Publications by authors named "Hisao Ogawa"

739 Publications

Risk Prediction Score for Cancer Development in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Circ J 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Hospital.

Background: Cancer is a known prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but few risk assessments of cancer development after ACS have been established.Methods and Results:Of the 573 consecutive ACS admissions between January 2015 and March 2018 in Nobeoka City, Japan, 552 were analyzed. Prevalent cancer was defined as a treatment history of cancer, and incident cancer as post-discharge cancer incidence. The primary endpoint was post-discharge cancer incidence, and the secondary endpoint was all-cause death during follow-up. All-cause death occurred in 9 (23.1%) patients with prevalent cancer, and in 17 (3.5%) without cancer. In the multivariable analysis, prevalent cancer was associated with all-cause death. To develop the prediction model for cancer incidence, 21 patients with incident cancer and 492 without cancer were analyzed. We compared the performance of D-dimer with that of the prediction model, which added age (≥65 years), smoking history, and high red blood cell distribution width to albumin ratio (RAR) to D-dimer. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves of D-dimer and the prediction model were 0.619 (95% confidence interval: 0.512-0.725) and 0.774 (0.676-0.873), respectively. Decision curve analysis showed superior net benefits of the prediction model.

Conclusions: By adding elderly, smoking, and high RAR to D-dimer to the prediction model it became clinically useful for predicting cancer incidence after ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-21-0071DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on In-Hospital and 3-Year Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Contemporary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Optimal Medical Therapy - Insights From the J-MINUET Study.

Circ J 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Cardiology, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center.

Background: The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on long-term outcomes following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the era of modern primary PCI with optimal medical therapy is still in debate.Methods and Results:A total of 3,281 patients with AMI were enrolled in the J-MINUET registry, with primary PCI of 93.1% in STEMI. CKD stage on admission was classified into: no CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m); moderate CKD (60>eGFR≥30 mL/min/1.73 m); and severe CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m). While the primary endpoint was all-cause mortality, the secondary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Of the 3,281 patients, 1,878 had no CKD, 1,073 had moderate CKD and 330 had severe CKD. Pre-person-days age- and sex-adjusted in-hospital mortality significantly increased from 0.014% in no CKD through 0.042% in moderate CKD to 0.084% in severe CKD (P<0.0001). Three-year mortality and MACE significantly deteriorated from 5.09% and 15.8% in no CKD through 16.3% and 38.2% in moderate CKD to 36.7% and 57.9% in severe CKD, respectively (P<0.0001). C-index significantly increased from the basic model of 0.815 (0.788-0.841) to 0.831 (0.806-0.857), as well as 0.731 (0.708-0.755) to 0.740 (0.717-0.764) when adding CKD stage to the basic model in predicting 3-year mortality (P=0.013; net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.486, P<0.0001) and MACE (P=0.046; NRI 0.331, P<0.0001) respectively.

Conclusions: CKD remains a useful predictor of in-hospital and 3-year mortality as well as MACE after AMI in the modern PCI and optimal medical therapy era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1115DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of bleeding on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 May;10(4):388-396

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 6-1 Kishibe shin-machi, Suita 564-8565, Japan.

Aims: Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS) is associated with substantial mortality, although there are limited data available on bleeding in this critical condition. This study sought to investigate the incidence and impact of major in-hospital bleeding on all-cause mortality in patients with AMICS who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods And Results: Between 2015 and 2017, a total of 3411 patients hospitalized within 24 h after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled in the Japan Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (JAMIR) and followed up for a median of 293 (interquartile range, 22-375) days. AMICS developed in 335 (9.8%) patients (mean age, 71.3 ± 13.6 years). Overall, the rate of major in-hospital bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 3 and 5) and in-hospital mortality was 14.6% and 28.7%, respectively. The majority of major in-hospital bleeding (73.5%) occurred within 48 h after PCI. Compared to patients without major in-hospital bleeding, those with it had higher rates of renal failure, left main coronary artery culprit lesion, and intra-aortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and had longer door-to-device time. The cumulative incidence of 1-year all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the major bleeding group compared to the non-major bleeding group (63.8% vs. 25.5%; log-rank P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, major in-hospital bleeding was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.69).

Conclusions: These findings of JAMIR indicate that major in-hospital bleeding is associated with all-cause mortality in patients with AMICS who undergo PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuab014DOI Listing
May 2021

Weather temperature and the incidence of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in an aging society.

Sci Rep 2021 May 25;11(1):10863. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

Weather temperatures affect the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but there is limited information on whether CVD hospitalizations are affected by changes in weather temperatures in a super-aging society. We aimed to examine the association of diurnal weather temperature changes with CVD hospitalizations. We included 1,067,171 consecutive patients who were admitted to acute-care hospitals in Japan between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2015. The primary outcome was the number of CVD hospitalizations per day. The diurnal weather temperature range (DTR) was defined as the minimum weather temperature subtracted from the maximum weather temperature on the day before hospitalization. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used to estimate the association of DTR with cardiovascular hospitalizations after adjusting for weather, hospital, and patient demographics. An increased DTR was associated with a higher number of CVD hospitalizations (coefficient, 4.540 [4.310-4.765]/°C change, p < 0.001), with greater effects in those aged 75-89 (p < 0.001) and ≥ 90 years (p = 0.006) than among those aged ≤ 64 years; however, there were no sex-related differences (p = 0.166). Greater intraday weather temperature changes are associated with an increased number of CVD hospitalizations in the super-aging society of Japan, with a greater effect in older individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90352-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149862PMC
May 2021

Long-Term Clinical Impact of Cardiogenic Shock and Heart Failure on Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Int Heart J 2021 May 15;62(3):520-527. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Cardiology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine.

