = 0.0407, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Vessels with > 3 branches and a mean vessel diameter ≥20 μm were more prevalent in high- than in low-grade astrocytomas (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Squash preparation cytology provides added benefit for the intraoperative identification of high-grade astrocytoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000487701DOI Listing
June 2018

TET2-dependent IL-6 induction mediated by the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor metastasis in osteosarcoma.

Oncogene 2018 05 8;37(22):2903-2920. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan.

The tumor microenvironment promotes epigenetic changes in tumor cells associated with tumor aggressiveness. Here we report that in primary tumor cells, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression brought on by DNA demethylation of its promoter by ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) promotes lung metastasis in osteosarcoma (OS). Xenograft experiments show increased IL-6 expression and decreased methylation of its promoter in OS cells after implantation relative to before implantation. In addition, changes in IL-6 methylation and expression seen in OS cells at the primary site were maintained at the metastatic site. TET2 knockdown in OS cells suppressed upregulation of IL-6 and demethylation of its promoter in xenograft tumors and decreased tumor metastasis. We also present evidence showing that tumor cell-derived IL-6 facilitates glycolytic metabolism in tumor cells by activating the MEK/ERK1/2/hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway and increases lung colonization by OS cells by upregulating expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), enhancing tumor metastasis. Blocking IL-6 signaling with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor reduced lung metastasis and prolonged survival of xenografted mice. These findings suggest that TET2-dependent IL-6 induction enables acquisition of aggressive phenotypes in OS cells via the tumor microenvironment and that blocking IL-6 signaling could be serve as a potential therapy to antagonize metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-018-0160-0DOI Listing
May 2018

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation: the Fushimi AF Registry.

Heart Vessels 2016 Dec 14;31(12):2025-2034. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Department of Cardiology, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1, Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, 612-8555, Japan.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in dialysis patients. However, clinical characteristics and outcomes of dialysis patients with AF are poorly understood. The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of AF patients in Japan. Follow-up data were available for 3713 patients with a median follow-up of 2.8 years. We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes between the dialysis group (n = 92; 2.5 %) and others. The dialysis group had more various co-morbidities, with a mean CHADS score of 2.5, and the rate of warfarin prescription was 38 %. The annual incidence rates of stroke or systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding, and all-cause death in the dialysis group were 4.0, 5.1, and 20.9 per 100 person-years, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of stroke/SE between the dialysis group and the non-dialysis group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.74 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.74-3.42)]. The incidence rates of major bleeding, all-cause death, and the composite of stroke/SE and all-cause death in the dialysis group were higher than those in the non-dialysis group [major bleeding: HR 3.09 (95 % CI 1.46-5.72), all-cause death: HR 3.51 (95 % CI 2.48-4.81), the composite of stroke/SE and all-cause death: HR 2.99 (95 % CI 2.15-4.05)]. Among dialysis patients, warfarin did not affect major clinical events including stroke/SE, bleeding or all-cause death. Among AF patients, those receiving dialysis showed higher incidence of major bleeding and all-cause death compared with non-dialysis patients, but the risk of stroke/SE was not particularly high.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-016-0818-xDOI Listing
December 2016

Diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the breast in Japan: report from the Working Group on the Accuracy of Breast Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology.

Oncol Rep 2012 Nov 3;28(5):1606-12. Epub 2012 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine/Kurume University Medical Center, Kurume, Japan.

