Publications by authors named "Hiroyuki Suganuma"

53 Publications

Neoxanthin in young vegetable leaves prevents fat accumulation in differentiated adipocytes.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Nature & Wellness Research Department, Innovation Division, KAGOME CO., LTD., Tochigi, Japan.

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of young leaves on fat accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A potent preventive effect on fat accumulation was observed in fractions of young leaves of spinach, beet, and arugula extracted with a low-polarity solvent (hexane: acetone: ethanol: toluene = 10:6:7:6). This effect was seemingly associated with the leaf carotenoid content, including lutein, β-carotene, and neoxanthin. Among these, only neoxanthin, with the characteristic structure of 5,6-monoepoxide and an allenic bond, significantly prevented fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. The preventive effect and carotenoid content, including neoxanthin, of these young leaves did not differ from those of the corresponding adult leaves. Therefore, our study demonstrated that young vegetable leaves, such as spinach, beet, and arugula leaves, contained neoxanthin, which prevented fat accumulation in adipocytes in vitro. In the future, the effectiveness of such young leaves and neoxanthin should be investigated in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab138DOI Listing
July 2021

Grain consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight in Japan: the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Background/objectives: Studies have reported the effects of grain consumption on human health, but the association between maternal grain consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight remains unclear. We evaluated the association between maternal grain consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight/low birth weight (LBW).

Subjects/methods: Grain consumption was calculated using two semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). The two FFQs evaluated consumption from pre- to early pregnancy and then from early to mid-pregnancy, respectively. Information concerning birth weight was obtained from birth records, and multivariable analyses for birth weight and LBW risk were conducted after adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: In total, 17,610 pregnant women (age, 31.8 ± 4.9 years; smoked during pregnancy, 16.1%; gestation period, 38.5 ± 2.5 weeks; first childbirth, 45.5%) and their singleton and term new-borns (birth weight, 3061.8 ± 354.1 g; LBW, 5.4%) were included in the analysis. Women in the highest quartile of grain consumption from pre- to early pregnancy had heavier new-borns (β = 22.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-38.9) but did not have a significantly lower LBW risk (odds ratio [OR]: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.71-1.07) than women in the lowest quartile. Women in the highest quartile of grain consumption from early to mid-pregnancy also had heavier new-borns (β = 24.1; 95% CI: 7.1-41.1) but did not have a significantly lower LBW risk (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.69-1.05) than women in the lowest quartile.

Conclusions: Grain consumption before and during pregnancy was positively associated with birth weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00939-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and developmental delays in offspring aged 2 years in Japan.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi980-8573, Japan.

The association between fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and offspring's physical growth has been well reported, but no study has focused on offspring's neurological development. We aimed to explore the association between maternal fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and developmental delays in their offspring aged 2 years. Between July 2013 and March 2017, 23 406 women were recruited for the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study. Fruit and vegetable consumption was calculated using FFQ, and offspring's developmental delays were evaluated by the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3) for infants aged 2 years. Finally, 10 420 women and 10 543 infants were included in the analysis. Totally, 14·9 % of children had developmental delay when screened using the ASQ-3. Women in the highest quartile of vegetable consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy and from early to mid-pregnancy had lower odds of offspring's developmental delays (OR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·63, 0·89 and OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·84, respectively) than women in the lowest quartile. Women in the highest quartile of fruit consumption from early to mid-pregnancy had lower odds of offspring's developmental delays (OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·92) than women in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, high fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of developmental delays in offspring aged 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521002154DOI Listing
June 2021

Similar circling movements observed across marine megafauna taxa.

iScience 2021 Apr 18;24(4):102221. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564, Japan.

Advances in biologging technology have enabled 3D dead-reckoning reconstruction of marine animal movements at spatiotemporal scales of meters and seconds. Examining high-resolution 3D movements of sharks (, N = 4; , N = 1), sea turtles (, N = 3), penguins (, N = 6), and marine mammals (, N = 4; , N = 1), we report the discovery of circling events where animals consecutively circled more than twice at relatively constant angular speeds. Similar circling behaviors were observed across a wide variety of marine megafauna, suggesting these behaviors might serve several similar purposes across taxa including foraging, social interactions, and navigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100896PMC
April 2021

TOMATOMET: A metabolome database consists of 7118 accurate mass values detected in mature fruits of 25 tomato cultivars.

Plant Direct 2021 Apr 29;5(4):e00318. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Graduate School of Agriculture Kyoto University Uji Japan.

