Publications by authors named "Hiroyuki Shimizu"

376 Publications

Analytical method validation for biomarkers as a drug development tool: points to consider.

Bioanalysis 2021 Sep 14;13(18):1379-1389. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-9501, Japan.

Biomarkers are an important drug developmental tool. Assessment of quantitative analytical methods of biomarkers is not included in any regulatory documents in Japan. Use of biomarkers in clinical evaluations and supporting the post-marketing evaluation of drug efficacy and/or adverse reactions requires assessment and full validation of analytical methods for these biomarkers. The Biomarker Analytical Method Validation Study Group is a research group in Japan comprising industry and regulatory experts. Group members discussed and prepared this 'points to consider document' covering measurements of endogenous metabolites/peptides/proteins by ligand binding assays and chromatographic methods with or without mass spectrometry. We hope this document contributes to the global harmonization of biomarker assay validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2021-0173DOI Listing
September 2021

The Molecular Evolution of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Individuals with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

Viruses 2021 07 20;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama-shi, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan.

The oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), which prevents person-to-person transmission of poliovirus by inducing robust intestinal immunity, has been a crucial tool for global polio eradication. However, polio outbreaks, mainly caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2), are increasing worldwide. Meanwhile, immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) is considered another risk factor during the final stage of global polio eradication. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases are associated with higher risks for long-term iVDPV infections. Although a limited number of chronic iVDPV excretors were reported, the recent identification of a chronic type 2 iVDPV (iVDPV2) excretor in the Philippines highlights the potential risk of inapparent iVDPV infection for expanding cVDPV outbreaks. Further research on the genetic characterizations and molecular evolution of iVDPV2, based on comprehensive iVDPV surveillance, will be critical for elucidating the remaining risk of iVDPV2 during the post-OPV era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13071407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310373PMC
July 2021

Mathematical Modeling and Mutational Analysis Reveal Optimal Therapy to Prevent Malignant Transformation in Grade II IDH-Mutant Gliomas.

Cancer Res 2021 Sep 31;81(18):4861-4873. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan.

Isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant low-grade gliomas (IDHmut-LGG) grow slowly but frequently undergo malignant transformation, which eventually leads to premature death. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments prolong survival, but can also induce genetic (or epigenetic) alterations involved in transformation. Here, we developed a mathematical model of tumor progression based on serial tumor volume data and treatment history of 276 IDHmut-LGGs classified by chromosome 1p/19q codeletion (IDH/1p19q and IDH/1p19q) and performed genome-wide mutational analyses, including targeted sequencing and longitudinal whole-exome sequencing data. These analyses showed that tumor mutational burden correlated positively with malignant transformation rate, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy significantly suppressed tumor growth but increased malignant transformation rate per cell by 1.8 to 2.8 times compared with before treatment. This model revealed that prompt adjuvant chemoradiotherapy prolonged malignant transformation-free survival in small IDHmut-LGGs (≤ 50 cm). Furthermore, optimal treatment differed according to genetic alterations for large IDHmut-LGGs (> 50 cm); adjuvant therapies delayed malignant transformation in IDH/1p19q but often accelerated it in IDH/1p19q. Notably, PI3K mutation was not associated with malignant transformation but increased net postoperative proliferation rate and decreased malignant transformation-free survival, prompting the need for adjuvant therapy in IDH/1p19q. Overall, this model uncovered therapeutic strategies that could prevent malignant transformation and, consequently, improve overall survival in patients with IDHmut-LGGs. SIGNIFICANCE: A mathematical model successfully estimates malignant transformation-free survival and reveals a link between genetic alterations and progression, identifying precision medicine approaches for optimal treatment of IDH-mutant low-grade gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-0985DOI Listing
September 2021

Newly Established Patient-derived Organoid Model of Intracranial Meningioma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Recent comprehensive studies have revealed several molecular alterations that are frequently found in meningiomas. However, effective treatment reagents targeting specific molecular alterations have not yet been identified because of the limited number of representative research models of meningiomas.

Methods: We performed organoid cultures using meningioma cells and meningioma tumor tissues. Using immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses consisting of whole exome sequencing, RNA-seq, and DNA methylation analyses, we compared the histological findings and molecular profiling of organoid models with those of parental tumors. Further, using these organoid models together with a public database of meningiomas, we explored molecular alterations, which are a potent treatment target for meningioma.

Results: We established 18 organoid models comprising of two malignant meningioma cells (HKBMM and IOMM-Lee), 10 benign meningiomas, four malignant meningiomas, and two solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs). The organoids exhibited consistent histological features and molecular profiles with those of the parental tumors. Using a public database, we identified that upregulated forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was correlated with increased tumor proliferation. Overexpression of FOXM1 in benign meningioma organoids increased organoid proliferation; depletion of FOXM1 in malignant organoids decreased proliferation. Additionally, thiostrepton, a FOXM1 inhibitor combined with radiation therapy, significantly inhibited proliferation of malignant meningioma organoid models.

