Publications by authors named "Hisakazu Takatsuka"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The usefulness of postmortem computed tomography angiography for subdural hematoma caused by rupture of the cortical artery: A report of two autopsy cases and a literature review.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 12;53:101941. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Legal Medicine, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan; Center of Cause of Death Investigation, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) occurs following severe head trauma with brain contusion or rupture of bridging veins. Conversely, SDH caused by rupture of a cortical artery without trauma or with minor trauma is also possible. Although over 150 cases of the latter SDH have been reported, they were predominantly diagnosed only during surgery, and therefore, no adequate histological evaluation has been performed. Therefore, essential etiology of this SDH type has remained unclear. In addition, the scarcity of autopsy cases may be attributed to arterial rupture being missed if the macroscopic findings are too minimal to detect during autopsy. Here, we describe two autopsy cases of SDH of cortical artery origin. Extravasation on postmortem computed tomography angiography and arterial leakage on macroscopic observation during autopsy facilitated detection of the ruptured artery and allowed detailed histological evaluation of the ruptured artery and adjacent dura mater. The etiology of arterial rupture is briefly described on the basis of histopathological findings in this study and the available literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2021.101941DOI Listing
July 2021

Postmortem volume change of the spleen and kidney on early postmortem computed tomography: comparison with antemortem computed tomography.

Jpn J Radiol 2019 Jul 8;37(7):534-542. Epub 2019 May 8.

Center for Cause of Death Investigation, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuoku, Niigata, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan.

Purpose: To clarify an early postmortem change, we investigated the volume changes of the spleen and kidney on postmortem CT compared with antemortem CT in the same patients.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the volumes of 56 spleens (56 cases) and 50 kidneys (25 cases) using antemortem and postmortem CT, which were performed within 168 min after death. We divided the cases of spleen analysis into a hemorrhagic group (n = 12) and a non-hemorrhagic group (n = 44).

Results: The volumes of the organs before and after death were 101.0 ± 70.9 (cm, mean ± standard deviation) and 81.1 ± 57.8 in spleens, 120.3 ± 49.2 and 109.2 ± 39.2 in kidneys, respectively. Both spleens and kidneys shrank after death (p < 0.05). The volumes of spleens before and after death were 111 ± 66.5 and 67.5 ± 27.7 in the hemorrhagic group, and 98.2 ± 72.5 and 84.9 ± 63.3 in the non-hemorrhagic group, respectively. The median value of the ratio of postmortem splenic volume to antemortem volume in the hemorrhagic group (65.0%) was smaller than the one in the non-hemorrhagic group (90.5%) (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that spleens and kidneys significantly reduced in size after death. The rate of shrinkage of spleens in the hemorrhagic group significantly became larger than the one in the non-hemorrhagic group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-019-00841-3DOI Listing
July 2019

An autopsy case of peliosis hepatis with X-linked myotubular myopathy.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2019 May 18;38:77-82. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Legal Medicine, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medicine and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan; Center of Cause of Death Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:

This report describes the autopsy case of a 4-year-old boy who died from hepatic hemorrhage and rupture caused by peliosis hepatis with X-linked myotubular myopathy. Peliosis hepatis is characterized by multiple blood-filled cavities of various sizes in the liver, which occurs in chronic wasting disease or with the use of specific drugs. X-linked myotubular myopathy is one of the most serious types of congenital myopathies, in which an affected male infant typically presents with severe hypotonia and respiratory distress immediately after birth. Although each disorder is rare, 12 cases of pediatric peliosis hepatis associated with X-linked myotubular myopathy have been reported, including our case. Peliosis hepatis should be considered as a cause of hepatic hemorrhage despite its low incidence, and it requires adequate gross and histological investigation for correct diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2019.04.005DOI Listing
May 2019

Assessment of a simple method of heart weight estimation by postmortem computed tomography.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Mar 6;296:22-27. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8520, Japan.

Background: Measurement of heart weight is important when investigating cause of death, but there is presently no satisfactory method of heart weight estimation by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT).

Method: We investigated 33 consecutive cases that underwent both PMCT and autopsy between February 2008 and June 2014. Heart and left ventricular (LV) weights were calculated by PMCT morphometry. We used a simple method to estimate LV weight: We assumed that LV was an ellipsoid and multiplied its volume on PMCT with myocardial specific gravity. We then compared the various heart and LV weights using linear regression. The calculated and estimated LV weights on PMCT were also compared.