The total number of low-molecular-weight compounds in the plant kingdom, most of which are secondary metabolites, is hypothesized to be over one million, although only a limited number of plant compounds have been characterized. Untargeted analysis, especially using mass spectrometry (MS), has been useful for understanding the plant metabolome; however, due to the limited availability of authentic compounds for MS-based identification, the identities of most of the ion peaks detected by MS remain unknown. Accurate mass values of peaks obtained by high accuracy mass measurement and, if available, MS/MS fragmentation patterns provide abundant annotation for each peak. Here, we carried out an untargeted analysis of compounds in the mature fruit of 25 tomato cultivars using liquid chromatography-Orbitrap MS for accurate mass measurement, followed by manual curation to construct the metabolome database TOMATOMET (http://metabolites.in/tomato-fruits/). The database contains 7,118 peaks with accurate mass values, in which 1,577 ion peaks are annotated as members of a chemical group. Remarkably, 71% of the mass values are not found in the accurate masses detected previously in , or , indicating significant chemical diversity among plant species that remains to be solved. Interestingly, substantial chemical diversity exists also among tomato cultivars, indicating that chemical profiling from distinct cultivars contributes towards understanding the metabolome, even in a single organ of a species, and can prioritize some desirable metabolic targets for further applications such as breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pld3.318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082711PMC
April 2021

Morphological features of the nasal cavities of hawksbill, olive ridley, and black sea turtles: Comparative studies with green, loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250873. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan.

We analyzed the internal structure of the nasal cavities of hawksbill, olive ridley and black sea turtles from computed tomography images. The nasal cavities of all three species consisted of a vestibule, nasopharyngeal duct and cavum nasi proprium that included anterodorsal, posterodorsal and anteroventral diverticula, and a small posteroventral salience formed by a fossa of the wall. These findings were similar to those of green and loggerhead sea turtles (Cheloniidae), but differed from those of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelyidae). Compared to the Cheloniidae species, the nasal cavity in leatherback sea turtles was relatively shorter, wider and larger in volume. Those structural features of the nasal cavity of leatherback sea turtles might help to suppress heat dissipation and reduce water pressure within the nasal cavity in cold and deep waters.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250873PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084137PMC
April 2021

Association between Serum Concentration of Carotenoid and Visceral Fat.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 11;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Innovation Center for Health Promotion, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids has been widely reported to prevent cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and visceral fat area (VFA), which is considered a better predictor of cardiovascular diseases than the body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the relationship in healthy individuals in their 20s or older, stratified by sex and age, to compare the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and VFA and BMI. The study was conducted on 805 people, the residents in Hirosaki city, Aomori prefecture, who underwent a health checkup. An inverse relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and VFA and BMI was observed only in women. In addition, the results were independent of the intake of dietary fiber, which is mainly supplied from vegetables as well as carotenoids. This suggests that consumption of a diet rich in carotenoids (especially lutein and beta-carotene) is associated with lower VFA, which is a good predictor of cardiovascular disease, especially in women. This study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the association between serum carotenoid levels and VFA in healthy individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999533PMC
March 2021

Cutaneous Carotenoid Level Measured by Multiple Spatially Resolved Reflection Spectroscopy Sensors Correlates with Vegetable Intake and Is Increased by Continual Intake of Vegetable Juice.

Diseases 2020 Dec 31;9(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Innovation Division, KAGOME Co., Ltd., 17 Nishitomiyama, Nasushiobara 329-2762, Tochigi, Japan.

Although vegetables are beneficial for human health, in many countries, the recommended vegetable intake is not reached. To assess vegetable intake, it is important to understand vegetable consumption. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional and intervention study of 26 healthy individuals (50% women; 37.0 ± 8.9 years) and estimated vegetable intake on the basis of the cutaneous carotenoid level (CCL) with a noninvasive skin carotenoid sensor, considering that vegetable juice intake can increase CCL. Participants consumed vegetable juice containing 350 g of vegetables daily for 4 weeks. Blood carotenoid levels and CCL were measured for 12 weeks. Cross-sectional analysis showed a significant positive correlation between CCL and vegetable intake ( = 0.489). Vegetable juice consumption significantly increased CCL and the blood levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene ( < 0.05). The correlation coefficient between the blood level and CCL for lycopene was smaller ( = 0.001) compared to that between the blood level and CCL for α-carotene ( = 0.523) and β-carotene ( = 0.460), likely because of bioavailability differences. In conclusion, noninvasive skin carotenoid measurements are effective for determining vegetable intake, and vegetable juice significantly increases CCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diseases9010004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838938PMC
December 2020

Corrigendum to "Prophylactic Effects of Sulforaphane on Depression-Like Behavior and Dendritic Changes in Mice After Inflammation" [Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry; 39(2017); 134-144].