Conclusions: An organoid model for meningioma enabled us to elucidate the tumor biology of meningioma along with potent treatment targets for meningioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab155DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of the extent of resection on the survival of patients with grade II and III gliomas using awake brain mapping.

J Neurooncol 2021 Jun 19;153(2):361-372. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the extent of resection (EOR) of tumors on survival in a series of patients with grade II and III gliomas (GII/III-gliomas) who underwent awake brain mapping.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 126 patients with GII/III-gliomas in the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere who underwent awake brain surgery at the same institution between December 2012 and May 2020.

Results: EOR cut-off values for improved progression-free survival (PFS) were determined by a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis of 5-year PFS. The ROC for EOR showed a cut-off value of ≥ 85.3%. The median PFS rate of patients with GII/III-gliomas in the group with an EOR ≥ 100%, including supratotal resection (n = 47; median survival [MS], not reached), was significantly higher than that in the group with an EOR < 90% (n = 52; MS, 43.1 months; 95% CI 37.7-48.5 months; p = 0.03). In patients with diffuse astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, the group with EOR ≥ 100%, including supratotal resection (n = 25; MS, not reached), demonstrated a significantly better PFS rate than did the group with an EOR < 100% (n = 45; MS, 35.8 months; 95% CI 19.9-51.6 months; p = 0.03). Supratotal or gross total resection was correlated with better PFS in IDH-mutant type of diffuse astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 19; MS, not reached vs. n = 35; MS, 40.6 months; 95% CI 22.3-59.0 months; p = 0.02). By contrast, supratotal or gross total resection was not associated with longer PFS rates in patients with IDH-wild type of diffuse astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a significant association between tumor EOR and survival in patients with GII/III gliomas. The EOR cut-off value for 5-year PFS was ≥ 85.3%. It is noteworthy that supratotal or gross total resection significantly correlated with better PFS in IDH-mutant type of WHO grade II and III astrocytic tumors. In light of our finding that EOR did not correlate with PFS in patients with aggressive IDH-wild type of diffuse astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, we suggest treatments that are more intensive will be needed for the control of these tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-021-03776-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Urinary MicroRNA-Based Diagnostic Model for Central Nervous System Tumors Using Nanowire Scaffolds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 1;13(15):17316-17329. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

There are no accurate mass screening methods for early detection of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Recently, liquid biopsy has received a lot of attention for less-invasive cancer screening. Unlike other cancers, CNS tumors require efforts to find biomarkers due to the blood-brain barrier, which restricts molecular exchange between the parenchyma and blood. Additionally, because a satisfactory way to collect urinary biomarkers is lacking, urine-based liquid biopsy has not been fully investigated despite the fact that it has some advantages compared to blood or cerebrospinal fluid-based biopsy. Here, we have developed a mass-producible and sterilizable nanowire-based device that can extract urinary microRNAs efficiently. Urinary microRNAs from patients with CNS tumors ( = 119) and noncancer individuals ( = 100) were analyzed using a microarray to yield comprehensive microRNA expression profiles. To clarify the origin of urinary microRNAs of patients with CNS tumors, glioblastoma organoids were generated. Glioblastoma organoid-derived differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) included 73.4% of the DEMs in urine of patients with parental tumors but included only 3.9% of those in urine of noncancer individuals, which suggested that many CNS tumor-derived microRNAs could be identified in urine directly. We constructed the diagnostic model based on the expression of the selected microRNAs and found that it was able to differentiate patients and noncancer individuals at a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 97%, respectively, in an independent dataset. Our findings demonstrate that urinary microRNAs extracted with the nanowire device offer a well-fitted strategy for mass screening of CNS tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01754DOI Listing
April 2021

converts endogenous neural stem cells to neurons with synaptic formation after spinal cord injury.

iScience 2021 Feb 20;24(2):102074. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

The transcriptome analysis of injured tadpole and mice suggested that ., a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor, was the most promising transcription factor to exert neuroregeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals. We generated a pseudotyped retroviral vector with the neurotropic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) envelope to deliver murine to mice undergoing SCI. SCI induced ependymal cells to neural stem cells (NSCs) in the central canal. The LCMV envelope-based pseudotypedvector preferentially introduced into activated NSCs, which converted to neurons with axonal regrowth and suppressed the scar-forming glial lineage. -induced inhibitory neurons predominantly projected to the subsynaptic domains of motor neurons at the epicenter, and -induced excitatory neurons predominantly projected to subsynaptic domains of motor neurons caudal to the injury site suggesting the formation of functional synapses. Thus, is a potential therapeutic factor that can improve anatomical and functional recovery after SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889987PMC
February 2021