Results: It was not possible to predict heart weight at autopsy from PMCT (R = 0.53). However, heart weight at autopsy could be accurately predicted from LV weight calculated by PMCT (R = 0.77). In addition, there was a strong correlation between the estimated and calculated LV weights by PMCT (R = 0.92). Heart weight at autopsy could also be accurately predicted using the PMCT-estimated LV weight (R = 0.72).

Conclusion: Heart weight at autopsy could be accurately predicted using a simple method in which LV volume was assumed to be an ellipsoid on PMCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.12.019DOI Listing
March 2019

Ascaris lumbricoides found in ashore corpses from Korean peninsula to Japan.

Parasitol Int 2019 Jun 7;70:1-4. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

Yearly, several reports of unknown boats and corpses brought by the Tsushima Current are found ashore Japanese coast. Niigata prefecture had the highest number of the drifting ashore corpses in Japan with 45.7% (16/35) in 2017. Corpses from North Korea, confirmed by documents and photos were autopsied and in 3/16 was possible to recover worms full of eggs, morphologically identified as ascarids. Further molecular analysis of ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 sequences confirmed all specimens were Ascaris lumbricoides. The contamination level by Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in the coast, the health impact and consequences of the epidemiological bridging produced by this forced migration in public health should be investigated. Moreover, control of helminthiases might be a necessary task in North Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2019.01.002DOI Listing
June 2019

An autopsy case of prolonged asphyxial death caused by the impacted denture in the esophagus.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2016 Nov 20;23:95-98. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Division of Legal Medicine, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medicine and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

A foreign body impacted in the esophagus is not a rare incident among adults or children. In adults, a dental prosthesis is prone to become impacted in the esophagus. The diagnostic difficulty of this often causes a delay in its removal, which can lead to serious complications, including death. This report describes the autopsy case of a man who died of prolonged asphyxiation induced by the delayed removal of an impacted denture, which was misdiagnosed on his first visit notwithstanding that a part of the denture could be seen on X-rays. Cases in which an impacted denture led to death have rarely been reported in contrast to numerous papers about recovered cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.10.006DOI Listing
November 2016

A palindromic CpG-containing phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide as a mucosal adjuvant stimulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell-mediated T(H)1 immunity.

PLoS One 2014 24;9(2):e88846. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Laboratory of Host Defense, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, Japan ; Research and Education Program for Life Science and Translational Research Program, University of Fukui, Fukui-shi, Fukui, Japan.

Background: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), resembling bacterial DNA, are currently tested in clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants. They have the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate bond; the immune responses elicited differ according to the CpG ODN sequence and vaccination method. To develop a CpG ODN that can induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-mediated T(H)1 immunity through the mucosa, we constructed phosphodiester G9.1 comprising one palindromic CpG motif with unique polyguanosine-runs that allows degradation similar to naturally occurring bacterial DNA.

Methods: T(H)1 and T(H)2 immunity activation was evaluated by cytokine production pattern and T-bet/GATA-3 ratio in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse bone marrow cells. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in mice administered G9.1 with diphtheria toxoid (DT) through nasal vaccination.

Results: G9.1 exhibited stronger IFN-α-inducing activity than A-class CpG ODN2216 and increased T-bet/GATA-3 ratio by enhancing T-bet expression. Nasally administered G9.1 plus DT induced DT-specific mucosal IgA and serum IgG, but not IgE, responses with antitoxin activity in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, possibly due to IFN/BAFF production. Induction of T(H)1, but not T(H)2-type Abs depended completely on pDCs, the first in vivo demonstration by CpG ODNs.

Conclusions: G9.1 is a promising mucosal adjuvant for induction of pDC-mediated T(H)1 immunity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088846PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933336PMC
December 2014

Changes in aortic shape and diameters after death: comparison of early postmortem computed tomography with antemortem computed tomography.

Forensic Sci Int 2013 Feb 30;225(1-3):27-31. Epub 2012 May 30.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the postmortem deformation of the aorta on postmortem computed tomography (CT) by comparison with the antemortem CT in the same patient.

