Publications by authors named "Hirotsugu Ueshima"

467 Publications

Lipoprotein Particle Profiles Compared With Standard Lipids in the Association With Subclinical Aortic Valve Calcification in Apparently Healthy Japanese Men.

Circ J 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Background: Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease including dyslipidemia have been shown to be associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-measured lipoprotein particles, low-density and high-density lipoprotein particles (LDL-p, HDL-p) in particular, have emerged as novel markers of atherosclerotic disease; however, whether NMR-measured particles are associated with AVC remains to be determined. This study aimed to examine the association between NMR-based lipoprotein particle measurements and standard lipids with AVC. The primary variables of interest were LDL-p (nmol/L), HDL-p (μmol/L), LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol (both in mg/dL).Methods and Results:A community-based random sample of Japanese men aged 40-79 years examined in 2006-2008, in Shiga, Japan was studied. Presence of AVC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Lipoprotein particles were measured using NMR spectroscopy. In the main analysis, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the prevalence of AVC across the higher quartiles of lipids in reference to the lowest ones were obtained. Of 874 participants analyzed, 153 men had AVC. Multivariable-adjusted ORs of prevalent AVC for the highest vs. the lowest quartile were significantly elevated for LDL-p (OR, 2.20; 95% CI: 1.23-3.93) and LDL-cholesterol (OR, 2.16; 95% CI: 1.23-3.78). In contrast, neither HDL-p nor HDL-cholesterol was associated with AVC.

Conclusions: The association of prevalent AVC with NMR-based LDL-p was comparable to that with LDL-cholesterol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1090DOI Listing
June 2021

Urinary sodium/potassium ratio as a screening tool for hyperaldosteronism in men with hypertension.

Hypertens Res 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

Among individuals with hypertension, the prevalence of secondary hypertension has been reported to be ≈10%. More than half of individuals with secondary hypertension have associated hyperaldosteronism. However, given the current clinical environment, these patients often remain undiagnosed. We hypothesized that the urinary sodium/potassium ratio (Na/K) could be used as a simple, low-cost method of screening for hyperaldosteronism among individuals with hypertension in primary care and health examination settings. We recruited hypertensive individuals aged 30-69 years old who were not taking any antihypertensive medications from among participants in health examinations. Urinary Na and K were measured using second morning urine samples, and the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was also measured. We evaluated the association of the second morning urine Na/K ratio (SMU Na/K) with a high PAC, defined as ≥90th percentile (24.3 ng/dL), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Overall, 160 participants (108 men and 52 women) with a mean age of 54.3 years were eligible for this study. The area under the ROC curve for the relationship between SMU Na/K and high PAC was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.95) in men and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.36-0.93) in women. In men, SMU Na/K values <1.0 could detect hyperaldosteronism with a sensitivity of 45.5%, a specificity of 97.9%, a positive predictive value of 71.4%, and a negative predictive value of 94.1%. The use of the urinary Na/K ratio may be appropriate as a method of screening for hyperaldosteronism in hypertensive men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00663-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Association between socioeconomic status and prolonged television viewing time in a general Japanese population: NIPPON DATA2010.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 May 7;26(1):57. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa-cho, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.

Background: It has been pointed out that prolonged television (TV) viewing is one of the sedentary behaviors that is harmful to health; however, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prolonged TV viewing time has not been sufficiently investigated in Japan.

Methods: The study population are the participants of NIPPON DATA2010, which is a prospective cohort study of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010 in Japan. They were residents in 300 randomly selected areas across Japan. This study included 2752 adults. SES was classified according to the employment status, educational attainment, living status, and equivalent household expenditure (EHE). Prolonged TV viewing time was defined as more than or equal to 4 h of TV viewing per day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of SES with prolonged TV viewing time.

Results: The mean TV viewing time was 2.92 h in all participants. Of 2752 participants, 809 (29.4%) prolonged TV viewing, and the mean TV viewing time of them was 5.61 h. The mean TV viewing time in participants without prolonged TV viewing time was 1.81 h. The mean TV viewing time was prolonged as age classes increased and significantly longer in aged ≥60 years. Prolonged TV viewing time was associated with not working for all age classes and sexes. Only among women, education attainment and living status were also associated with prolonged TV viewing time. For education attainment, the lower the received years of education, the higher odds ratios (OR) of prolonged TV viewing time. For living status, in women aged <60 years, living with others had a significantly higher OR compared to living with spouse. On the other hand, in women aged ≥60 years, living alone had a significantly higher OR. EHE did not have any significant associations with prolonged TV viewing time.