Genetic diversity of Parechovirus A in infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan during 2016-2018.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 06 20;90:104776. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, School of International Health, School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Parechovirus A (PeV-A), previously known as human parechovirus, is a common pathogen in children that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases as well as severe neurological disease. Take advantage of our previous findings on the genetic diversity of PeV-A circulating in Japanese children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), this study was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity of PeV-A isolated from children with AGE in Japan as well as their clinical symptoms. Of 1070 stool samples collected from Japanese infants and children with AGE during the 2-year period from July 2016 to June 2018, 76 were positive for PeV-A by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and were subjected to genotyping based on viral protein 1 (VP1) sequences. Five different PeV-A genotypes including PeV-A1B, -A2, -A3, -A4, and -A6 were detected with predominant of PeV-A1 clade B genotype. This study revealed a high genetic diversity of PeV-A circulating in Japanese infants and children with AGE and the PeV-A2, a rare genotype, was detected for the first time in Japan in patients with AGE. The clinical symptoms observed in these patients included diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cough, rhinorrhea, and dehydration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104776DOI Listing
June 2021

Lung disease due to FLNA mutation improved after shunt closure for congenital heart disease.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 05 26;56(5):1280-1282. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of General Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25269DOI Listing
May 2021

Machine Learning Approach for Intraocular Disease Prediction Based on Aqueous Humor Immune Mediator Profiles.

Ophthalmology 2021 Aug 21;128(8):1197-1208. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Various immune mediators have crucial roles in the pathogenesis of intraocular diseases. Machine learning can be used to automatically select and weigh various predictors to develop models maximizing predictive power. However, these techniques have not yet been applied extensively in studies focused on intraocular diseases. We evaluated whether 5 machine learning algorithms applied to the data of immune-mediator levels in aqueous humor can predict the actual diagnoses of 17 selected intraocular diseases and identified which immune mediators drive the predictive power of a machine learning model.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Participants: Five hundred twelve eyes with diagnoses from among 17 intraocular diseases.

Methods: Aqueous humor samples were collected, and the concentrations of 28 immune mediators were determined using a cytometric bead array. Each immune mediator was ranked according to its importance using 5 machine learning algorithms. Stratified k-fold cross-validation was used in evaluation of algorithms with the dataset divided into training and test datasets.

Main Outcome Measures: The algorithms were evaluated in terms of precision, recall, accuracy, F-score, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the precision-recall curve, and mean decrease in Gini index.

Results: Among the 5 machine learning models, random forest (RF) yielded the highest classification accuracy in multiclass differentiation of 17 intraocular diseases. The RF prediction models for vitreoretinal lymphoma, acute retinal necrosis, endophthalmitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and primary open-angle glaucoma achieved the highest classification accuracy, precision, and recall. Random forest recognized vitreoretinal lymphoma, acute retinal necrosis, endophthalmitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and primary open-angle glaucoma with the top 5 F-scores. The 3 highest-ranking relevant immune mediators were interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10, and angiogenin for prediction of vitreoretinal lymphoma; monokine induced by interferon γ, interferon γ, and IP-10 for acute retinal necrosis; and IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and IL-8 for endophthalmitis.

Conclusions: Random forest algorithms based on 28 immune mediators in aqueous humor successfully predicted the diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma, acute retinal necrosis, and endophthalmitis. Overall, the findings of the present study contribute to increased knowledge on new biomarkers that potentially can facilitate diagnosis of intraocular diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.01.019DOI Listing
August 2021

Intraoperative seizure outcome of levetiracetam combined with perampanel therapy in patients with glioma undergoing awake brain surgery.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jan 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) combined with perampanel (PER) therapy for intraoperative seizure treatment to determine whether a combination of LEV and PER can aid in the prevention of intraoperative intractable seizures during awake surgery.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective cohort study in 78 consecutive patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation mapping. To prevent intraoperative seizures, 50 patients were treated with the antiepileptic drug LEV only (LEV group) from January 2017 to January 2019, while the remaining 28 patients were treated with LEV plus PER (LEV + PER group) between March 2019 and January 2020. LEV (1000-3000 mg) and/or PER (2-4 mg) were administered before the surgery.

Results: Preoperative seizures with International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) class II-VI occurred in 44% of the patients in the LEV group and in 35.7% of patients in the LEV + PER group, with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.319). Total intraoperative seizures occurred in 18 patients (36.0%) in the LEV therapy group and in 2 patients (7.1%) in the LEV + PER group (p = 0.009). Of these, there were no patients (0%) with intractable seizures in the LEV + PER group. Regarding factors that influence intraoperative seizures in glioma patients during awake brain surgery, multivariate logistic regression models revealed that the occurrence of intraoperative seizures was significantly related to the involvement of motor-related regions (positive vs negative, HR 6.98, 95% CI 1.71-28.56, p = 0.007), preoperative seizure (ILAE class II-VI vs ILAE class I, HR 4.44, 95% CI 1.22-16.11, p = 0.024), and LEV + PER group (positive vs negative, HR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.44, p = 0.005). Treatment-related adverse effects were rare and mild, including sleepiness, tiredness, and dizziness in both treatment groups.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LEV + PER therapy is significantly associated with a lower risk of intraoperative seizures compared with LEV therapy alone in patients with glioma during awake brain mapping. These findings will help neurosurgeons conduct safe and reliable awake surgeries and reduce the rate of intraoperative intractable seizures during such procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.JNS201400DOI Listing
January 2021