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Mar 18;89:108562. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108562DOI Listing
March 2021

Corrigendum to "Prophylactic Effects of Sulforaphane on Depression-Like Behavior and Dendritic Changes in Mice After Inflammation" Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 39 (2017) 134-144.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Feb 23;88:108550. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108550DOI Listing
February 2021

Short Communication: Oral Administration of Heat-killed KB290 in Combination with Retinoic Acid Provides Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 24;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 24.

AgResearch Ltd., Hopkirk Research Institute, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

Influenza virus type A (IAV) is a seasonal acute respiratory disease virus with severe symptoms, and an effective preventive measure is required. Despite many reports describing the potentially protective effects of lactic acid bacteria, few studies have investigated the effects of nutritional supplement combinations. This study reports the effect of the combined intake of heat-killed KB290 (KB290) and vitamin A (VA) on mice challenged with a sublethal dose of IAV. For 2 weeks, five groups of mice were fed either placebo, KB290, VA, or a combination of KB290 and VA (KB290+VA). After subsequent IAV challenge, bodyweight and general health were monitored for up to 2 weeks. Viral titres were determined in the lungs of animal subgroups euthanised at days 3, 7, and 14 after IAV challenge. A significant loss was observed in the bodyweights of IAV-infected animals from day 1 post-IAV challenge, whereas the mice fed KB290+VA did not lose any weight after IAV infection, indicating successful protection from the infection. Additionally, mice in the KB290+VA group showed the highest reduction in lung viral titres. In conclusion, the combination of KB290 and VA could be a useful food supplement relevant for protection against seasonal influenza virus infection in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12102925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600661PMC
September 2020

Association between serum β-carotene-to-retinol ratio and severity of hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Japan: A cross-sectional study.

Nutrition 2020 Nov - Dec;79-80:110984. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Objectives: Retinol and β-carotene have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, clinical studies are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum the ratio of β-carotene to retinol (SC/SR) and hepatic steatosis in NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography.

Methods: The participants were 606 Japanese adults who were enrolled in a health survey. Clinical profile, dietary nutrition intake, blood biochemistry, serum retinol, and carotenoids were analyzed. NAFLD was defined as fatty liver on ultrasonography in the absence of other causes of steatosis.

Results: Women had higher daily intake of α- and β-carotene, although there were no differences in daily retinol and carotenoid intake between participants with or without NAFLD in both men and women. Women had a higher SC/SR ratio than men regardless of the presence or absence of NAFLD, and the SC/SR ratio in women decreased with exacerbation of hepatic steatosis, whereas the SC/SR ratio in men did not change despite exacerbation of hepatic steatosis. After adjusting for confounding factors, the likelihood of NAFLD among participants in the highest quartile of SC/SR ratio decreased by two-thirds compared with participants in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-1.92; P = 0.041). The SC/SR ratio was positively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and negatively correlated with serum triacylglycerol level.

Conclusions: The SC/SR ratio was lower in NAFLD with sex differences, and was associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and lipid profile. Future studies are needed to expand on these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110984DOI Listing
June 2021

Tomato Juice Consumption Could Improve Breast Skin Adverse Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients.

In Vivo 2020 Sep-Oct;34(5):3013-3021

Department of Nursing Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki, Japan

Background/aim: We investigated the beneficial effects of drinking tomato juice (TJ) rich in antioxidant carotenoids on irradiated skin following radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer patients.

Patients/methods: Twenty-three patients agreed to drink TJ (160 g/day for six months) after the completion of RT. Early and late adverse events (AEs) of irradiated skin were evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for AEs and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Global Cosmetic Rating System, respectively.

Results: With regard to early AEs, acute radiodermatitis of grade 1 was observed in most patients (22/23) at the end of RT. However, the grade of radiodermatitis rapidly changed to 0, 1 month after RT and starting TJ consumption. With regard to late AEs, most patients were in good or excellent dermal condition.