Conclusions: In a general Japanese population, it should be noted that the association between SES and prolonged TV viewing time differed by age and sex. Particularly, it must draw attention to the prolonged TV viewing in elderly. The intervention in order to shorten TV viewing time needs to consider these attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-021-00978-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105981PMC
May 2021

Factors Associated with Lower Cognitive Performance Scores Among Older Japanese Men in Hawaii and Japan.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;81(1):403-412

Kuakini Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Background: Few studies have compared factors related to cognitive function among people with similar genetic backgrounds but different lifestyles.

Objective: We aimed to identify factors related to lower cognitive scores among older Japanese men in two genetically similar cohorts exposed to different lifestyle factors.

Methods: This cross-sectional study of community-dwelling Japanese men aged 71-81 years included 2,628 men enrolled in the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study based in Hawaii and 349 men in the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis based in Japan. We compared participant performance through Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) assessment in Hawaii (1991-1993) and Japan (2009-2014). Factors related to low cognitive scores (history of cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic factors, and lifestyle factors) were identified with questionnaires and measurements. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of a low (< 82) CASI score based on different factors.

Results: CASI scores were lower in Hawaii than in Japan [21.2%(n = 556) versus 12.3%(n = 43), p < 0.001], though this was not significant when adjusted for age and educational attainment (Hawaii 20.3%versus Japan 17.9%, p = 0.328). History of stroke (OR = 1.65, 95%confidence interval = 1.19-2.29) was positively associated with low cognitive scores in Hawaii. Body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 tended to be associated with low cognitive scores in Japan; there was a significant interaction between the cohorts.

Conclusion: Cognitive scores differences between cohorts were mostly explained by differences in educational attainment. Conversely, cardiovascular diseases and cardiometabolic factors differentially impacted cognitive scores among genetically similar older men exposed to different lifestyle factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-201084DOI Listing
January 2021

Relationships of Alcohol Consumption with Coronary Risk Factors and Macro- and Micro-Nutrient Intake in Japanese People: The INTERLIPID Study.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2021 ;67(1):28-38

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Several studies have reported a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of alcohol consumption with established CHD risk factors and with macro-/micro-nutrient intake among Japanese people. Participants were 1,090 Japanese men and women aged 40-59 y enrolled in the INTERLIPID study, excluding former drinkers. Based on two 7-d alcohol records, participants were classified as non-drinkers (0 g/wk), light-drinkers (<100 g/wk), moderate-drinkers (100-299 g/wk), or heavy-drinkers (≥300 g/wk). Detailed macro-/micro-nutrient intake was evaluated using four in-depth 24-h dietary recalls and adjusted for total energy intake excluding alcohol. We analyzed the associations of CHD risk factors and nutrient intake with alcohol consumption. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure were higher and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower among those with higher alcohol consumption. J-shaped relationships with alcohol consumption were observed for the proportion of current smokers, number of cigarettes smoked, and prevalence of hypertension; these risk factors were lowest among light-drinkers. Carbohydrate and total fiber intakes were lower and protein and dietary cholesterol intakes were higher among those with higher alcohol consumption. These associations were similar for men and women. Alcohol consumption was related to nutrient intake as well as established CHD risk factors. Non-drinkers were higher on some CHD risk factors than were light-drinkers. These findings may influence the J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CHD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.67.28DOI Listing
January 2021

A Comparison of Segment-Specific and Composite Measures of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and their Relationships with Coronary Calcium.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Aims: The utility of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker for coronary heart disease is under heavy debate. This is predominantly due to the lack of a standard definition of cIMT, leading to inconsistent results. We investigated and compared the relationships of five different measures of cIMT with coronary calcium.

Methods: Japanese men aged 40-79y (n=869) from Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis were examined. Mean cIMT was measured in three segments of the carotid arteries: common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA) and bifurcation (Bif). Mean cIMT of average values (Mean cIMT) and mean cIMT of maximum values (Mean-Max cIMT) of all segments combined were assessed. Coronary calcium was assessed as coronary artery calcification (CAC). Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of higher CAC per 1 standard deviation higher cIMT measure. Analyses were adjusted for cardiovascular covariates and stratified by age quartiles.

Results: All cIMT measures had positive associations with CAC (p<0.001): [OR, 95% Confidence Interval]: ICA [1.23, 1.07-1.42], CCA [1.27, 1.08-1.49], Bif [1.33, 1.15-1.53], Mean cIMT [1.42, 1.22-1.66], and Mean-Max [1.50, 1.28-1.75]. In age-stratified analyses, only Mean-Max cIMT maintained a significant relationship with CAC in every age quartile (p<0.05), while CCAmean had some of the weakest associations among age quartiles.