Differential Tissue Metabolic Signatures in IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease and Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 01;62(1):15

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To identify tissue metabolomic profiles in biopsy specimens with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and investigate their potential implication in the disease pathogenesis and biomarkers.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the metabolomes and lipidomes of biopsy-proven IgG4-ROD (n = 22) and orbital MALT lymphoma (n = 21) specimens and matched adjacent microscopically normal adipose tissues using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The altered metabolomic profiles were visualized by heat map and principal component analysis. Metabolic pathway analysis was performed by Metabo Analyst 4.0 using differentially expressed metabolites. The diagnostic performance of the metabolic markers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. Machine learning algorithms were implemented by random forest using the R environment. Finally, an independent set of 18 IgG4-ROD and 17 orbital MALT lymphoma specimens were used to validate the identified biomarkers.

Results: The principal component analysis showed a significant difference of both IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma for biopsy specimens and controls. Interestingly, lesions in IgG4-ROD were uniquely enriched in arachidonic metabolism, whereas those in orbital MALT lymphoma were enriched in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism. We identified spermine as the best discriminator between IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the spermine to discriminate between the two diseases was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.803-0.984). A random forest model incorporating a panel of five metabolites showed a high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.981-0.984). The results of validation revealed that four tissue metabolites: N1,N12-diacetylspermine, spermine, malate, and glycolate, had statistically significant differences between IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma with receiver operating characteristic values from 0.708 to 0.863.

Conclusions: These data revealed the characteristic differences in metabolomic profiles between IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma, which may be useful for developing new diagnostic biomarkers and elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of these common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.1.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814356PMC
January 2021

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of norovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in East Java, Indonesia in 2015-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 03 2;88:104703. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan. Electronic address:

Noroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among individuals of all ages worldwide, especially in children <5 years old. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses among hospitalized children at two hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. Stool samples were collected from 966 children with AGE during September 2015-July 2019. All samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the amplification of both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the capsid genes of noroviruses. The genotypes were determined by phylogenetic analyses. In 2015-2019, noroviruses were detected in 12.3% (119/966) of the samples. Children <2 years old showed a significantly higher prevalence than those ≥2 years old (P = 0.01). NoV infections were observed throughout the year, with the highest prevalence in December. Based on our genetic analyses of RdRp, GII.[P31] (43.7%, 31/71) was the most prevalent RdRp genotype, followed by GII.[P16] (36.6%, 26/71). GII.[P31] was a dominant genotype in 2016 and 2018, whereas GII.[P16] was a dominant genotype in 2015 and 2017. Among the capsid genotypes, the most predominant norovirus genotype from 2015 to 2018 was GII.4 Sydney_2012 (33.6%, 40/119). The most prevalent genotype in each year was GII.13 in 2015, GII.4 Sydney_2012 in 2016 and 2018, and GII.3 in 2017. Based on the genetic analyses of RdRp and capsid sequences, the strains were clustered into 13 RdRp/capsid genotypes; 12 of them were discordant, e.g., GII.4 Sydney[P31], GII.3[P16], and GII.13[P16]. The predominant genotype in each year was GII.13[P16] in 2015, GII.4 Sydney[P31] in 2016, GII.3[P16] in 2017, and GII.4 Sydney[P31] in 2018. Our results demonstrate high detection rates and genetic diversity of norovirus GII genotypes in pediatric AGE samples from Indonesia. These findings strengthen the importance of the continuous molecular surveillance of emerging norovirus strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104703DOI Listing
March 2021

Serum Metabolomic Profiling of Patients with Non-Infectious Uveitis.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 6;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

The activities of various metabolic pathways can influence the pathogeneses of autoimmune diseases, and intrinsic metabolites can potentially be used to diagnose diseases. However, the metabolomic analysis of patients with uveitis has not yet been conducted. Here, we profiled the serum metabolomes of patients with three major forms of uveitis (Behҫet's disease (BD), sarcoidosis, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH)) to identify potential biomarkers. This study included 19 BD, 20 sarcoidosis, and 15 VKH patients alongside 16 healthy control subjects. The metabolite concentrations in their sera were quantified using liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The discriminative abilities of quantified metabolites were evaluated by four comparisons: control vs. three diseases, and each disease vs. the other two diseases (such as sarcoidosis vs. BD + VKH). Among 78 quantified metabolites, 24 kinds of metabolites showed significant differences in these comparisons. Four multiple logistic regression models were developed and validated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) in the model to discriminate disease groups from control was 0.72. The AUC of the other models to discriminate sarcoidosis, BD, and VKH from the other two diseases were 0.84, 0.83, and 0.73, respectively. This study provides potential diagnostic abilities of sarcoidosis, BD, and VKH using routinely available serum samples that can be collected with minimal invasiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762156PMC
December 2020

Coxsackieviruses A6 and A16 associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2008-2017: Essential information for rational vaccine design.