Conclusion: TJ consumption could help in relieving and recovering from early AEs and decreasing the severity of late AEs of irradiated skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652455PMC
June 2021

Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NRF2 promoter with vascular stiffness with aging.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(8):e0236834. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Stress Response Science, Center for Advanced Medical Research, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Purpose: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of vascular stiffness, increases with age and is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although many mechanical and chemical factors underlie the stiffness of the elastic artery, genetic risk factors related to age-dependent increases in PWV in apparently healthy people are largely unknown. The transcription factor nuclear factor E2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is activated by unidirectional vascular pulsatile shear stress or oxidative stress, regulates vascular redox homeostasis. Previous reports have shown that a SNP in the NRF2 gene regulatory region (-617C>A; hereafter called SNP-617) affects NRF2 gene expression such that the minor A allele confers lower gene expression compared to the C allele, and it is associated with various diseases, including CVD. We aimed to investigate whether SNP-617 affects vascular stiffness with aging in apparently healthy people.

Methods: Analyzing wide-ranging data obtained from a public health survey performed in Japan, we evaluated whether SNP-617 affected brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) in never-smoking healthy subjects (n = 642). We also evaluated the effects of SNP-617 on other cardiovascular and blood test measurements.

Results: We have shown that not only AA carriers (n = 55) but also CA carriers (n = 247) show arterial stiffness compared to CC carriers (n = 340). Furthermore, SNP-617 also affected blood pressure indexes such as systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure but not the ankle brachial pressure index, an indicator of atherosclerosis. Multivariate analysis showed that SNP-617 accelerates the incremental ratio of baPWV with age.

Conclusions: This study is the first to show that SNP-617 affects the age-dependent increase in vascular stiffness. Our results indicate that low NRF2 activity induces premature vascular aging and could be targeted for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with aging.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236834PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418968PMC
October 2020

Association between Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Blood Concentration of Carotenoids among the General Population without Apparent Illness.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 31;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Several studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-rich vegetables are useful against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, it is still unclear when a healthy population should start eating these vegetables to prevent CVDs. In this study, we evaluated the role of carotenoids in CVD markers in healthy subjects using age-stratified analysis. We selected 1350 subjects with no history of apparent illness who were undergoing health examinations. We then evaluated the relationship between the serum concentrations of six major carotenoids as well as their total, and nine CVD markers (i.e., body mass index (BMI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), blood insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TGs), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) using multiple regression analysis. It was found that the total carotenoid level was significantly associated with seven markers other than BMI and FBG in males and with eight markers other than DBP in females. Many of these relationships were independent of lifestyle habits. Many significant relationships were found in young males (aged 20-39) and middle-aged females (aged 40-59). These findings can be used as lifestyle guidance for disease prevention although the causal relationships should be confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469056PMC
July 2020

Fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight of new-borns in Japan: the Tohoku medical megabank project birth and three-generation cohort study.

Nutr J 2020 08 3;19(1):80. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Background: Associations of fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy with birth weight of new-borns and the risk of low birth weight (LBW) remain unclear.

Methods: Between July 2013 and March 2017, we recruited 23,406 pregnant women in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study (TMM BirThree Cohort Study). Fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy was calculated using food frequency questionnaires. Information regarding birth weight was obtained from medical records, and LBW was defined as < 2500 g. We used a multivariable linear regression model and a multivariate logistic regression model to assess associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and birth weight/risk of LBW.

Results: In total, 17,610 women were included in the analysis. Mean birth weight was 3061.8 ± 354.1 g, and 5.4% of the new-borns had LBW. Compared to women in the lowest quartile of fruit consumption between pre- and early pregnancy, women in the highest quartile had heavier new-borns (β = 49.4; 95% CI: 34.1-64.7) and lower risk of LBW (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.95). Women in the highest quartile of fruit consumption from early to mid-pregnancy also had heavier new-borns (β = 32.3; 95% CI: 17.1-47.6), and they tended to have lower risk of LBW (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69-1.01). Results of analysing the association between changes in fruit consumption from pre- to mid-pregnancy and birth outcomes revealed that women with continuous high fruit consumption from pre- to mid-pregnancy had heavier new-borns (β = 37.6; 95% CI: 25.0-50.3), but they did not have lower risk of LBW (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.06). Associations involving vegetable consumption and birth weight/risk of LBW were not observed.

Conclusions: Fruit consumption before and during pregnancy was positively associated with birth weight of new-borns and negatively associated with risk of LBW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00595-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401206PMC
August 2020

Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 19;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 036-8562, Japan.