Long-term clinical outcomes among patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) and heart failure (HF) who survive the early phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain uncertain. We investigated 3283 consecutive patients with AMI, selected from a prospective, nation-wide multicenter registry (J-MINUET) database comprising 28 institutions in Japan between July 2012 and March 2014. The 3263 eligible patients were divided into the following three groups: CS-/HF- group (n = 2467, 75.6%); CS-/HF+ group (n = 479, 14.7%); and CS+ group (n = 317, 9.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate in CS+ patients was 32.8%, significantly higher than in CS- patients. Among CS+ patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified statin use before admission (Odds ratio (OR) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.66, P = 0.002), renal deficiency (OR 8.72, 95%CI 2.81-38.67, P < 0.0001) and final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.18-0.99, P = 0.046) were associated with 30-day mortality. Landmark Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that mortality rates after 30 days were comparable between CS+ and CS-/HF+ groups but were lower in the CS-/HF- group. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis also showed that hazard risk of mortality after 30 days was comparable between the CS+ and CS-/HF+ groups (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95%CI 0.63-1.68, P = 0.90), and significantly lower in the CS-/HF- group (HR 0.44, 95%CI 0.32-059, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, AMI patients with CS who survived 30 days experienced worse long-term outcomes compared with those without CS up to 3 years. Attention is required for patients who show HF on admission without CS to improve long-term AMI outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-646DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of PM exposure with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals in Japan.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9897. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

Although exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM) influences cardiovascular disease (CVD), its association with CVD-related hospitalizations of super-aged patients in Japan remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between short-term PM exposure and CVD-related hospitalizations, lengths of hospital stays, and medical expenses. We analyzed the Japanese national database of patients with CVD (835,405) admitted to acute-care hospitals between 2012 and 2014. Patients with planned hospitalizations and those with missing PM exposure data were excluded. We classified the included patients into five quintiles based on their PM exposure: PM-5, -4, -3, -2, and -1 groups, in descending order of concentration. Compared with the PM-1 group, the other groups had higher hospitalization rates. The PM-3, -4, and -5 groups exhibited increased hospitalization durations and medical expenses, compared with the PM-1 group. Interestingly, the hospitalization period was longer for the ≥ 90-year-old group than for the ≤ 64-year-old group, yet the medical expenses were lower for the former group. Short-term PM exposure is associated with increased CVD-related hospitalizations, hospitalization durations, and medical expenses. The effects of incident CVDs were more marked in elderly than in younger patients. National PM concentrations should be reduced and the public should be aware of the risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89290-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110517PMC
May 2021

Validation of the atherothrombotic risk score for secondary prevention in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the J-MINUET study.

Heart Vessels 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Cardiology, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi, Japan.

Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score for Secondary Prevention (TRS2°P) is a contemporary risk scoring system for secondary prevention based on nine clinical factors. However, this scoring system has not been validated in other populations. The aim of this study was to validate the TRS2°P in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a nationwide registry cohort. Among 3283 consecutive patients with AMI enrolled in the Japanese registry of acute Myocardial INfarction diagnosed by Universal dEfiniTion (J-MINUET), a total of 2611 patients who underwent primary PCI were included in this study. The performance of the TRS2°P to predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) composed of all-cause death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke up to 3 years in the present cohort was evaluated. The TRS2°P had modest discriminative performance in this J-MINUET cohort with a c-statistic of 0.63, similar to that in the derived cohort (TRA2°P-TIMI50, c-statistic 0.67). A strong graded relationship between the TRS2°P and 3-year cardiovascular event rates was also observed in the J-MINUET cohort. Age ≥ 75 years, Killip ≥ 2, prior stroke, peripheral artery disease, anemia, and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction were identified as independent factors for the incidence of MACE. The TRS2°P modestly predicted secondary cardiovascular events among patients with AMI treated by primary PCI in a nationwide cohort of Japan. Further studies are needed to develop a novel risk score better predicting secondary cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-021-01840-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban by General Practitioners - A Multicenter, Prospective Study in Japanese Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (GENERAL).

Circ J 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center.