Vaccine 2020 12 19;38(52):8273-8285. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Development of multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) vaccines against enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and several non-EV-A71 enteroviruses is needed for this life-threatening disease with a huge economic burden in Asia-Pacific countries. Comprehensive studies on the molecular epidemiology and genetic and antigenic characterization of major causative enteroviruses will provide information for rational vaccine design. Compared with molecular studies on EV-A71, that for non-EV-A71 enteroviruses remain few and limited in Vietnam. Therefore, we conducted a 10-year study on the circulation and genetic characterization of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and CV-A6 isolated from patients with HFMD in Northern Vietnam between 2008 and 2017. Enteroviruses were detected in 2228 of 3212 enrolled patients. Of the 42 serotypes assigned, 28.4% and 22.4% accounted for CV-A6 and CV-A16, being the second and the third dominant serotypes after EV-A71 (31.7%), respectively. The circulation of CV-A16 and CV-A6 showed a wide geographic distribution and distinct periodicity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the majority of Vietnamese CV-A6 and CV-A16 strains were located within the largest sub-genotypes or sub-genogroups. These comprised strains isolated from patients with HFMD worldwide during the past decade and the Vietnamese strains have been evolving in a manner similar to the strains circulating worldwide. Amino acid sequences of the putative functional loops on VP1 and other VPs among Vietnamese CV-A6 and CV-A16 isolates were highly conserved. Moreover, the functional loop patterns of VP1 were similar to the dominant patterns found worldwide, except for the T164K substitution on the EF loop in Vietnamese CV-A16. The findings suggest that the development of a universal HFMD vaccine, at least in Vietnam, must target CV-A6 and CV-A16 as two of the three major HFMD-causing serotypes. Vietnamese isolates or their genome sequences can be considered for rational vaccine design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.11.031DOI Listing
December 2020

Anti-centromere antibodies target centromere-kinetochore macrocomplex: a comprehensive autoantigen profiling.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 05 18;80(5):651-659. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Objectives: Anti-centromere antibodies (ACAs) are detected in patients with various autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). However, the targeted antigens of ACAs are not fully elucidated despite the accumulating understanding of the molecular structure of the centromere. The aim of this study was to comprehensively reveal the autoantigenicity of centromere proteins.

Methods: A centromere antigen library including 16 principal subcomplexes composed of 41 centromere proteins was constructed. Centromere protein/complex binding beads were used to detect serum ACAs in patients with SS, SSc and PBC. ACA-secreting cells in salivary glands obtained from patients with SS were detected with green fluorescent protein-fusion centromere antigens and semiquantified with confocal microscopy.

Results: A total of 241 individuals with SS, SSc or PBC and healthy controls were recruited for serum ACA profiling. A broad spectrum of serum autoantibodies was observed, and some of them had comparative frequency as anti-CENP-B antibody, which is the known major ACA. The prevalence of each antibody was shared across the three diseases. Immunostaining of SS salivary glands showed the accumulation of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) specific for kinetochore, which is a part of the centromere, whereas little reactivity against CENP-B was seen.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that serum autoantibodies target the centromere-kinetochore macrocomplex in patients with SS, SSc and PBC. The specificity of ASCs in SS salivary glands suggests kinetochore complex-driven autoantibody selection, providing insight into the underlying mechanism of ACA acquisition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053351PMC
May 2021

Comprehensive Gene Analysis of IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease Using RNA Sequencing.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 27;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) uses massive parallel sequencing technology, allowing the unbiased analysis of genome-wide transcription levels and tumor mutation status. Immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) is a fibroinflammatory disease characterized by the enlargement of the ocular adnexal tissues. We analyzed RNA expression levels via RNA-seq in the biopsy specimens of three patients diagnosed with IgG4-ROD. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH), normal lacrimal gland tissue, and adjacent adipose tissue were used as the controls ( = 3 each). RNA-seq was performed using the NextSeq 500 system, and genes with |fold change| ≥ 2 and < 0.05 relative to the controls were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in IgG4-ROD. To validate the results of RNA-seq, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in 30 IgG4-ROD and 30 orbital MALT lymphoma tissue samples. RNA-seq identified 35 up-regulated genes, including matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP12) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), in IgG4-ROD tissues when compared to all the controls. Many pathways related to the immune system were included when compared to all the controls. Expressions of MMP12 and SPP1 in IgG4-ROD tissues were confirmed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, we identified novel DEGs, including those associated with extracellular matrix degradation, fibrosis, and inflammation, in IgG4-ROD biopsy specimens. These data provide new insights into molecular pathogenetic mechanisms and may contribute to the development of new biomarkers for diagnosis and molecular targeted drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693346PMC
October 2020

Long-term survival in patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors treated with surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy: a single-institution study.

J Neurosurg 2020 Oct 2:1-9. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Objective: The current study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and toxicities of patients with intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs).