Conclusions: Mean-Max cIMT had consistently stronger associations with coronary calcium, independent of important confounders, such as age. The most oft-used measure, CCA, was no longer associated with coronary calcium after age-adjustment and stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.61283DOI Listing
February 2021

Association between plant-based diets and blood pressure in the INTERMAP study.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2020 Dec 8;3(2):133-142. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, little is known how the healthiness of the diet may be associated with blood pressure (BP). We aimed to modify three plant -based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy PDI (hPDI), and unhealthy PDI (uPDI) according to country-specific dietary guidelines to enable use across populations with diverse dietary patterns - and assessed their associations with BP.

Design: We used cross-sectional data including 4,680 men and women ages 40-59y in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP). During four visits, eight BP measurements, and four 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Multivariable regression coefficients were estimated, pooled, weighted, and adjusted extensively for lifestyle/dietary confounders.

Results: Modified PDI was not associated with BP. Consumption of hPDI higher by 1SD was inversely associated with systolic (-0.82 mm Hg;95% CI:-1.32,-0.49) and diastolic BP (-0.49 mm Hg; 95% CI:-0.91, -0.28). In contrast, consumption of an uPDI was directly associated with systolic (0.77 mm Hg;95% CI:0.30,1.20). Significant associations between hPDI with BP were attenuated with separate adjustment for vegetables and whole grains; associations between uPDI and BP were attenuated after adjustment for refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, and meat.

Conclusion: An hPDI is associated with lower BP while a uPDI is adversely related to BP. Plant-based diets rich in vegetables and whole grains and limited in refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, and total meat may contribute to these associations. In addition to current guidelines, the nutritional quality of consumed plant foods is as important as limiting animal-based components.

Trial Registration Number: The observational INTERMAP study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841826PMC
December 2020

Relationship of Four Blood Pressure Indexes to Subclinical Cerebrovascular Diseases Assessed by Brain MRI in General Japanese Men.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Aim: The relationship of blood pressure (BP) indexes (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], pulse pressure [PP], mean arterial pressure [MAP]) to subclinical cerebrovascular diseases (SCVDs) remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship of four BP indexes measured at two visits on SCVDs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in general Japanese men.

Methods: In general Japanese men aged 40-79 years (N=616), office BP indexes were measured at two visits (Visits 1 [2006-2008] and 2 [2010-2014]). MRI images obtained on the third visit (2012-2015) were examined for prevalent SCVDs: lacunar infarction, periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH), microbleeds, and intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS). Using a multivariable logistic regression analysis, we computed and estimated the odds ratio of each prevalent SCVD for one standard deviation higher BP indexes. The same analyses were performed using home BP.

Results: All four office BP indexes at both visits associated with lacunar infarction. Visit 1 and 2 DBP and Visit 1 MAP associated with PVH and DSWMH, and Visit 1 SBP associated with DSWMH. All Visit 2 BP indexes appear to show stronger association with microbleeds than Visit 1 indexes, and Visit 1 and 2 SBP, PP, and MAP showed similar associations with ICAS. Additional analyses using home BP indexes revealed similar relationships; however, the significance of some relationships decreased.

Conclusion: In general Japanese men, BP indexes were associated with most of SCVDs, and BP indexes measured at different periods associated with different SCVDs assessed by MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.58537DOI Listing
January 2021

Relationship between non-fasting triglycerides and cardiovascular disease mortality in a 20-year follow-up study of a Japanese general population: NIPPON DATA90.

J Epidemiol 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science.

BackgroundNon-fasting triglycerides (TG) are considered a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than fasting TG. However, the effect of non-fasting TG on fatal CVD events remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the relationship between non-fasting TG and CVD mortality in a Japanese general population.MethodsA total of 6,831 participants without a history of CVD, in which those who had a blood sampling over 8 hours or more after a meal were excluded, were followed for 18.0 years. We divided participants into seven groups according to non-fasting TG levels: ≤59 mg/dL, 60-89 mg/dL, 90-119 mg/dL, 120-149 mg/dL, 150-179 mg/dL, 180-209 mg/dL, and ≥210 mg/dL, and estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each TG group for CVD mortality after adjusting for potential confounders, including high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Additionally, we performed analysis stratified by age <65 and ≥65 years.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 433 deaths due to CVD were detected. Compared with a non-fasting TG of 150-179 mg/dL, non-fasting TG ≥210 mg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for CVD mortality (HR=1.56, 95% CI, 1.01-2.41). Additionally, lower levels of non-fasting TG were also significantly associated with increased risk for fatal CVD. In participants aged ≥65 years, lower levels of non-fasting TG had a stronger impact on increased risk for CVD mortality, while higher levels of non-fasting TG had a stronger impact in those aged <65 years.ConclusionIn a general Japanese population, we observed a U-shaped association between non-fasting TG and fatal CVD events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200399DOI Listing
January 2021