Materials And Methods: A total of 58 non-traumatic patients without hemorrhagic events who underwent torso CT before and shortly after death were enrolled. Antemortem chest and abdominal CT were obtained in 44 cases and in 57 cases, respectively. The lengths of the major and minor axes of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta were measured on both antemortem and postmortem CT in the same patient. To evaluate the shape of the aorta, the major axis-minor axis ratio (Ma-MiR) was calculated. Mean values of the diameters of the aorta and Ma-MiRs on postmortem CT were compared with those on antemortem CT using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We also evaluated the major and minor axes and Ma-MiRs on both antemortem and postmortem CT in two age groups: 65 years and under (n=13) and over 65 years (n=45).

Results: At each level tested, the aorta significantly shrank after death (p<0.001) (ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta: 38.5 mm × 33.5 mm, 28.0 mm × 25.9 mm, and 24.4 mm × 21.8 mm on antemortem CT, 30.0 mm × 26.2 mm, 24.4 mm × 20.7 mm, and 21.5 mm × 14.5 mm on postmortem CT, respectively). The postmortem Ma-MiRs significantly increased at the descending thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta (p<0.001). The diameters of the aorta are longer in older cases at all levels on both antemortem and postmortem CT. The reduction rates were larger in younger cases than older cases at all levels.

Conclusions: After death, the aorta shrunk at all levels, and became oval in shape in descending thoracic and abdominal aorta. The contraction was greater in younger cases than older cases. Investigators who interpret postmortem imaging should be aware of the postmortem deformation of the aorta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.04.037DOI Listing
February 2013

Cytochrome P450 1A1, glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 polymorphisms in Ovambos and Mongolians.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2009 Apr 4;11 Suppl 1:S408-10. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enya, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with several diseases. In this study, CYP1A1 MspI, GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms were investigated in 134 Ovambo and 207 Mongolians, and the results were compared with those from previous studies. Using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) the frequency of CYP1A1 MspI mutation was determined. The multiplex PCR was used to determine the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism. The frequencies of wild-type, heterozygous variant and homozygous variant of the CYP1A1 MspI genotypes were 72.4%, 25.4% and 2.2%, and 22.7%, 55.6% and 21.7% in the Ovambos and Mongolians, respectively. The frequencies of GSTM1 (null) and GSTT1 (null) genotypes were 11.2% and 35.8%, and 46.4% and 25.6% in the Ovambos and Mongolians, respectively. The CYP1A1 MspI and GSTT1 (null) genotype distribution of the Ovambos was similar to that of African-Americans and some Caucasians. In contrast, the GSTM1 (null) genotype distribution was different from that of all other populations. Among Mongolians, the CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism showed the highest mutation frequencies, GSTM1 (null) was similar to that of East Asians, and GSTT1 (null) was different from that of almost all the Asians examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.01.073DOI Listing
April 2009

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorhexidine in whole blood by solid-phase extraction and kinetics following an intravenous infusion in rats.

J Anal Toxicol 2009 Mar;33(2):85-91

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Southeast University, No.87 Dingjiaqiao, Nanjing 210009, China.

This paper presents the extraction and analysis of chlorhexidine (CHX) from whole blood using solid-phase extraction (SPE) together with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blood samples, spiked with chlorpromazine used as an internal standard, were fortified with sodium acetate buffer and purified with Bakerbond C(18) SPE columns. The columns were washed, dried, and eluted with experimental optimized solvent systems. The HPLC was performed using a Capcell Pak C(18) MG column (4.6 x 250-mm) and monitored at 260 nm, using a UV detector. A mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water (40:60 v/v), containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, 0.05% heptafluorobutyric acid, and 0.1% triethylamine, was employed. The assay was linear over the range of 0.05 to 2.0 microg/g and the limit of detection was 0.01 microg/g for CHX in whole blood. At the concentration range of 0.05 to 2.0 microg/g, the recoveries ranged from 72% to 85%, and the intra- and interday precision, expressed as coefficient of variation, were less than 11% and 13%, respectively. Kinetic characteristics following an intravenous infusion of a CHX product, Maskin solution, at a dose of 15 mg/kg in rats were evaluated using the present method. The kinetic profiles of CHX conformed to a two-compartment model with an alpha half-life (of distribution) at 0.05 h and a beta half-life (of elimination) at 0.55 h in rats. The method is simple and reliable for the determination of CHX in blood samples and could be expected to apply to forensic and clinical specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/33.2.85DOI Listing
March 2009

Two N-linked glycosylation sites (Asn18 and Asn106) are both required for full enzymatic activity, thermal stability, and resistance to proteolysis in mammalian deoxyribonuclease I.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2008 Dec 7;72(12):3197-205. Epub 2008 Dec 7.

Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) is known to be a glycoprotein, and two potential N-linked glycosylation sites (N18 and N106) are known for mammalian enzymes. In the present study, N18 and N106 were mutated in order to investigate the biological role of N-linked glycosylation in three mammalian (human, bovine, and equine) DNases I. The enzyme activities of N18Q and N106Q were lower than that of the wild type, and that of the double mutant (N18Q/N106Q) was lower than those of the single mutants, in accord with the sugar moiety contents in the three mammals. In addition, all mutant enzymes were unstable to heat, suggesting that both sites are required for heat stability. Moreover, in human and equine enzymes, the N18Q and N106Q mutant enzymes were less resistant to trypsin, while N18Q/N106Q was the most sensitive to trypsin. As for bovine DNase I, the trypsin resistance of N18Q and N106Q was similar to that of the wild type, but that of N18Q/N106Q decreased in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, N-linked glycosylation was not related to pH sensitivity. The results of the present study suggest that N18 and N106 are both necessary for (i) full enzymatic activity, (ii) heat-stability, and (iii) trypsin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.80376DOI Listing
December 2008

Gln222Arg (A2317G) polymorphism in the deoxyribonuclease I gene exhibits ethnic and functional differences.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2009 ;47(1):51-5

Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.

Background: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in exon 8 (A2317G: Gln222Arg) has been shown to be associated with several diseases.

Methods: The allele frequency of the DNASE1 polymorphism in Chinese (Shenyang and Guangzhou in China), Uygurs (Urumqi), Tamils (Sri Lanka), and Tibetans (Katmandu in Nepal) was investigated, and the results were compared with those of other studies.

Results: This study revealed that DNASE1*1 is more common in Africans and DNASE1*2 is more common in Caucasians. Expression vectors of DNASE1*1 and DNASE1*2 were constructed and compared to the enzyme properties secreted into a medium from transfected COS-7 cells. The activity of the type-2 enzyme was significantly higher than that of the type-1 enzyme. In addition, the type-1 enzyme was heat-labile when compared to the type-2 enzyme. Moreover, the optimum pH of the DNase I type-2 enzyme was more acidic than that of DNase I type-1.

Conclusions: This study revealed that the distribution of Gln222Arg in the DNASE1 gene is different among ethnic groups and that the DNASE1 polymorphism appears to affect the specific activity, heat sensitivity, and optimum pH of the DNase I enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2009.002DOI Listing
March 2009

Cytochrome P450 2J2*7 polymorphisms in Japanese, Mongolians and Ovambos.

Cell Biochem Funct 2008 Oct;26(7):813-6

Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo Shimane, Japan.

Human cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) is abundant in cardiovascular tissue and active in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to eicosanoids that have potent vasodilatory properties. Variability of the CYP2J2 gene is highly constrained except for its proximal promoter: there is a relatively common and functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism, indicated by -50G > T polymorphism (CYP2J2*7). Although genetic variation is known among ethnic groups, data for allele frequency are limited to a few Caucasian, Asian, and one African populations. In the present study, genotype distribution of CYP2J2*7 polymorphisms was investigated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay in Japanese (n = 338), Mongolian (n = 118), and Ovambo (n = 186) populations and the findings compared with other populations. The mutant (CYP2J2*7) frequencies in the Japanese, Mongolians, and Ovambos were 0.0621, 0.0339, and 0.0672, respectively. Except for the Taiwanese, a general uniformity in the polymorphism in the Asian populations was observed. The mutation frequency of Ovambos was relatively lower than that of the African-American population. This study is the first to investigate the distribution of the CYP2J2*7 gene polymorphisms in Japanese, Mongolians, and Ovambos. These data will be informative and facilitate genetic association studies, in Asian and African populations for CYP2J2-related diseases such as cardiovascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.1512DOI Listing
October 2008

Three single nucleotide polymorphisms leading to non-synonymous amino acid substitution in the human ribonuclease 2 and angiogenin genes exhibit markedly less genetic heterogeneity in six populations.

Cell Biochem Funct 2008 Aug;26(6):718-22

Division of Medical Genetics and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui, Japan.