Methods: This study retrospectively included 110 consecutive patients (70 patients in the germinomatous group and 40 patients in the nongerminomatous GCT [NGGCT] groups) receiving surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed primary intracranial GCTs. In the authors' protocol, patients with GCTs were further divided into the following four groups: the germinomatous group and the NGGCT groups (mature teratoma, intermediate prognosis, or poor prognosis).

Results: The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates of the patients in the germinomatous group were significantly higher than those in the NGGCT group (p < 0.001). The 5-, 10-, and 20-year OS rates in the germinomatous group were 97.1%, 95.7%, and 93.2%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 11.0 years. On the contrary, the 5-, 10-, and 20-year OS rates in the NGGCT group were 67.3%, 63.4%, and 55.4%, respectively. The 5-, 10-, and 20-year PFS rates were 91.4%, 86.6%, and 86.6%, respectively, in the germinomatous group, whereas those of the NGGCT group were approximately 67.4%, 60.2%, and 53.5%, respectively. Based on the four types of classification in our study, the 5-, 10-, and 20-year OS rates in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis group were 78.9%, 71.8%, and 53.8%, respectively. On the contrary, the 3- and 5-year OS rates in the NGGCT poor prognosis group were 42.9% and 34.3%, respectively. Moreover, toxicities with the treatment of intracranial GCTs were found to be tolerable in the present study population. The multivariate survival models for OS in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups demonstrated that only the alpha-fetoprotein status was significantly associated with worsened OS (HR 3.88, 95% CI 1.29-11.66; p = 0.02).

Conclusions: The authors found that platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy result in favorable survival outcomes in patients with germinomatous GCTs. Clinical outcomes were still unfavorable in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups; therefore, a new protocol that increases the survival rate of patients belonging in both groups should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.JNS20638DOI Listing
October 2020

Osteochondral autograft transplantation for the treatment of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the humeral head: a case report.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 02 10;30(2):e76-e83. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.08.033DOI Listing
February 2021

Comprehensive miRNA Analysis Using Serum From Patients With Noninfectious Uveitis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 09;61(11)

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs and have attracted attention as a biomarker in a variety of diseases. However, extensive unbiased miRNAs analysis in patients with uveitis has not been completely explored. In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed the deregulated miRNAs in three major forms of uveitis (Behҫet's disease [BD], sarcoidosis and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease [VKH]) to search for potential biomarkers.

Methods: This study included 10 patients with BD, 17 patients with sarcoidosis, and 13 patients with VKH. Eleven healthy subjects were used as controls. The miRNAs expression levels were studied by microarray using serum samples from patients with uveitis and healthy controls.

Results: A total of 281 upregulated miRNAs and 137 downregulated miRNAs were detected in patients with BD, 35 upregulated miRNAs and 86 downregulated miRNAs in patients with sarcoidosis, and 153 upregulated miRNAs and 35 downregulated miRNAs in patients with VKH. Some deregulated miRNAs were involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokine pathways. Furthermore, we identified miR-4708-3p, miR-4323, and let-7g-3p as the best predictor miRNAs for BD, sarcoidosis, and VKH, respectively. Panels of miRNAs with diagnostic potential for the three diseases were generated using machine learning.

Conclusions: In this study, comprehensive miRNA analysis identified deregulated miRNAs in three major forms of noninfectious uveitis. This study provides new insights into molecular pathogenetic mechanisms and useful information toward developing novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for BD, sarcoidosis, and VKH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.11.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476662PMC
September 2020

Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 in Kanagawa, Japan: a retrospective cohort study.

Hypertens Res 2020 11 21;43(11):1257-1266. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Medical Science and Cardiorenal Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak initiated on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship at Yokohama harbor in February 2020, we have been doing our best to treat COVID-19 patients. In animal experiments, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are reported to suppress the downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and they may inhibit the worsening of pathological conditions. We aimed to examine whether preceding use of ACEIs and ARBs affected the clinical manifestations and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. One hundred fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 60 ± 19 years) with polymerase-chain-reaction proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to six hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were analyzed in this multicenter retrospective observational study. Among all COVID-19 patients, in the multiple regression analysis, older age (age ≥ 65 years) was significantly associated with the primary composite outcome (odds ratio (OR) 6.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.28-22.78, P < 0.001), which consisted of (i) in-hospital death, (ii) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, (iii) mechanical ventilation, including invasive and noninvasive methods, and (iv) admission to the intensive care unit. In COVID-19 patients with hypertension, preceding ACEI/ARB use was significantly associated with a lower occurrence of new-onset or worsening mental confusion (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.002-0.69, P = 0.02), which was defined by the confusion criterion, which included mild disorientation or hallucination with an estimation of medical history of mental status, after adjustment for age, sex, and diabetes. In conclusion, older age was a significant contributor to a worse prognosis in COVID-19 patients, and ACEIs/ARBs could be beneficial for the prevention of confusion in COVID-19 patients with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-00535-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Distinctive Tissue and Serum MicroRNA Profile of IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease and MALT Lymphoma.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 5;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