Background: Direct oral anticoagulants have become a standard therapy for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, little is known about their effectiveness/safety when prescribed by general practitioners to treat high-risk populations such as the elderly, those who are frail or have cognitive dysfunction.Methods and Results:In this multicenter, prospective study, a total of 5,717 NVAF patients (mean age 73.9 years) receiving rivaroxaban were registered by general practitioners, with a maximum 3-year follow up (mean 2.0±0.5 years). The primary endpoint was a composite of stroke and systemic embolism (SE). The annual incidence (per 100 person-years) of stroke/SE was 1.23% and for major bleeding, it was 0.63%. Multivariate analyses identified age ≥75 years (hazard ratio [HR]; 2.67, P<0.001) and history of ischemic stroke (HR; 1.89, P=0.005) as significant risk factors of stroke/SE, with history of major bleeding (HR; 14.9, P<0.001) and warfarin use (HR; 2.15, P=0.002) as risk factors for major bleeding events. Neither cognitive dysfunction, defined by the receipt of anti-dementia medications, nor frailty, evaluated by the classification of the Japanese Long-term Care Insurance system, correlated with stroke/SE or major bleeding events.

Conclusions: The low incidence of adverse events, including stroke/SE and bleeding, in patients prescribed rivaroxaban by general practitioners supports its use as a safe and efficacious treatment in the standard clinical care of high-risk patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1244DOI Listing
April 2021

Characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with de-escalation from prasugrel to clopidogrel after acute myocardial infarction - Insights from the prospective Japan Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (JAMIR).

J Cardiol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University, 1-1, Seiryomachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Sendai 980-8574, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: De-escalation of P2Y12 inhibitor may occur for various clinical reasons in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent a de-escalation strategy in real-world clinical practice.

Methods And Results: We studied 2604 AMI patients initially treated with prasugrel using the Japan Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (JAMIR) database. Of these, 110 (4%) were discharged on clopidogrel [de-escalation group; switching 4 days after admission (median)] and the remaining 2494 continued prasugrel at discharge (continuation group). The de-escalation group had higher incidence of heart failure or history of cerebrovascular disease, and were more likely to receive mechanical circulatory support, and oral anticoagulation than the continuation group. During mean follow-up of 309±133 days post-discharge, no significant differences were observed in ischemic events (2.2% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.74) or major bleeding (1.1% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.72) between the de-escalation and continuation groups.

Conclusions: Although, patients with de-escalation from prasugrel to clopidogrel had higher bleeding risk profile than those continued on prasugrel, post discharge ischemic and bleeding events were similar between patients with and without de-escalation. De-escalation strategy may be an option for AMI patients with high risk for bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.03.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Validation of Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure Diagnoses in Hospitalized Patients With the Nationwide Claim-Based JROAD-DPC Database.

Circ Rep 2021 Feb 20;3(3):131-136. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine Sendai Japan.

Big data systems such as diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) datasets have recently been used for research purposes. However, there have been few validation studies to determine the accuracy of diagnoses. The aim of this study was to validate and evaluate 2 diagnoses, namely acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF), using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes in the Japanese Registry Of All cardiac and vascular Disease (JROAD)-DPC database. ICD-10 codes I21.0-I21.9 and I50.0-I50.9 were used to identify AMI and HF, respectively, in the JROAD-DPC database. Diagnoses of AMI and HF were validated in clinical datasets assessing sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). Over 1-2 years, 742 patients hospitalized for AMI and 1,368 patients hospitalized for HF were identified in the DPC dataset. Sensitivity and PPV for AMI were 78.9% and 78.8%, respectively. When emergency hospitalization was included as a criterion, PPV increased to 84.9%. For HF, sensitivity and PPV were 84.7% and 57.0%, respectively. When emergency hospitalization and acute HF were included as criteria, PPV increased to 83.0%. Using ICD-10 codes for AMI and HF diagnoses among hospitalized patients, the DPC dataset showed acceptable concordance with clinical datasets. PPV increased when any conditions of hospitalization were included, especially in HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circrep.CR-21-0004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956876PMC
February 2021

Rivaroxaban monotherapy versus combination therapy according to patient risk of stroke and bleeding in atrial fibrillation and stable coronary disease: AFIRE trial subanalysis.

Am Heart J 2021 Jun 28;236:59-68. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: In the AFIRE trial, rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy with rivaroxaban and an antiplatelet agent for thromboembolic events or death, and superior for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease. Little is known about impacts of stroke and bleeding risks on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban monotherapy.

Methods: In this subanalysis of the AFIRE trial, we assessed the risk of stroke and bleeding by the CHADS, CHADS-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause. The primary safety end point was major bleeding defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Results: Rivaroxaban monotherapy significantly reduced the primary efficacy and safety end points with no evidence of differential effects by stroke risk (CHADS, p for interaction = 0.727 for efficacy, 0.395 for safety; CHADS-VASc, p for interaction = 0.740 for efficacy, 0.265 for safety) or bleeding risk (HAS-BLED, p for interaction = 0.581 for efficacy, 0.225 for safety). There was also no evidence of statistical heterogeneity across patient risk categories for other end points; stroke or systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, MI, MI or unstable angina, death from any cause, any bleeding, or net adverse clinical events.

Conclusions: The advantages of rivaroxaban monotherapy compared with those of combination therapy with respect to all prespecified end points, including thromboembolism, bleeding, and mortality were similar across patients with AF and stable coronary artery disease, irrespective of their risk for stroke and bleeding.

Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000016612, and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02642419.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.02.021DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 pandemic is associated with mechanical complications in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Open Heart 2021 02;8(1)

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Objective: Although there are regional reports that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a reduction in acute myocardial infarction presentations and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures, little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mechanical complications resulting from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and mortality.

Methods: This single-centre retrospective cohort study analysed presentations, incidence of mechanical complications, and mortality in patients with STEMI before and after a state of emergency was declared due to the COVID-19 pandemic by the Japanese government on 7 April 2020.

Results: We analysed 359 patients with STEMI hospitalised before the declaration and 63 patients hospitalised after the declaration. The proportion of patients with late presentation was significantly higher after the declaration than before (25.4% vs 14.2%, p=0.03). The incidence of late presentation was significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.05; p=0.001, even after adjusting for month (IRR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.13; p<0.01). Primary PCI was performed significantly less often after the declaration than before (68.3% vs 82.5%, p=0.009). The mechanical complication resulting from STEMI occurred in 13 of 359 (3.6%) patients before the declaration and 9 of 63 (14.3%) patients after the declaration (p<0.001). However, the incidence of in-hospital death (before, 6.2% vs after, 6.4%, p=0.95) was comparable.

Conclusions: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, an increased incidence of mechanical complications resulting from STEMI was observed. Instructing people to stay at home, without effectively educating them to immediately seek medical attention when suffering symptoms of a heart attack, may worsen outcomes in patients with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871043PMC
February 2021

Current practice and effects of intravenous anticoagulant therapy in hospitalized acute heart failure patients with sinus rhythm.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1202. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

Although the risk of thromboembolism is increased in heart failure (HF) patients irrespective of atrial fibrillation (AF), especially during the acute decompensated phase, the effects of intravenous anticoagulants for these patients remain unclear. We sought to investigate the current practice and effects of intravenous anticoagulant therapy in acute HF (AHF) patients with sinus rhythm. We analyzed a nationwide prospective cohort from April 2012 to March 2016. We extracted 309,015 AHF adult patients. After application of the exclusion criteria, we divided the 92,573 study population into non-heparin [n = 70,621 (76.3%)] and heparin [n = 21,952 (23.7%)] groups according to the use of intravenous heparin for the first 2 consecutive days after admission. Multivariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated that heparin administration was not associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.03) and intracranial hemorrhage (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.78-1.77), while heparin administration was significantly associated with increased incidence of ischemic stroke (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.29-1.72) and venous thromboembolism (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.14-2.30). In conclusion, intravenous heparin administration was not associated with favorable in-hospital outcomes in AHF patients with sinus rhythm. Routine additive use of intravenous heparin to initial treatment might not be recommended in AHF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79700-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807069PMC
January 2021

High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease Treated with Statins: An Observation from the REAL-CAD Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University.

Aim: The association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level after statin therapy and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we sought to determine how HDL-C level after statin therapy is associated with cardiovascular events in stable CAD patients.

Methods: From the REAL-CAD study which had shown the favorable prognostic effect of high-dose pitavastatin in stable CAD patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <120 mg/dL, 9,221 patients with HDL-C data at baseline and 6 months, no occurrence of primary outcome at 6 months, and reported non-adherence for pitavastatin, were examined. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring emergent admission after 6 months of randomization. Absolute difference and ratio of HDL-C levels were defined as (those at 6 months-at baseline) and (absolute difference/baseline)×100, respectively.

Results: During a median follow-up period of 4.0 (IQR 3.2-4.7) years, the primary outcome occurred in 417 (4.5%) patients. The adjusted risk of all HDL-C-related variables (baseline value, 6-month value, absolute, and relative changes) for the primary outcome was not significant (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.08, HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.12, HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98-1.12, and HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.94-1.24, respectively). Furthermore, adjusted HRs of all HDL-C-related variables remained non-significant for the primary outcome regardless of on-treatment LDL-C level at 6 months.

Conclusions: After statin therapy with modestly controlled LDL-C, HDL-C level has little prognostic value in patients with stable CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.59881DOI Listing
January 2021

Dose-Dependent Inhibitory Effect of Rosuvastatin in Japanese Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction on Serum Concentration of Matrix Metalloproteinases-INVITATION Trial.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, and Center for Metabolic Regulation of Healthy Aging (CMHA), Kumamoto University.

Aim: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This trial was conducted to determine the potential effects of higher-dose rosuvastatin on circulating MMP levels in patients with AMI.

Methods: This was a multicenter, open-label, 1:1 randomized, parallel-group study. Patients with AMI were randomly assigned to the appropriate-dose group (10 mg rosuvastatin once daily) or the low-dose group (2.5 mg rosuvastatin once daily) within 24 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention. MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were measured on day 1 and at week 4, 12, and 24 after enrollment. The primary endpoint was the change in MMP levels at 24 weeks after enrollment. The secondary endpoints were change in MMP levels at day 1 and weeks 4 and 12 after enrollment.