The Working Group of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology was assembled to assess the current status of breast cytology in Japan by conducting a large-scale survey regarding the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in Japan. We collected data and investigated the status of breast cytological diagnosis at 12 different cooperating facilities in Japan, and re-evaluated their false-negative and false-positive cases. Among 30,535 individuals who underwent a breast cytological examination, analyses were conducted on 10,890 individuals (35.7%) in whom cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology. Among these patients, the cytological diagnosis had an inadequate rate of 17.7%, an indeterminate rate of 7.8%, a positive predictive value of 'malignancy suspected' cells of 92.4%, an absolute sensitivity of 76.7%, a complete sensitivity of 96.7%, a specificity of 84.3%, a positive predictive value of 'malignant' cells of 99.5%, a false-negative value of 3.31%, a false-positive value of 0.25% and an accuracy rate of 88.0%. Subsequently, 297 false-negative and 23 false-positive cases were re-evaluated and several factors were characterized (i.e. histological type, tumor size and misread points). This survey collected data from a large number of cases for breast FNAB. Based on our survey, the accuracy of FNAB in Japan was relatively high compared with the goal of assessment of diagnostic accuracy. However, there were some false-negative and false-positive cases. Improvements in accuracy resulting from the learning points in the present study will lead to more useful and reliable diagnostic tools in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2012.2014DOI Listing
November 2012

Fine needle aspiration cytology of ductal adenoma of the breast with intracellular mucin: a report of three cases.

Acta Cytol 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):753-8

Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Tokai University Hospital, Shimokasuya 143, Isehara City, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

Background: Ductal adenoma of the breast is a benign lesion that can mimic both the clinical and cytopathologic features of carcinoma. Benign breast lesions with intracellular mucin are extremely rare, and ductal adenoma with intracellular mucin has not previously been reported. Here we present three cases of ductal adenoma of the breast with foci of intracellular mucin.

Cases: Three patients were admitted to Tokai University School of Medicine Hospital and underwent fine needle aspiration cytology and histologic examination by excisional biopsy or partial resection. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using a 23-gauge needle, and smears were immediately fixed in ethanol and stained as Papanicolaou preparations. Epithelial cells formed cohesive clusters, consisting of biphasic luminal and myoepithelial cells accompanied by apocrine metaplasia with occasional high nuclear atypia. All three cases showed intracellular mucin, in varying amounts, which led to their being overdiagnosed as malignant lesions.

Conclusion: To avoid overdiagnosis of ductal adenomas as malignant lesions, it is important to recognize that both intracytoplasmic mucin and atypical apocrine features can be usual cytologic findings of this disease.
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December 2010

Evaluation of HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast cancer using a dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (dual CISH).

Pathol Int 2010 Jul;60(7):510-5

Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Tokai University Hospital, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay is considered the 'gold standard' for evaluation of HER2/neu (HER2) gene status, however, it is difficult to recognize morphologic features of tumors using fluorescence microscopy. Thus, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has been proposed as an alternative method to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. Here, we examined the dual color CISH (dual CISH) method which provides information regarding the copy number of the HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere from a single slide. We examined 40 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically. HER2 gene status was assessed with FISH (Abbott) and dual CISH (Dako). HER2 gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP). Comparison of the cut-off values for HER2/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by dual CISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between two methods (Kappa coefficient 0.96). The results of the two commercial products were almost consistent for evaluation of HER2 gene counts on the sections. The current study proved that dual CISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating HER2 gene status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1827.2010.02553.xDOI Listing
July 2010

A new reporting form for breast cytology.

Breast Cancer 2009 30;16(3):202-6. Epub 2009 May 30.

Cytology and Core Needle Biopsy Subcommittee of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society, Tokyo, Japan.

The Cytology and Core Needle Biopsy Subcommittee, organized under the Rules Committee of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society, has prepared a new form for breast cytology reports. This reporting form consists of "diagnostic categories" and "recommendations." The "diagnostic category" is either "specimen inadequacy" or "specimen adequacy." The judgment on "specimen adequacy" is subdivided into four categories: "normal or benign," "indeterminate," "suspicious for malignancy," and "malignant." The "recommendation" indicates descriptions of cytological features and estimated histological type of tumor (these descriptions should be as detailed as possible). On the basis of an analysis of cytological data from 3,439 cases performed before preparing this form, the subcommittee has attached the following recommended goals to this form: (1) the percentage of "specimen inadequacy" should be 10% or less of all samples, (2) the percentage of "indeterminate" samples should be 10% or less of all "specimen adequacy" cases, and (3) 90% or more of "suspicious for malignancy" cases should be diagnosed as "malignant" in a subsequent histological examination. We hope that modification of this form, if it requires revision in the future, will be evidence-based, as was the process for compiling this set of rules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-009-0128-6DOI Listing
October 2009

Cytological features of the cystic fluid of pancreatic schwannoma with cystic degeneration. A case report.