Angiogenin and ribonuclease 2 (RNase 2) are members of the human RNase superfamily. Although three potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, which could give rise to an amino acid substitution in the protein, have been identified, relevant population data are not available, and accordingly they have not been applied to clinical-genetic analysis. For this purpose, a novel genotyping method for each SNP using the mismatched PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique has been developed. Using this method, the genotype distribution of each SNP was investigated in six populations: Japanese (n = 167), Korean (n = 90), Mongolian (n = 92), Ovambos (n = 86), Turkish (n = 87), and German (n = 70). In all the populations, only one genotype was found in each SNP. Irrespective of differences in ethnic groups, the angiogenin and RNase 2 genes appear to exhibit markedly less genetic heterogeneity with regard to these SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.1498DOI Listing
August 2008

Two deoxyribonuclease I gene polymorphisms and correlation between genotype and its activity in Japanese population.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2007 Sep 22;9(5):233-6. Epub 2007 Feb 22.

Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, 89-1 Enya, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) plays important roles for DNA fragmentation and degradation during programmed cell death. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at DNase I, designated as DNASE1, in exon 8 (A2317G) is considered to be one of the susceptibility genes for gastric and colorectal carcinoma and myocardial infarction. Recent research has shown the presence of a novel 56-bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in intron 4 at DNase I, designated as HumDN1. In the present study, DNASE1 and HumDN1polymorphisms and serum DNase I activities in each different genotype were investigated in 137 Japanese populations. The allele frequencies of A and G in DNASE1 were 0.5839 and 0.4161, respectively. The allelic frequencies of alleles 2, 3, 4, and 5 in HumDN1 were 0.0219, 0.5803, 0.2226, and 0.1752, respectively. In the DNASE1 polymorphism, the activities of genotypes GG and AG were significantly higher than that of AA. As for the HumDN1 polymorphism, the activity of genotype 55 was significantly higher than the activities of 33 and 34. In addition, a significant difference was observed between haplotypes AA/33 and GG/55. The analysis of the correlation between genotype and DNase I activity may be potentially useful for clinical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.006DOI Listing
September 2007

Collaborative action of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK is involved in CpG DNA-induced IFN-alpha and chemokine production in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

J Immunol 2006 Oct;177(7):4841-52

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 Matsuoka-Shimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

CpG DNA induces plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) to produce type I IFN and chemokines. However, it has not been fully elucidated how the TLR9 signaling pathway is linked to these gene expressions. We examined the mechanisms involving the TLR9 and type I IFN signaling pathways, in relation to CpG DNA-induced IFN-alpha, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-7, and chemokines CXCL10 and CCL3 in human pDC. In pDC, NF-kappaB subunits p65 and p50 were constitutively activated. pDC also constitutively expressed IRF-7 and CCL3, and the gene expressions seemed to be regulated by NF-kappaB. CpG DNA enhanced the NF-kappaB p65/p50 activity, which collaborated with p38 MAPK to up-regulate the expressions of IRF-7, CXCL10, and CCL3 in a manner independent of type I IFN signaling. We then examined the pathway through which IFN-alpha is expressed. Type I IFN induced the expression of IRF-7, but not of IFN-alpha, in a NF-kappaB-independent way. CpG DNA enabled the type I IFN-treated pDC to express IFN-alpha in the presence of NF-kappaB/p38 MAPK inhibitor, and chloroquine abrogated this effect. With CpG DNA, IRF-7, both constitutively and newly expressed, moved to the nuclei independently of NF-kappaB/p38 MAPK. These findings suggest that, in CpG DNA-stimulated human pDC, the induction of IRF-7, CXCL10, and CCL3 is mediated by the NF-kappaB/p38 MAPK pathway, and that IRF-7 is activated upstream of the activation of NF-kappaB/p38 MAPK in chloroquine-sensitive regulatory machinery, thereby leading to the expression of IFN-alpha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.7.4841DOI Listing
October 2006

Human Mpv17-like protein is localized in peroxisomes and regulates expression of antioxidant enzymes.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Jun 19;344(3):948-54. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Division of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