Results: Between August 2017 and October 2018, 120 patients with AMI from 19 institutions were randomly assigned to either the appropriate-dose or the low-dose group. There were 109 patients who completed the 24-week follow-up. The primary endpoint for both MMP-2 and MMP-9 was not significantly different between the two groups. The change in the active/total ratio of MMP-9 at week 12 after baseline was significantly lower in the appropriate-dose group compared with the low-dose group (0.81 [-52.8-60.1]% vs. 70.1 [-14.5-214.2]%, P=0.004), while the changes in MMP-2 were not significantly different between the two groups during the study period.

Conclusions: This study could not demonstrate the superiority of appropriate-dose of rosuvastatin in inhibiting serum MMPs levels in patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.59477DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of Age on Gender Difference in Long-term Outcome of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (from J-MINUET).

Am J Cardiol 2021 03 3;142:5-13. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Cardiology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.

Although gender difference in long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction have been shown previously, impact of age on gender difference is still controversial. This study focused on the association between age and gender difference in long-term outcome. We analyzed data from 3,283 consecutive patients who were included in a prospective, nationwide, multicenter registry (Japan Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction Diagnosed by Universal Definition) from 2012 to 2014. The primary end point was the major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), which was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and revascularization for unstable angina during 3 years. Patients were divided into 4 strata according to age: those with age <65 years (group 1: n = 1161), 65 to 74 years (group 2: n = 954), 75 to 84 years (group 3: n = 866) and 84< years (group 4: n = 302). Although the crude incidence of 3-year MACE was significantly higher in women than men (36.4% vs. 28.5%, p <0.001), there was not significant gender difference in each group (group 1, 19.6% vs 19.0%, p = 0.74; group 2, 33.1% vs 28.3%, p = 0.25; group 3, 38.9% vs 39.6%, p = 0.54; and group 4, 54.0% vs 56.8%, p = 0.24). In conclusion, although women had higher crude incidence of 3-year MACE than men, there was no gender difference in each group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.11.042DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic impact of multiple fragmented QRS on cardiac events in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Europace 2021 Feb;23(2):287-297

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 6-1 Kishibe-shinmachi, Suita, Osaka 564-8565, Japan.

Aims : To evaluate the prognostic impact of fragmented QRS (fQRS) on idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods And Results : We conducted a prospective observational study of 290 consecutive patients with DCM (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%) and narrow QRS who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance. We defined fQRS as the presence of various RSR' patterns in ≥2 contiguous leads representing the anterior (V1-V5), inferior (II, III, and aVF), or lateral (I, aVL, and V6) myocardial segments. Multiple fQRS was defined as the presence of fQRS in ≥2 myocardial segments. Patients were divided into three groups: no fQRS, single fQRS, or multiple fQRS. The primary endpoint was a composite of hard cardiac events consisting of heart failure death, sudden cardiac death (SCD), or aborted SCD. The secondary endpoints were all-cause death and arrhythmic event. During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (interquartile range, 1.8-6.2), 31 (11%) patients experienced hard cardiac events. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the rates of hard cardiac events and all-cause death were similar in the single-fQRS and no-fQRS groups and higher in the multiple-fQRS group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.017, respectively). Multivariable Cox regression identified that multiple fQRS is a significant predictor of hard cardiac events (hazard ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.62; P = 0.032). The multiple-fQRS group had the highest prevalence of a diffuse late gadolinium enhancement pattern (no fQRS, 21%; single fQRS, 22%; multiple fQRS, 39%; P < 0.001).

Conclusion : Multiple fQRS, but not single fQRS, is associated with future hard cardiac events in patients with DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa193DOI Listing
February 2021

Association Between Statins and Cancer Incidence in Diabetes: a Cohort Study of Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 03 15;36(3):632-639. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8522, Japan.

Background: The antitumor effect of statins has been highlighted, but clinical study results remain inconclusive. While patients with diabetes are at high risk of cancer, it is uncertain whether statins are effective for cancer chemoprevention in this population.

Objective: This study evaluated the association between statins and cancer incidence/mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Design: This study was a follow-up observational study of the Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis with Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD) trial, which was a randomized controlled trial of low-dose aspirin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Participants: This study enrolled 2536 patients with type 2 diabetes, age 30-85 years, and no history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, from December 2002 until May 2005. All participants recruited in the JPAD trial were followed until the day of any fatal event or July 2015. We defined participants taking any statin at enrollment as the statin group (n = 650) and the remainder as the no-statin group (n = 1886).

Main Measures: The primary end point was the first occurrence of any cancer (cancer incidence). The secondary end point was death from any cancer (cancer mortality).

Key Results: During follow-up (median, 10.7 years), 318 participants developed a new cancer and 123 died as a result. Cancer incidence and mortality were 10.5 and 3.7 per 1000 person-years in the statin group, and 16.8 and 6.3 per 1000 person-years in the no-statin group, respectively. Statin use was associated with significantly reduced cancer incidence and mortality after adjustment for confounding factors (cancer incidence: adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.49-0.90, P = 0.007; cancer mortality: adjusted HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.36-0.98, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Statin use was associated with a reduced incidence and mortality of cancer in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06167-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947140PMC
March 2021

Reduction in hsCRP levels is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular events in Japanese hypertensive women but not in men.