JOP 2008 Mar 8;9(2):203-8. Epub 2008 Mar 8.

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine. Kanagawa, Japan.

Context: Schwannomas are benign neoplasms arising from peripheral nerve tissue. Pancreatic schwannoma is a very rare condition. We present the histological and cytological features of a pancreatic schwannoma with cystic degeneration.

Case Report: A 51-year-old male was diagnosed with a cystic tumor measuring approximately 6 cm in the tail of the pancreas. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. Cystic fluid from the tumor was obtained intraoperatively by fine-needle aspiration, and it showed scattered spindle tumor cells against a background of hemosiderin-laden histiocytes. During the operation, we informed the surgeon that the tumor consisted of "atypical spindle cells". Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a schwannoma with cystic degeneration which had originated in the pancreas. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive immunostaining of the tumor cells in both histological and cytological materials for S-100 protein.

Conclusion: Problems occasionally arise with the use of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of cystic diseases of the pancreas because of the difficulty in obtaining adequate specimens. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that intraoperative fine-needle aspiration is as informative as a frozen section diagnosis, when appropriately performed.
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March 2008

Lower HER-2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 ratio in cytologic HER-2 fluorescence in situ hybridization for breast cancers: three-dimensional analysis of intranuclear localization of centromere 17 and HER-2 signals.

Cancer 2008 Apr;114(2):134-40

Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Department of Pathology, Tokai, University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the gold standard for assessing HER-2 status for breast cancers, and paraffin-embedded tissue sections are used routinely for HER-2 FISH. Cytologic samples also are used, but to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the reliability of these samples. The objective of this study was to elucidate the usefulness of cytologic specimens for HER-2 FISH testing.

Methods: Histologic and cytologic specimens from 32 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were subjected to comparative analysis of HER-2 status by FISH. FISH was performed by using a PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit according the manufacturer's instructions. The signal ratios of chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) and HER-2 were estimated and compared. In 15 cytologic specimens, the distance between signals (HER-2 and CEP17) and the nearest nuclear membrane were measured by using 3-dimensional image analysis and confocal microscopy.

Results: Cytologic and histologic FISH results were compared. Signal ratios of HER-2/CEP17 were lower in cytologic specimens from 26 of 32 patients compared with the histologic material. Three-dimensional image analysis demonstrated that the distance between the CEP17 signal and the nuclear membrane was shorter than the distance between the HER-2 gene and the nuclear membrane.

Conclusions: The current results demonstrated that CEP17 could be lost more easily through histologic sectioning compared with the cytology results, because CEP17 is closer to the nuclear membrane. FISH analysis in cytologic specimens produced more accurate HER-2/CEP17 ratios, because the whole nucleus was subjected to FISH testing, compared with matched histologic specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23367DOI Listing
April 2008

Computerized three-dimensional analysis of the heart and great vessels in normal and holoprosencephalic human embryos.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2007 Mar;290(3):259-67

Congenital Anomaly Research Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

The developing heart and great vessels undergo drastic morphogenetic changes during the embryonic period. To analyze the normal and abnormal development of these organs, it is essential to visualize their structures in three and four dimensions, including the changes occurring with time. We have reconstructed the luminal structure of the hearts and great vessels of staged human embryos from serial histological sections to demonstrate their sequential morphological changes in three dimensions. The detailed structures of the embryonic heart and major arteries in normal and holoprosencephalic (HPE) human embryos could be reconstructed and visualized, and anatomical structures were analyzed using 3D images. By 3D analysis, cardiac anomalies such as double-outlet right ventricle and malrotation of the heart tube were identified in HPE embryos, which were not easily diagnosed by histological observation. Reconstruction and analysis of 3D images are useful for the study of anatomical structures of developing embryos and for identifying their abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.20427DOI Listing
March 2007