To confirm the usefulness of noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids to indicate vegetable intake and to elucidate relationships between skin carotenoid levels and biomarkers of circulatory diseases and metabolic syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional study on a resident-based health checkup ( = 811; 58% women; 49.5 ± 15.1 years). Skin and serum carotenoid levels were measured via reflectance spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Vegetable intake was estimated using a dietary questionnaire. Levels of 9 biomarkers (body mass index [BMI], brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV], systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP], homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], blood insulin, fasting blood glucose [FBG], triglycerides [TGs], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) were determined. Skin carotenoid levels were significantly positively correlated with serum total carotenoids and vegetable intake ( = 0.678 and 0.210, respectively). In women, higher skin carotenoid levels were significantly associated with lower BMI, SBP, DBP, HOMA-IR, blood insulin, and TGs levels and higher HDL-C levels. In men, it was also significantly correlated with BMI and blood insulin levels. In conclusion, dermal carotenoid level may indicate vegetable intake, and the higher level of dermal carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of circulatory diseases and metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353351PMC
June 2020

Dietary intake of glucoraphanin during pregnancy and lactation prevents the behavioral abnormalities in the offspring after maternal immune activation.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2020 09 28;40(3):268-274. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan.

Aim: Epidemiological data suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) plays a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. However, there is no prophylactic nutrition that can prevent the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring after MIA. The aim of this study was undertaken to examine whether dietary intake of glucoraphanin (GF: the precursor of a natural anti-inflammatory compound sulforaphane) can prevent the onset of behavioral abnormalities in offspring after MIA.

Methods: One percent of GF food pellet or normal food pellet was given into female mice during pregnancy and lactation (from E5 to P21). Saline (5 mL/kg/d) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg/d) was injected into pregnant mice from E12 to E17. Behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry of parvalbumin (PV) were performed in male offspring.

Results: Dietary intake of GF during pregnancy and lactation prevented cognitive deficits and social interaction deficits in the juvenile offspring after MIA. Furthermore, dietary intake of GF during pregnancy and lactation prevented cognitive deficits in the adult offspring after MIA. Moreover, dietary intake of GF prevented the reduction of PV immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of adult offspring after MIA.

Conclusion: These data suggest that dietary intake of GF during pregnancy and lactation could prevent behavioral abnormalities in offspring after MIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722647PMC
September 2020

Lycopene prevents the progression of lipotoxicity-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by decreasing oxidative stress in mice.

Free Radic Biol Med 2020 05 29;152:571-582. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Advanced Preventive Medical Sciences Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan; Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, 078-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Excessive fatty acid uptake-induced oxidative stress causes liver injury and the consecutive recruitment of inflammatory immune cells, thereby promoting the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Lycopene, the most effective singlet oxygen scavenger of the antioxidant carotenoids, has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the preventive and therapeutic effects of lycopene in a lipotoxic model of NASH: mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet. Lycopene alleviated excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and enhanced lipolysis, decreased the proportion of M1-type macrophages/Kupffer cells, and activated stellate cells to improve hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, and subsequently reduced the recruitment of CD4 and CD8 T cells in the liver. Importantly, lycopene reversed insulin resistance, as well as hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, in pre-existing NASH. In parallel, lycopene decreased LPS-/IFN-γ-/TNFα-induced M1 marker mRNA levels in peritoneal macrophages, as well as TGF-β1-induced expression of fibrogenic genes in a stellate cell line, in a dose-dependent manner. These results were associated with decreased oxidative stress in cells, which might be mediated by the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits. In summary, lycopene prevented and reversed lipotoxicity-induced inflammation and fibrosis in NASH mice by reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, it might be a novel and promising treatment for NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.11.036DOI Listing
May 2020

Regulation of Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia with Dietary Factors.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 23;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan.

Metabolic endotoxemia is a condition in which blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels are elevated, regardless of the presence of obvious infection. It has been suggested to lead to chronic inflammation-related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), pancreatitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, it has attracted attention as a target for the prevention and treatment of these chronic diseases. As metabolic endotoxemia was first reported in mice that were fed a high-fat diet, research regarding its relationship with diets has been actively conducted in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize the relationship between fat intake and induction of metabolic endotoxemia, focusing on gut dysbiosis and the influx, kinetics, and metabolism of LPS. We also summarize the recent findings about dietary factors that attenuate metabolic endotoxemia, focusing on the regulation of gut microbiota. We hope that in the future, control of metabolic endotoxemia using dietary factors will help maintain human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11102277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835897PMC
September 2019

Lycopene Alleviates Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Regulating M1/M2 Status of Macrophages.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 11 22;63(21):e1900602. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Cell Metabolism and Nutrition, Advanced Preventive Medical Sciences Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Scope: Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) recruitment and polarization are pivotal in the development of insulin resistance. However, treatment modalities targeting ATMs remain limited. The effects of lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid compound, on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in high fat (HF)-diet-induced obese mice are examined.