Sci Rep 2020 10 12;10(1):17040. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of General and Community Medicine, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

To test our hypothesis that the magnitude of reduction in hsCRP achieved by antihypertensive medications may predict the benefit for cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive individuals, we performed subanalysis of the ATTEMPT-CVD study. The hypertensive participants enrolled in the ATTMEPT-CVD study were categorized into two groups according to whether achieved reduction in hsCRP levels at 6 months after initiation of antihypertensive medications from baseline was equal to or greater than 40% (responder group) or less than 40% (non-responder group). Baseline characteristics and blood pressure during follow-up period were similar between the groups. For women, the incidence of cardiovascular events was significantly less in responder group than non-responder group (P < 0.0221). However, for men, there was no significant difference between the groups regarding incident cardiovascular events (P = 0.2434). There was a significant interaction (P = 0.0187) between sexes for incident cardiovascular events. Our results provide the evidence suggesting that substantial reduction (40% or greater reduction) in hsCRP on antihypertensive medication predicts the benefit for cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive women but it does not in hypertensive men. The magnitude of achieved reduction in hsCRP by antihypertensive medications seems to be a useful indicator of successful treatment in Japanese hypertensive women.This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01075698.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73905-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550334PMC
October 2020

Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in patients aged 80 years or over with cardiac troponin-positive acute myocardial infarction -J-MINUET study.

J Cardiol 2021 Feb 13;77(2):139-146. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Department of Cardiology, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi, Japan.

Background: The prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in elderly people is increasing worldwide. However, their characteristics and prognosis have been rarely investigated. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and prognosis in elderly patients with cardiac troponin-positive AMI.

Methods: Consecutive patients with AMI from the J-MINUET study were divided into the following 3 groups: patients aged less than 65 years, those aged between 65 and 79 years, and those aged 80 years or over. Their characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared.

Results: Patients with AMI aged 80 years or over had the highest incidence of female gender, and the highest incidence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease, such as peripheral artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and stroke, whereas they had the lowest body mass index, and the lowest incidence of current smoker, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Patients with AMI aged 80 years or over had significantly longer onset to door time and longer door to device time, and lower peak creatine kinase (CK). The incidence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was the lowest in the AMI patients aged 80 years or over, but the patients had a higher incidence of in-hospital death and cardiac failure than the other two groups. In addition, the presentation with STEMI and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with CK elevation among patients aged 80 years or over showed the highest incidence of in-hospital death and cardiac failure.

Conclusions: J-MINUET showed different clinical characteristics between the aged and younger populations. The incidence of in-hospital death and cardiac failure in patients aged 80 years or over with AMI was poorer than their younger counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.08.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Prognostic Impact of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction Without Creatine Kinase Elevation.

Int Heart J 2020 Sep 12;61(5):888-895. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine.

Although B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has gradually gained recognition as an indicator in risk stratification for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the prognostic impact on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) without creatine kinase (CK) elevation remains unclear.This prospective multicenter study assessed 3,283 consecutive patients with AMI admitted to 28 institutions in Japan between 2012 and 2014. We analyzed 218 patients with NSTEMI without CK elevation (NSTEMI-CK) for whom BNP was available. In the NSTEMI-CK group, patients were assigned to high- and low-BNP groups according to BNP values (cut-off BNP, 100 pg/mL). The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, cardiac failure, and urgent revascularization for unstable angina up to 3 years. Primary endpoints were observed in 60 (33.3%) events among patients with NSTEMI-CK. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly higher event rate for primary endpoints among patients with high BNP (log-rank P < 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, a higher BNP level was significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes in NSTEMI-CK (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.86; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-12.44; P < 0.001).The BNP concentration is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes among patients with NSTEMI-CK who are considered low risk. Careful clinical management may be warranted for secondary prevention in patients with NSTEMI-CK with high BNP levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-190DOI Listing
September 2020

Prediction of Long-Term Outcomes in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction with and without Creatinine Kinase Elevation-Post-Hoc Analysis of the J-MINUET Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 18;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Cardiology, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi 371-0004, Japan.

Background: A Japanese prospective, nation-wide, multicenter registry (J-MINUET) showed that long-term outcomes were worse in non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), diagnosed by increased cardiac troponin levels, compared to STEMI. This was observed in both non-STEMI with elevated creatine kinase (CK) (NSTEMI+CK) and non-STEMI without elevated CK (NSTEMI-CK). However, predictive factors for long-term outcomes in STEMI, NSTEMI+CK, and NSTEMI-CK have not been elucidated.

Methods: Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we determined significant independent predictors of long-term outcomes from a total of 111 parameters evaluated in the J-MINUET study in each of our groups, including STEMI, NSTEMI+CK, and NSTEMI-CK. Then, we calculated the risk score using the regression coefficients for the determined independent predictors for the strict prediction of long-term outcomes.

Results: Prognostic factors, as well as composite cardiovascular events and all-cause death, were different between STEMI, NSTEMI+CK, and NSTEMI-CK. Risk scores could effectively and powerfully predict both composite cardiovascular events and all-cause death in each group.