M-LP (Mpv17-like protein) is a protein that was initially identified in mouse tissues and shows high sequence homology with Mpv17 protein, a peroxisomal membrane protein involved in the development of early-onset glomerulosclerosis [R. Iida, T. Yasuda, E. Tsubota, H. Takatsuka, M. Masuyama, T. Matsuki, K. Kishi, M-LP, Mpv17-like protein, has a peroxisomal membrane targeting signal comprising a transmembrane domain and a positively charged loop and up-regulates expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 6301-6306]. Here we report the identification and characterization of a human homolog of the M-LP (M-LPH) gene. The M-LPH gene is composed of four exons, extends over 14kb on chromosome 16p13.1, and is expressed as two alternatively spliced variants comprising four and three exons, respectively, which include open-reading frames encoding two distinct isoforms composed of 196 (M-LPH1) and 147 (M-LPH2) amino acids, respectively. These two variants were expressed ubiquitously in human tissues, however only M-LPH1 was detected at the protein level. Dual-color confocal analysis of COS-7 cells transfected with a green fluorescent protein-tagged M-LPH1 demonstrated that M-LPH1 is localized in peroxisomes. In order to elucidate the function of M-LPH1, we examined the mRNA levels of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species in COS-7 cells and found that transfection with M-LPH1 down-regulates expression of the plasma glutathione peroxidase and catalase genes. These results show the existence of the human homolog of M-LP and its participation in reactive oxygen species metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.008DOI Listing
June 2006

Improvement of a multiplex PCR system for DYS441, DYS442, DYS443, DYS444 and DYS445, and a population study in 340 Japanese males.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2005 May 18;7(3):183-9. Epub 2004 Dec 18.

Research Institute of Scientific Criminal Investigation, Fukui Prefectural Police Headquarters, Fukui 910-0005, Japan.

A multiplex PCR system for five Y-STRs (DYS441, DYS442, DYS443, DYS444 and DYS445) has been improved to increase the probability of obtaining a DNA typing result from aged samples. Newly designed PCR primers for amplification of the DYS441 and DYS442 loci and optimization of PCR conditions enabled successful typing from blood and semen stains that had been stored for more than seven years at room temperature. Analysis of 340 Japanese males revealed 7, 5, 6, 5 and 4 alleles at the DYS441, DYS442, DYS443, DYS444 and DYS445 loci, respectively, yielding 122 haplotypes with a cumulative haplotype diversity of 0.97.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.10.006DOI Listing
May 2005

Quantitative change in mitochondrial DNA content in various mouse tissues during aging.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 May 17;1723(1-3):302-8. Epub 2005 Mar 17.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Matsuoka-cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

In order to systematically characterize age-related changes in the mtDNA content of various tissues during aging, we analyzed the mtDNA content of eight tissues from mice at five different ages from young to senescent by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Obvious variations of mtDNA content among the tissues were detected: There was a 20-fold range in 2-week-old mice and a 50-fold range in 15-month-old mice. The mtDNA contents of the heart, lung, kidney, spleen and skeletal muscle increased gradually with age, whereas those of bone marrow and brain showed no age-related pattern. The expression patterns of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) and mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein (mtSSB), possible regulatory factors of the mtDNA copy number, were not necessarily linked with the age-related pattern of the mtDNA content, suggesting the existence of other factors that affect the mtDNA content. The Western blot analysis of mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (MTCO3) demonstrated that the expression levels of this protein in the heart and skeletal muscle increase with age in parallel with the mtDNA content. These findings confirm that the mtDNA content of tissues changes during aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.03.001DOI Listing
May 2005

A novel alternative spliced Mpv17-like protein isoform localizes in cytosol and is expressed in a kidney- and adult-specific manner.

Exp Cell Res 2005 Jan;302(1):22-30

Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

Mpv17-like protein (M-LP) has been identified as a new protein that shows high sequence homology with Mpv17 protein, a peroxisomal membrane protein involved in the development of early onset glomerulosclerosis. We previously showed that the originally identified M-LP isoform, designated M-LPL, is, like Mpv17, localized in peroxisomes, and that transfection with M-LPL up-regulates expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) gene [R. Iida, T. Yasuda, E. Tsubota, H. Takatsuka, M. Masuyama, T. Matsuki, K. Kishi, M-LP, Mpv17-like protein, has a peroxisomal membrane targeting signal comprising a transmembrane domain and a positively charged loop and up-regulates expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 6301-6306.]. We report here the identification of a novel alternative splicing product of the M-LP gene, designated M-LPS. A comparison of the genomic sequence with the cDNA sequences and an analysis of 5'-flanking regions revealed that the two isoforms are generated by alternative usage of two promoters. M-LPS consists of the C-terminal half of M-LPL (90 amino acids) and therefore lacks the peroxisome targeting signal of membrane protein that exists near the N-terminus of M-LPL. Expression of green fluorescent protein-tagged M-LPS in COS-7 cells demonstrated that M-LPS localizes in the cytosol. In mice, M-LPS is expressed exclusively in kidneys after the age of 6 weeks. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that transfection with M-LPS up-regulates expression of the SOD2 gene and down-regulates expression of the cellular glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (Gpx3) genes. Taken together, these results suggest different functional attributes of the two M-LP isoforms during aging and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.08.027DOI Listing
January 2005