Methods And Results: C57BL/6J mice are fed an HF diet or an HF diet containing lycopene (HF+LY) for 8 weeks. Lycopene attenuates HF-diet-induced glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Compared with HF mice, HF+LY mice exhibit attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Flow cytometry analysis of ATMs demonstrates that lycopene attenuated the increased number of ATMs in HF diet-fed mice. In addition, HF+LY mice have 23% fewer M1-polarized ATMs and 60% more M2-polarized ATMs than HF mice, resulting in the predominance of M2 over M1 in the ATM population. M2-dominant polarization is also seen in hepatic macrophages in HF+LY mice. Moreover, lycopene promotes IL-4-induced M2 polarization by increasing the phosphorylation levels of STAT6 and Akt in Raw 264.7 macrophages.

Conclusions: Lycopene facilitates M2-dominant polarization in ATM, thereby attenuating HF diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in eWAT and the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900602DOI Listing
November 2019

Dietary supplementation with sulforaphane attenuates liver damage and heme overload in a sickle cell disease murine model.

Exp Hematol 2019 09 9;77:51-60.e1. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Tohoku Medical Mega-Bank Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a recessively inherited blood disorder caused by abnormal β-globin production. The β-globin mutation changes erythrocyte morphology into a sickle shape and increases erythrocyte vulnerability to hemolysis. Oxidative stress and concomitant inflammation eventually result in damage to multiple organs. Nrf2 is a master regulator of the oxidative stress response, homeostasis, and metabolism. Keap1 modulates Nrf2 protein levels; Nrf2 inducers alter nuclear Nrf2 levels by interacting with Keap1. Genetic modification of Keap1 helps to reduce inflammation and tissue damage in SCD model mice through Nrf2 induction. Here, we investigated the benefits of a mild and safe Nrf2 agonist, sulforaphane (SFN), in ameliorating SCD pathology in a murine model. SFN is a phytochemical and is found in cruciferous vegetables as its inert precursor, glucoraphanin. We found that dietary SFN administration for 14 days or 2 months increased the expression of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes, but SFN uptake did not have deleterious effects on the food consumption and growth of SCD model mice. SFN ameliorated the liver damage of SCD mice, which could be validated by the rescue of liver function and the significantly reduced liver necrotic area. SFN administration also helped to eliminate heme released from lysed sickle cells. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with SFN relieves SCD symptoms by inducing Nrf2 and support our contention that SFN is a potential drug for the long-term treatment of children with SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2019.08.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Dietary intake of glucoraphanin prevents the reduction of dopamine transporter in the mouse striatum after repeated administration of MPTP.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2019 09 27;39(3):247-251. Epub 2019 May 27.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan.

Aims: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although diet may influence the development of PD, the precise mechanisms underlying relationship between diet and PD pathology are unknown. Here, we examined whether dietary intake of glucoraphanin (GF), the precursor of a natural antioxidant sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables, can affect the reduction of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the mouse striatum after repeated administration of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine).

Methods: Normal food pellet or 0.1% GF food pellet was given into male mice for 28 days from 8-week-old. Subsequently, saline (5 mL/kg × 3, 2-hour interval) or MPTP (10 mg/kg × 3, 2-hour interval) was injected into mice. Immunohistochemistry of DAT in the striatum was performed 7 days after MPTP injection.

Results: Repeated injections of MPTP significantly decreased the density of DAT-immunoreactivity in the mouse striatum. In contrast, dietary intake of 0.1% GF food pellet significantly protected against MPTP-induced reduction of DAT-immunoreactivity in the striatum.

Conclusion: This study suggests that dietary intake of GF food pellet could prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum of adult mice. Therefore, dietary intake of GF-rich cruciferous vegetables may have beneficial effects on prevention for development of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292298PMC
September 2019

Apo-12'-lycopenal, a Lycopene Metabolite, Promotes Adipocyte Differentiation via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activation.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 4;66(50):13152-13161. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture , Kyoto University , Uji , Kyoto 611-0011 , Japan.