Cytologic three-dimensional imaging for the interpretation of staining profiles: application of confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Diagn Cytopathol 2004 Sep;31(3):166-8

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Bohseidai, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.20106DOI Listing
September 2004

Immunohistochemical evaluation of hormone receptors in breast cancer: which scoring system is suitable for highly sensitive procedures?

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2004 Mar;12(1):8-13

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.

To evaluate hormone receptors immunohistochemically, standardized staining procedures and scoring systems are required. The authors previously reported that highly sensitive procedures affected basic factors for technical validation. The aim of the present study was to show the characteristics of scoring systems for highly sensitive procedures. To examine how highly sensitive procedures enhance the staining intensity and increase the positive cell population, two different staining methods were compared. To evaluate scoring systems, three systems--cell counting score, modified immunoreactive score, and H score--were compared using the same samples stained by an autostaining system. It was found that the highly sensitive procedure increased the positive cell population, especially in breast cancers with a low enzyme immunoassay (EIA) level of less than 100 fmol/mg, and strengthened the staining intensity. This enhancement led to a correlation in a logarithmic curve rather than a linear correlation by all three scoring systems. The results showed that scoring systems including a factor of staining intensity did not have an absolute advantage because boosted staining intensity by highly sensitive procedure did not reflect EIA value or protein contents accurately. To the authors' knowledge, there is no report discussing the nonlinear correlation between biochemical and immunohistochemical assay by highly sensitive procedures; however, it is important to select a scoring system and threshold based on nonlinear correlation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129039-200403000-00002DOI Listing
March 2004

Immunohistochemical evaluation of hormone receptor for routine practice of breast cancer: highly sensitive procedures significantly contribute to the correlation with biochemical assays.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2003 Mar;11(1):62-72

Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Bohseidai, Isehara, 259-1193 Kanagawa, Japan.

Immunohistochemical evaluation of hormone receptors for breast cancer has been performed parallel to biochemical assays. Recently, immunohistochemistry has tended to substitute the biochemical method in Japan. To clarify the factors concerned and problems to be resolved, we reviewed our evaluation system for hormone receptors by immunohistochemistry from 1990. A total of 861 breast cancer samples were examined by immunohistochemistry and biochemistry. In 3 main periods, phase 1 (1990-1993), phase 2 (1995-1998), and phase 3 (1999-2001), increasing sensitivity of the immunohistochemical method was provided by commercially available staining systems and shown to range from 83.6% (phase 1) to 92.0% (phase 3). The highly sensitive procedures of the antigen retrieval and peroxidase-conjugated polymer method are main contributing factors. The authors examined how these procedures influenced the distribution of positive cell population; concordance rate, including sensitivity and specificity; cutoff points; and evaluation categories. The correlation between biochemistry and immunohistochemistry was extensively studied in the 1980s and 1990s. In reference to the progress achieved in the United States and United Kingdom to control the current situation in Japan, it should be recognized that recently developed, highly sensitive procedures boost the immunoreactivity, which will affect the basic factors for technical validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129039-200303000-00011DOI Listing
March 2003

Dysgerminoma in a patient with a tumor of the neck. Empiric treatment of stage IV dysgerminoma.

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2002 ;54(2):109-13

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

The evolution of therapy for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors is one of the true success stories in oncology. Treatment outcome has improved greatly thanks to cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. According to the well-established treatment guidelines for advanced cases, we treated a case of stage IV undifferentiated germ cell tumor in which we were able to preserve the patient's fertility. We concluded that the PEP regimen is an effective treatment for the patient with metastatic germ cell tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000067716DOI Listing
April 2003
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