The molecular pathogenesis of orbital lymphoproliferative disorders, such as immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) and orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, remains essentially unknown. Differentiation between the two disorders, which is important since the work-up and treatment can vary greatly, is often challenging due to the lack of specific biomarkers. Although miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of carcinogenesis and inflammation, the relationship between miRNA and orbital lymphoproliferative diseases remains unknown. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 2565 miRNAs from biopsy and serum specimens of 17 cases with IgG4-ROD, where 21 cases with orbital MALT lymphoma were performed. We identified specific miRNA signatures and their miRNA target pathways, as well as the network analysis for IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma. Machine-learning analysis identified miR-202-3p and miR-7112-3p as the best discriminators of IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma, respectively. Enrichment analyses of biological pathways showed that the longevity-regulating pathway in IgG4-ROD and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in orbital MALT lymphoma was most enriched by target genes of downregulated miRNAs. This is the first evidence of miRNA profiles of biopsy and serum specimens of patients with IgG4-ROD and orbital MALT lymphoma. These data will be useful for developing diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, as well as elucidating the pathogenesis of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464164PMC
August 2020

High-Throughput MicroRNA Profiling of Vitreoretinal Lymphoma: Vitreous and Serum MicroRNA Profiles Distinct from Uveitis.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 12;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

Purpose: Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the diffuse large B cell type (DLBCL), which is an aggressive cancer causing central nervous system related mortality. The pathogenesis of VRL is largely unknown. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has recently acquired remarkable importance in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancers. Furthermore, miRNAs have shown promise as diagnostic and prognostic markers of cancers. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and pathways in the vitreous and serum of patients with VRL and to investigate the pathogenesis of the disease.

Materials And Methods: Vitreous and serum samples were obtained from 14 patients with VRL and from controls comprising 40 patients with uveitis, 12 with macular hole, 14 with epiretinal membrane, 12 healthy individuals. The expression levels of 2565 miRNAs in serum and vitreous samples were analyzed.

Results: Expression of the miRNAs correlated significantly with the extracellular matrix (ECM) ‒receptor interaction pathway in VRL. Analyses showed that miR-326 was a key driver of B-cell proliferation, and miR-6513-3p could discriminate VRL from uveitis. MiR-1236-3p correlated with vitreous interleukin (IL)-10 concentrations. Machine learning analysis identified miR-361-3p expression as a discriminator between VRL and uveitis.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that aberrant microRNA expression in VRL may affect the expression of genes in a variety of cancer-related pathways. The altered serum miRNAs may discriminate VRL from uveitis, and serum miR-6513-3p has the potential to serve as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of VRL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356511PMC
June 2020

Comparison of transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure between children and adults.

Heart Vessels 2020 Nov 3;35(11):1605-1613. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1, Yamane, Hidaka City, Saitama, 350-1298, Japan.

The data comparing the characteristics and effect of transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure between children and adults is scarce. We analyzed 54 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter PDA closures. We divided the patients into 2 groups of < 18 years and ≥ 18 years and compared the hemodynamic changes before and after the PDA closure. Adults had a higher incidence of heart failure on admission, diagnoses by heart failure and incidental echocardiography, PDA calcifications, and procedural complications than children (all P < 0.05). The left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), left atrial diameter index (LADI), and LV mass index (LVMI) decreased after the PDA closure in children but not in adults. The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly decreased 1 day after the PDA closure in both groups but remained low at 6 months after the procedure in only adults. The percent change in the LVEDVI, LADI, LVMI, and LVEF from baseline to 6 months after the procedure was significantly lesser in adults than children (LVEDVI: - 5.2 ± 29.1% vs. - 34.9 ± 18.9%, LADI: - 7.0 ± 13.2% vs. - 22.1 ± 18.9%, LVMI: - 11.0 ± 16.5% vs. - 34.1 ± 15.7%, LVEF: - 5.9 ± 7.6% vs. 6.1 ± 9.1%, all P < 0.05). Transcatheter PDA closure was not associated with a reduction in the LV and LA volume as well as an improvement in the LV hypertrophy and LV function in adults as compared to children. We suggested that an early diagnosis and transcatheter PDA closure during childhood might provide clinical benefit before progressive LV remodeling and heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-020-01639-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical course of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in individuals present during the outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Aug 13;26(8):865-869. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Respiratory Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, Japan.

We investigated the clinical course of individuals with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who were transferred from the Diamond Princess cruise ship to 12 local hospitals. The conditions and clinical courses of patients with pneumonia were compared with those of patients without pneumonia. Among 70 patients (median age: 67 years) analyzed, the major symptoms were fever (64.3%), cough (54.3%), and general fatigue (24.3%). Forty-three patients (61.4%) had pneumonia. Higher body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate as well as higher of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were associated with the presence of pneumonia. Ground-glass opacity was found in 97.7% of the patients with pneumonia. Patients were administered neuraminidase inhibitors (20%), lopinavir/ritonavir (32.9%), and ciclesonide inhalation (11.4%). Mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed on 14 (20%) and 2 (2.9%) patients, respectively; two patients died. The median duration of intubation was 12 days. The patients with COVID-19 transferred to local hospitals during the outbreak had severe conditions and needed close monitoring. The severity of COVID-19 depends on the presence of pneumonia. High serum LDH, AST and CRP levels and low serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were found to be predictors of pneumonia. It was challenging for local hospitals to admit and treat these patients during the outbreak of COVID-19. Assessment of severity was crucial to manage a large number of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218347PMC
August 2020