A novel multiplex PCR system consisting of Y-STRs DYS441, DYS442, DYS443, DYS444, and DYS445.

J Forensic Sci 2003 Sep;48(5):1088-90

Department of Forensic Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

We have developed a new sensitive multiplex PCR system consisting of five male-specific and polymorphic tetranucleotide STRs--DYS441 (GDB: 10013873), DYS442 (GDB: 10030304), DYS443 (GDB: 10807127), DYS444 (GDB: 10807128), and DYS445 (GDB: 10807129) on the Y chromosome. Fifty pg DNA per 10 microL reaction volume was required for the correct typing of five STRs. Using this system, the five Y-STRs were correctly typed from blood and semen stains that had been stored for several years at room temperature.
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September 2003

M-LP, Mpv17-like protein, has a peroxisomal membrane targeting signal comprising a transmembrane domain and a positively charged loop and up-regulates expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene.

J Biol Chem 2003 Feb 5;278(8):6301-6. Epub 2002 Dec 5.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Fukui Medical School, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

M-LP (Mpv17-like protein) has been identified as a new protein that has high sequence homology with Mpv17 protein, a peroxisomal membrane protein involved in the development of early onset glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we verified the peroxisomal localization of M-LP by performing dual-color confocal analysis of COS-7 cells cotransfected with green fluorescent protein-tagged M-LP and DsRED2-PTS1, a red fluorescent peroxisomal marker. To characterize the peroxisomal membrane targeting signal, we examined the intracellular localizations of several green fluorescent protein-tagged deletion mutants and demonstrated that, of the three transmembrane segments predicted, the first near the NH(2) terminus and NH(2)-terminal half of the following loop region, which is abundant in positively charged amino acids, were necessary and sufficient for peroxisomal targeting. To elucidate the function of M-LP, we examined the activities of several enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species metabolism in COS-7 cells and found that transfection with M-LP increased the superoxide dismutase activity significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the manganese SOD (SOD2) mRNA level of COS-7 cells transfected with M-LP was elevated. These results indicate that M-LP participates in reactive oxygen species metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M210886200DOI Listing
February 2003

CpG-DNA-induced IFN-alpha production involves p38 MAPK-dependent STAT1 phosphorylation in human plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors.

J Leukoc Biol 2002 Nov;72(5):1011-9

Department of Forensic Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Yochida-gun, Japan.

Human plasmacytoid or CD4(+)CD11c(-) type 2 dendritic cell precursors (PDC) were identified as natural type I interferon (IFN)-producing cells in response to viral and bacterial infection. They represent effector cells of innate immunity and link it to the distinct adaptive immunity by differentiating into mature DC. It has been reported that oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG DNA) stimulate PDC to produce IFN-alpha, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. We found that CpG-DNA-induced IFN-alpha production in PDC was completely impaired by the inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Expression of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-7 was enhanced by CpG-DNA treatment, which was preceded by the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 on Tyr-701, as well as its enhanced phosphorylation on Ser-727. All of these events were also suppressed by the p38 MAPK inhibitor. STAT1, STAT2, and IRF-9, components of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), were recognized in the nuclear fraction of CpG-DNA-treated cells. Neither anti-IFN-alpha/beta antibodies (Ab) nor anti-IFNAR Ab suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation, enhancement of IRF-7 expression, or IFN-alpha production in the early phase of the culture. These results suggest that CpG DNA induces p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 in a manner independent of IFN-alpha/beta, which may cause ISGF3 formation to increase the transcription of the IRF-7 gene, thereby leading to IFN-alpha production in human PDC.
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November 2002
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