Seven-Day Pedometer-Assessed Step Counts and Brain Volume: A Population-Based Observational Study.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Jan 11;18(2):157-164. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Background: To investigate the association between step counts and brain volumes (BVs)-global and 6 a priori selected cognition-related regions of interest-in Japanese men aged 40-79 years.

Methods: The authors analyzed data from 680 cognitively intact participants of the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis-a population-based observational study. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors assessed cross-sectional associations between 7-day step counts at baseline (2006-2008) and BVs at follow-up (2012-2015) for age-stratified groups (<60 y and ≥60 y).

Results: In the older adults ≥60 years, step counts at baseline (per 1000 steps) were associated with total BV at follow-up (β = 1.42, P = .022) while adjusted for potential covariates. Regions of interest-based analyses yielded an association of step counts with both prefrontal cortexes (P < .05) in older adults, while the left entorhinal cortex showed marginally significant association (P = .05). No association was observed with hippocampus, parahippocampal, cingulum, and cerebellum. No association was observed in younger adults (<60 y).

Conclusions: The authors found a positive association between 7-day step counts and BVs, including prefrontal cortexes, and left entorhinal cortex in apparently healthy Japanese men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0659DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk Factors That Most Accurately Predict Coronary Artery Disease Based on the Duration of Follow-up - NIPPON DATA80.

Circ J 2021 May 10;85(6):908-913. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Research Institute of Strategy for Prevention.

Background: This study assessed sex-specific time-associated changes in the impact of risk factors on coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality in a general population over long-term follow-up.Methods and Results:A prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted on representative Japanese populations followed up for 29 years. Data from 8,396 participants (3,745 men, 4,651 women) were analyzed. The sex-specific multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 4 risk factors (smoking, diabetes, serum total cholesterol [TC], and systolic blood pressure [SBP]) for CAD mortality were calculated at baseline and at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 29 years of follow-up. In men, smoking (HR 3.23; 95% CI 1.16-9.02) and a 1-SD increase in TC (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.29-2.57) were strongly associated with a higher risk of CAD in the first 10 years, but this association decreased over time. Diabetes (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.37-3.85) and a 1-SD increase in SBP (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.00-1.50) were strongly correlated with a higher risk of CAD after 29 years). In women, diabetes was correlated with CAD after 20 years (HR 2.53; 95% CI 1.19-5.36) and this correlation persisted until after 29 years (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.40-4.35).

Conclusions: The duration of follow-up needed for the accurate assessment of risk factors for CAD mortality varies according to risk factor and sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0739DOI Listing
May 2021

Alcohol drinking and brain morphometry in apparently healthy community-dwelling Japanese men.

Alcohol 2021 02 3;90:57-65. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

The clinical implications of alcohol consumption have been extensively examined; however, its effects on brain structures in apparently healthy community-dwellers remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and brain gray matter volume (GMV) in community-dwelling Japanese men using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited cognitively intact Japanese men, aged 40-79 years, from a population-based cohort in Shiga, Japan. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed, on average, 2 years after demographic and medical information was obtained in 2010-2014. A multivariable linear regression analysis of 639 men was conducted to elucidate the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and GMV. VBM statistics were analyzed by threshold-free cluster enhancement with a family-wise error rate of <0.05. The results obtained demonstrated that the amount of alcohol consumed was associated with lower GMV. The VBM analysis showed lower GMV within the parahippocampal, entorhinal, cingulate, insular, temporal, and frontal cortices and cerebellum in very heavy drinkers (≥42 ethanol g/day) than in non-drinkers. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was associated with a higher white matter lesion volume. These results suggest subclinical structural changes similar to alcohol-related neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2020.11.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Association of Red Meat Intake with the Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality in General Japanese Stratified by Kidney Function: NIPPON DATA80.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 30;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu 520-2192, Japan.