Successful Resolution of Recurrent Vaginal Pinworm Infection With Intermittent Albendazole Administration.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 03;39(3):254-255

Department of Pediatrics, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with repeated vaginal Enterobius vermicularis infection, never detected as a digestive tract infection. Two-dose pyrantel pamoate or 2-dose albendazole could not suppress recurrence. Finally, 3-dose albendazole after 2-week intervals was successful in preventing relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002546DOI Listing
March 2020

H3F3A mutant allele specific imbalance in an aggressive subtype of diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 02 5;8(1). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant is a lethal brain tumor located in the thalamus, brain stem, or spinal cord. H3 K27M encoded by the mutation of a histone H3 gene such as H3F3A plays a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis of this type of glioma. Although several studies have revealed comprehensive genetic and epigenetic profiling, the prognostic factors of these tumors have not been identified to date. In various cancers, oncogenic driver genes have been found to exhibit characteristic copy number alterations termed mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI). Here, we showed that several diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant exhibited high variant allele frequency (VAF) of the mutated H3F3A gene using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assays. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) revealed that these cases had various copy number alterations that affected the mutant and/or wild-type alleles of the H3F3A gene. We also found that these MASI cases showed a significantly higher Ki-67 index and poorer survival compared with those in the lower VAF cases (P < 0.05). Our results indicated that the MASI of the H3F3A K27M mutation was associated with the aggressive phenotype of the diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant via upregulation of the H3 K27M mutant protein, resulting in downregulation of H3K27me3 modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-0882-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001313PMC
February 2020

Genetic characterization of VP1 of coxsackieviruses A2, A4, and A10 associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Vietnam in 2012-2017: endemic circulation and emergence of new HFMD-causing lineages.

Arch Virol 2020 Apr 1;165(4):823-834. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

While conducting sentinel surveillance of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam, we found a sudden increase in the prevalence of coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) in 2016 and CV-A2 and CV-A4 in 2017, the emergence of which has been reported recently to be associated with various clinical manifestations in other countries. However, there have been only a limited number of molecular studies on those serotypes, with none being conducted in Vietnam. Therefore, we sequenced the entire VP1 genes of CV-A10, CV-A4, and CV-A2 strains associated with HFMD in Vietnam between 2012 and 2017. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a trend of endemic circulation of Vietnamese CV-A10, CV-A4, and CV-A2 strains and the emergence of thus-far undescribed HFMD-causing lineages of CV-A4 and CV-A2. The Vietnamese CV-A10 strains belonged to a genotype comprising isolates from patients with HFMD from several other countries; however, most of the Vietnamese strains were grouped into a local lineage. Recently, emerging CV-A4 strains in Vietnam were grouped into a unique lineage within a genotype comprising strains isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis from various countries. New substitutions were detected in the putative BC and HI loops in the Vietnamese CV-A4 strains. Except for one strain, Vietnamese CV-A2 isolates were grouped into a unique lineage of a genotype that includes strains from various countries that are associated with other clinical manifestations. Enhanced surveillance is required to monitor their spread and to specify their roles as etiological agents of HFMD or "HFMD-like" diseases, especially for CV-A4 and CV-A2. Further studies including whole-genome sequencing should be conducted to fully understand the evolutionary changes occurring in these newly emerging strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04536-3DOI Listing
April 2020

Cytokine Profiles in Human Parechovirus Type 3-induced Sepsis-like Syndrome.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 02;39(2):137-139

From the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

We aimed to assess the kinetics of the release of proinflammatory cytokines and to clarify clinical usefulness as an indicator of the disease activity in human parechovirus type 3 virus (HPeV3)-induced sepsis-like syndrome. We measured serum levels of neopterin, interleukin (IL)-6 and the soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor types I (sTNF-RI) and II (sTNF-RII). Serum samples were obtained from 12 patients with HPeV3-induced sepsis-like syndrome and 28 healthy children. Disease course after onset was divided into 3 phases: early (day 1-2), peak (day 3-6) and recovery (day 9-16) phases. Serum IL-6 levels rapidly and markedly elevated in early phase and gradually decreased to those in healthy children in recovery phase. Furthermore, serum neopterin, sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II levels increased rapidly and markedly in onset phase and remained elevated in peak phase. These levels gradually decreased in recovery phase. Serum IL-18 levels increased from onset phase to peak phase and decreased in recovery phase. These results indicate that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular, interferon gamma, TNF-α and IL-18 are closely related to the development of HPeV3-induced sepsis-like syndrome. Serum levels of these cytokines might be a useful indicator of the disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002534DOI Listing
February 2020
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