Apo-lycopenals, lycopene metabolites produced by an initial cleavage by β,β-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase, exhibit diverse biologically active effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of apo-lycopenals on the activation of nuclear receptors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Only apo-12'-lycopenal exhibited selective and dose-dependent transactivation activity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), whereas neither apo-6'- nor apo-8'-lycopenals displayed this activity ((7.83 ± 0.66)-, (1.32 ± 0.10)-, and (1.31 ± 0.37)-fold higher activity relative to control, respectively). Additionally, apo-12'-lycopenal promoted adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and subsequently increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ (a (2.36 ± 0.07)-fold increase relative to control; p < 0.01) and its target genes, as well as enhanced adiponectin secretion (a (3.25 ± 0.27)-fold increase relative to control; p < 0.01) and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (1486 ± 85 pmol/well; p < 0.001) in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results indicated that apo-12'-lycopenal promoted adipocyte differentiation by direct binding and activation of PPARγ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b04736DOI Listing
December 2018

Dietary Tomato Powder Inhibits High-Fat Diet-Promoted Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Alteration of Gut Microbiota in Mice Lacking Carotenoid Cleavage Enzymes.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2018 12 16;11(12):797-810. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Nutrition and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Both incidence and death rate due to liver cancer have increased in the United States. Higher consumption of lycopene-rich tomato and tomato products is associated with a decreased risk of cancers. β-Carotene-15, 15'-oxygenase (BCO1), and β-carotene-9', 10'-oxygenase (BCO2) cleave lycopene to produce bioactive apo-lycopenoids. Although BCO1/BCO2 polymorphisms affect human and animal lycopene levels, whether dietary tomato consumption can inhibit high-fat diet (HFD)-promoted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and affect gut microbiota in the absence of BCO1/BCO2 is unclear. BCO1/BCO2 double knockout mice were initiated with a hepatic carcinogen (diethylnitrosamine) at 2 weeks of age. At 6 weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to an HFD (60% of energy as fat) with or without tomato powder (TP) feeding for 24 weeks. Results showed that TP feeding significantly decreased HCC development (67%, 83%, and 95% reduction in incidence, multiplicity, and tumor volume, respectively, < 0.05). Protective effects of TP feeding were associated with (1) decreased hepatic inflammatory foci development and mRNA expression of proinflammatory biomarkers (IL1β, IL6, IL12α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible NO synthase); (2) increased mRNA expression of deacetylase sirtuin 1 and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involving NAD production; and (3) increased hepatic circadian clock genes (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, period 2, and cryptochrome-2, Wee1). Furthermore, TP feeding increased gut microbial richness and diversity, and significantly decreased the relative abundance of the genus and , respectively. The present study demonstrates that dietary tomato feeding independent of carotenoid cleavage enzymes prevents HFD-induced inflammation with potential modulating gut microbiota and inhibits HFD-promoted HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0188DOI Listing
December 2018

Dietary glucoraphanin prevents the onset of psychosis in the adult offspring after maternal immune activation.

Sci Rep 2018 02 1;8(1):2158. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adult offspring, although the molecular mechanisms underlying MIA-induced behavioral changes remain unclear. Here we demonstrated that dietary intake of glucoraphanin (GF), the precursor of a natural antioxidant sulforaphane, during juvenile and adolescent stages prevented cognitive deficits and loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult offspring after MIA. Gene set enrichment analysis by RNA sequencing showed that MIA caused abnormal expression of centrosome-related genes in the PFC and hippocampus of adult offspring, and that dietary intake of GF improved these abnormal gene expressions. Particularly, MIA increased the expression of suppressor of fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance protein 1 (Sfi1) mRNA in the PFC and hippocampus of adult offspring, and dietary intake of GF prevented the expression of Sfi1 mRNA in these regions. Interestingly, we found altered expression of SFI1 in the postmortem brains and SFI1 mRNA in hair follicle cells from patients with schizophrenia compared with controls. Overall, these data suggest that centrosome-related genes may play a role in the onset of psychosis in offspring after MIA. Therefore, dietary intake of GF-rich vegetables in high-risk psychosis subjects may prevent the transition to psychosis in young adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20538-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794794PMC
February 2018

Lactobacillus brevis KB290 With Vitamin A Ameliorates Murine Intestinal Inflammation Associated With the Increase of CD11c+ Macrophage/CD103- Dendritic Cell Ratio.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 01;24(2):317-331

Department of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The ratio of colonic anti-inflammatory CD11c+ macrophages (MPs) to inflammatory CD103- dendritic cells (DCs) plays pivotal roles in intestinal inflammation. Little is known about how the ratio is regulated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria (Bif). We investigated the contribution of LAB/Bif to this ratio.

Methods: We established an in vitro experimental system using human myeloblastic KG-1 cells, which differentiate into CD11c+ MP-like (CD11c+ MPL) and CD103- DC-like (CD103- DCL) cells, and explored effective LAB/Bif strains. The selected strain's effect on the colonic CD11c+ MP/CD103- DC ratio and intestinal inflammation was examined in mice, and the strain's underlying mechanisms were investigated in vitro.