Conclusions: The prediction of long-term outcomes using cored parameters of baseline demographics and clinical characteristics is feasible and could prove useful in establishing therapeutic strategies in patients with STEMI, NSTEMI+CK, and NSTEMI-CK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463547PMC
August 2020

Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 in Kanagawa, Japan: a retrospective cohort study.

Hypertens Res 2020 11 21;43(11):1257-1266. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Medical Science and Cardiorenal Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak initiated on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship at Yokohama harbor in February 2020, we have been doing our best to treat COVID-19 patients. In animal experiments, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are reported to suppress the downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and they may inhibit the worsening of pathological conditions. We aimed to examine whether preceding use of ACEIs and ARBs affected the clinical manifestations and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. One hundred fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 60 ± 19 years) with polymerase-chain-reaction proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to six hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were analyzed in this multicenter retrospective observational study. Among all COVID-19 patients, in the multiple regression analysis, older age (age ≥ 65 years) was significantly associated with the primary composite outcome (odds ratio (OR) 6.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.28-22.78, P < 0.001), which consisted of (i) in-hospital death, (ii) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, (iii) mechanical ventilation, including invasive and noninvasive methods, and (iv) admission to the intensive care unit. In COVID-19 patients with hypertension, preceding ACEI/ARB use was significantly associated with a lower occurrence of new-onset or worsening mental confusion (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.002-0.69, P = 0.02), which was defined by the confusion criterion, which included mild disorientation or hallucination with an estimation of medical history of mental status, after adjustment for age, sex, and diabetes. In conclusion, older age was a significant contributor to a worse prognosis in COVID-19 patients, and ACEIs/ARBs could be beneficial for the prevention of confusion in COVID-19 patients with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-00535-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Lower left ventricular ejection fraction and higher serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity are associated with histopathological diagnosis by endomyocardial biopsy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

Int J Cardiol 2020 Dec 28;321:113-117. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The histopathological diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is challenging because of sampling error in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and the determinants of positive EMB are unclear. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a simple parameter of the extent of myocardial damage, and higher serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity would indicate the spread of disease activity in CS patients. Thus, we sought to examine whether these parameters are related to the histopathological diagnosis of CS by EMB.

Methods: A total of 94 consecutive clinically diagnosed CS patients between August 1986 and March 2019 who were admitted to two academic hospitals were examined. We determined EMB as positive if non-caseating epithelioid granulomas were confirmed in the myocardial tissue. Patients were divided into two groups according to positive (n = 37) and negative (n = 57) EMB. We assessed the relationship between LVEF, serum ACE activity and positive EMB.

Results: Multivariable analysis revealed that both LVEF and serum ACE were independently associated with positive EMB (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99; OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.90, respectively). Moreover, patients with both lower LVEF (<37%, median) and higher ACE activity (≥13.5 IU/L, median) had the highest frequency of positive EMB (p = .003). The combination of lower LVEF and higher serum ACE showed better specificity (91.2%) and positive predictive value (73.7%) than either LVEF or serum ACE alone for positive EMB.

Conclusions: Lower LVEF and higher serum ACE activity were associated with positive EMB, suggesting that these parameters might be useful for predicting positive EMB in CS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.07.034DOI Listing
December 2020

Role of climatic factors in the incidence of Takotsubo syndrome: A nationwide study from 2012 to 2016.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 10 27;7(5):2629-2636. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara City, Nara, Japan.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the influence of climatic factors on the onset of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: We performed a retrospective nationwide study among patients registered in the Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Diseases and Diagnosis Procedure Combination (JROAD-DPC) discharge database, between 2012 and 2016. Before the analysis, a multicentre validation study was conducted for assessing the accuracy of the JROAD-DPC classification for TTS. First, we investigated the seasonal variation of incidences of TTS. Second, we analysed the associations between the incidence of TTS and climatic factors using the hierarchical Poisson regression modelling, and we also investigated the associations between typhoon landfalls and hospitalization for TTS, using the fixed-effects conditional Poisson regression model. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis were 83% and 100%, respectively. Then we analysed 5643 patients with TTS. The mean patient age was 74 (standard deviation ± 11) years; 79% were female. TTS was diagnosed significantly more frequently in the summer and early autumn. The incidence of TTS was related to higher temperatures; adjusted incidence rate ratios were 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-1.60, P < 0.01] and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.34-1.62, P < 0.01) for temperatures of 20-25°C and >25°C, respectively. The incidence rate ratio for the first 2 days after a typhoon landfall was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.07-3.19; P = 0.03).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates distinct patterns of seasonal variation in the incidence of TTS, as well as a significant association between its onset and climatic factors, including typhoon landfalls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524088PMC
October 2020

Prevalence, Determinants, and Prognostic Significance of Hospital Acquired Pneumonia in Patients with Acute Heart Failure.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 13;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 0608638, Japan.

The prognostic impact of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated 776 consecutive hospitalized AHF patients. The primary in-hospital outcomes were all-cause death and worsening heart failure (WHF), while the outcome following discharge was all-cause death. The clinical diagnosis of HAP was based on clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Patients with HAP had a significantly higher incidence of in-hospital death (12% vs. 1%, < 0.001), WHF during the hospitalization (28% vs. 7%, < 0.001), and longer length of hospital stay ( = 0.003) than those without. Among patients who survived at discharge, during a median follow-up period of 741 (interquartile range 422-1000) days, the incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with HAP than in those without ( < 0.001). In the multivariable Cox regression, HAP development was independently associated with all-cause death after discharge (HR [hazard ratio] 1.86, 95%CI [confidence interval] 1.08-3.19). Furthermore, older age (OR [odds ratio] 1.04, 95%CI 1.01-1.08), male sex (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.14-4.28), and higher serum white blood cell count (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.09-1.29) and serum C-reactive protein (OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.01-1.06) were independently associated with HAP development. In hospitalized patients with AHF, HAP development was associated with worse clinical outcomes, suggesting the importance of prevention and early screening for HAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408712PMC
July 2020

Prognosis and Clinical Characteristics of Dilated Cardiomyopathy With Family History via Pedigree Analysis.

Circ J 2020 07 3;84(8):1284-1293. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center.

Background: The clinical characteristics and prognostic outcomes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with a familial history (FHx) via pedigree analysis are unclear.Methods and Results:We conducted a prospective observational study of 514 consecutive Japanese patients with DCM. FHx was defined as the presence of DCM in ≥1 family member within 2-degrees relative based on pedigree analysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of major cardiac events (sudden cardiac death and pump failure death). The prevalence of FHx was 7.4% (n=38). During a median follow-up of 3.6 years, 77 (15%) patients experienced a major cardiac event. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified FHx as independently associated with major cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR] 4.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-9.19; P<0.001) compared with conventional risk factors such as age, QRS duration, and left ventricular volume. In the propensity score-matched cohort (n=38 each), the FHx group had a significantly higher incidence of major cardiac events (HR, 4.48; 95% CI, 1.25-16.13; P=0.022). In addition, the FHx group had a higher prevalence of a diffuse late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) pattern than the no-FHx group (32% vs. 17%, P=0.022).

Conclusions: DCM patients with FHx had a worse prognosis, which was associated with a higher prevalence of a diffuse LGE pattern, than patients without FHx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-19-1176DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical profiles and outcomes in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in Japan of aging society.

Heart Vessels 2020 Dec 29;35(12):1681-1688. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

To address many uncertainties in the acute care of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in proportion to increasing age, we underwent the nationwide current survey consisted of 11,676 patients with AMI based on the database of the Japanese Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry between January 2011 and December 2013 to figure out how difference of clinical profiles and outcomes between coronary revascularization and conservative treatments for AMI. Clinical profiles in a total of 763 patients with AMI with conservative treatments (7% of all) were characterized as more elderly women (median age, 71 yeas vs. 68 years, p < 0.0001, male, 71% vs. 76%, p = 0.0008), high Killip class (Killip class I, 61% vs. 75%, p < 0.0001), and non-ST-segment elevation AMI (37% vs. 27%, p < 0.0001) as compared with 10,913 with coronary revascularization, with a consequence of more than twofold higher in-hospital mortality (12% vs. 5%, p < 0.0001). When compared with conservative treatments, highly effective of coronary revascularization to decrease in-hospital mortality was found in patients with ST-segment elevation AMI (6% vs. 16%, p < 0.0001), while these advantages were not evident in those with non-ST-segment elevation AMI (4% vs. 6%, p = 0.1107), especially with high Killip class, regardless of whether or not propensity score matching of clinical characteristics. A risk-adapted allocation of invasive management therefore may have the potential of benefiting patients with non-ST-segment elevation AMI, in particular elders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-020-01654-5DOI Listing
December 2020

The impact of antiplatelet therapy on patients with vasospastic angina: A multicenter registry study of the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Aug 9;29:100561. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Antiplatelet therapy (APT) is generally used in patients with coronary artery disease. However, for patients with vasospastic angina (VSA), the impact of APT is not fully understood.

Methods: In a multicenter registry study of the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association (n = 1429), patients with or without APT were compared. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure and appropriate ICD (Implantable cardioverter defibrillator) shock. Propensity score matching and a multivariable cox proportional hazard model were used to adjust for selection bias for treatment and potential confounding factors.

Results: In the whole population, 669 patients received APT, while 760 patients did not receive APT. Patients with APT had a greater prevalence of comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking, than those without APT. The prevalences of previous myocardial infarction, spontaneous ST changes, significant organic stenosis and medications including calcium channel blocker, nitrate, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker were greater in patients with APT than those without APT. After propensity matching (n = 335 for both groups), during the median follow-up period of 32 months, the incidence rate of MACE was comparable between the patients with and without APT (P = 0.24). MACEs occurred in 5.7% of patients with APT and in 3.6% of those without APT (P = 0.20). All-cause death occurred in 0.6% of patients with APT and 1.8% of those without APT (p = 0.16).

Conclusion: In this multicenter registry study, anti-platelet therapy exerted no beneficial effects for VSA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292916PMC
August 2020