Results: We screened 19 strains of LAB/Bif, and found that Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) increased the CD11c+ MPL/CD103- DCL cell ratio only in the presence of a vitamin A (VA) metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). Supplementation of KB290 with VA increased the CD11c+ MP/CD103- DC ratio in healthy mouse and prevented the disruption of the ratio during colitis. Supplementation of KB290 with pro-VA (β-carotene) also increased the ratio in healthy mouse and ameliorated the development of colitis. The ratio was increased by reduction of CD103- DCs (or CD103- DCL cells). Our in vitro data suggested that KB290 induced cell death in CD103- DCL cells in the presence of RA signaling.

Conclusions: Supplementation of KB290 with VA increases the colonic CD11c+ MP/CD103- DC ratio associated with the amelioration of murine colitis, suggesting a possible way to control intestinal inflammation by LAB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izx003DOI Listing
January 2018

Wide-range screening of anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato using LC-MS and elucidating the mechanism of their functions.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(1):e0191203. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan.

Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. A vicious cycle involving pro-inflammatory mediators between adipocytes and macrophages is a common cause of chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables and is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of tomato on diabetes is unclear. In this study, we focused on anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato. We found that the extract of tomato reduced plasma glucose and inflammatory markers in mice. We screened anti-inflammatory fractions in tomato using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, and active compounds were estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry over a wide range. Surprisingly, a large number of compounds including oxylipin and coumarin derivatives were estimated as anti-inflammatory compounds. Especially, 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid and daphnetin suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and inhibitor of kappa B α protein degradation. These findings suggest that tomato containing diverse anti-inflammatory compounds ameliorates chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191203PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5766234PMC
February 2018

Tomato Powder Inhibits Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation Potentially Through Restoring SIRT1 Activity and Adiponectin Function Independent of Carotenoid Cleavage Enzymes in Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 04 22;62(8):e1700738. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Nutrition and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA-Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Scope: Beta-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) and beta-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) metabolize lycopene to biologically active metabolites, which can ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigate the effects of tomato powder (TP containing substantial lycopene (2.3 mg/g)) on NAFLD development and gut microbiome in the absence of both BCO1 and BCO2 in mice.

Method And Results: BCO1 /BCO2 double knockout mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone (n = 9) or with TP feeding (n = 9) for 24 weeks. TP feeding significantly reduced pathological severity of steatosis and hepatic triglyceride levels in BCO1 /BCO2 mice (p < 0.04 vs HFD alone). This was associated with increased SIRT1 activity, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase expression and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and subsequently decreased lipogenesis, hepatic fatty acid uptake, and increasing fatty acid β-oxidation (p < 0.05). TP feeding significantly decreased mRNA expression of proinflammatory genes (tnf-α, il-1β, and il-6) in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue, which were associated with increased plasma adiponectin and hepatic adiponectin receptor-2. Multiplexed 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed using DNA extracted from cecum fecal samples. TP feeding increased microbial richness and decreased relative abundance of the genus Clostridium.

Conclusion: Dietary TP can inhibit NAFLD independent of carotenoid cleavage enzymes, potentially through increasing SIRT1 activity and adiponectin production and decreasing Clostridium abundance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700738DOI Listing
April 2018

Sex Differences and the Heritability of Scute Pattern Abnormalities in the Green Sea Turtle from the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan.

Zoolog Sci 2017 Aug;34(4):281-286

3 Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-0054, Japan.

Although scute pattern abnormalities in sea turtle species are considered to be strongly correlated with survival rate, there is little information available regarding these abnormalities and the primary cause for their development is unclear. For the conservation of sea turtle species, accumulating basic knowledge of scute pattern abnormalities is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the causes of these abnormalities. In the present study, we counted vertebral and costal scutes from adults hunted for food (male and female) (n = 899), nesting females (n = 155), and hatchlings (n = 44,537) of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) from the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan. We found that the frequency of turtles with non-modal scute patterns was significantly greater in adult females than that in adult males (P = 0.02). Since females are produced by warmer incubation temperatures, and the period of sex determination coincides with the period of scute pattern determination, high incubation temperatures may be responsible for the induction of scute pattern abnormalities. Moreover, females with non-modal scute patterns produced a higher frequency of hatchlings with non-modal scute patterns than females with modal scute patterns (P < 0.01), indicating that scute abnormality may be heritable. For conservation of this species, our results suggest that decrease of the incubation temperature by cooling methods, such as provision of shade, may minimize the frequency of non-modal scute patterns, with consideration for the natural sex ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2108/zs160159DOI Listing
August 2017
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