The consumption of red meat has been recommended for individuals with reduced kidney function. However, red meat intake was recently suspected to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the association of red meat intake with CVD mortality risk in Japanese with/without reduced kidney function. Overall, 9112 participants of a Japanese national survey in 1980, aged ≥30 years, were followed for 29 years. Red meat intake was assessed using weighed dietary record. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality according to sex-specific tertiles of red meat intake. We also performed stratified analyses with/without reduced kidney function defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m. Red meat intake was not associated with CVD mortality risk in men and women. In stratified analyses, the HR of the highest compared with the lowest tertile of red meat intake was lower only in women with reduced kidney function (0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.98). In conclusion, there were no clear associations between red meat intake and CVD mortality risk in Japanese population; however, a higher intake of red meat was associated with lower risk of future CVD mortality in women with reduced kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761136PMC
November 2020

Exercise Habits Are Associated with Improved Long-Term Mortality Risks in the Nationwide General Japanese Population: A 20-Year Follow-Up of the NIPPON DATA90 Study.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2020 11;252(3):253-262

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Exercise habits are known as a protective factor for a variety of diseases and thus recommended worldwide; however, few studies have examined long-term effects of exercise habits on mortality. We continuously monitored death status in a nationwide population sample of 7,709 eligible persons from the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Noncommunicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged in 1990 (NIPPON DATA90), for which baseline data were obtained in 1990. To investigate the long-term impact of baseline exercise habits, we calculated the relative risk of non-exercisers (participants without regular voluntary exercise habits) in reference to exercisers (those with these habits) for all-cause or cause-specific mortality using a Cox proportional hazard model, in which the following confounding factors were appropriately adjusted: sex, age, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, drinking, and history of cardiovascular disease. During a median 20 years of follow-up, 1,747 participants died, 99 of heart failure. The risk for all-cause mortality was 12% higher in non-exercisers than in exercisers (95% confidence interval, 1%-24%), which was also observed for mortality from heart failure, as 68% higher in non-exercisers than in exercises (95% confidence interval, 3%-173%). These associations were similarly observed when the participants were divided to subgroups by sex, age, and the light, moderate, or vigorous intensity of physical activity, without any significant heterogeneities (P > 0.1). The present study has revealed significant impact of exercise habits on long-term mortality risks, supporting worldwide recommendations for improvement of exercise habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.252.253DOI Listing
November 2020

Relationship Between Step Counts and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Japanese Men.

Stroke 2020 12 5;51(12):3584-3591. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia (M.M., A.K., H.S., H.U., K.M.), Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common subclinical feature of the aging brain. Steps per day may contribute to its prevention. We herein investigated the association between step counts and CSVD in a healthy Japanese male population.

Methods: We analyzed data from 680 men who were free of stroke and participated in this observational study. Seven-day step counts were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) using a pedometer. CSVD was assessed at follow-ups (2012-2015) based on deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), periventricular hyperintensities, lacunar infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Using a logistic regression analysis, we computed the adjusted odds ratios, with 95% CIs, of prevalent CSVD according to quartiles of step counts (reference: Q1). We also investigated the association between step counts and WMH volumes using a quantile regression.

Results: Steps per day were significantly associated with lower odds ratios, with the lowest at Q3 (8175-10 614 steps/day), of higher (versus low or no burden) deep and subcortical WMHs (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.89]), periventricular hyperintensities (0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.86]), and lacunar infarcts (0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.91]) compared with Q1 (≤6060 steps/day) but not cerebral microbleeds. An inverse linear association was observed between step counts and WMH volumes. These associations were independent of age and smoking and drinking status and remained consistent when adjusted for vascular risk factors.

Conclusions: We found a J-shaped relationship between step counts and prevalent CSVD in healthy Japanese men, with the lowest risk being observed among participants with ≈8000 to 10 000 steps/day. Higher steps were also associated with lower WMH volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030141DOI Listing
December 2020

Estimation of 10-Year Risk of Death from Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease in a Pooled Analysis of Japanese Cohorts: EPOCH-JAPAN.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Oct 10. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Keio University School of Medicine.

Aims: We aimed to develop and validate risk prediction models to estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: We evaluated a total of 44,869 individuals aged 40-79 years from eight Japanese prospective cohorts to derive coefficients of risk equations using cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models. Discrimination (C-index) of the equation was examined in each cohort and summarised using random-effect meta-analyses. Calibration of the equation was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic.

Results: Within a median follow-up of 12.7 years, we observed 765 deaths due to CVD (276 CHDs and 489 strokes). After backward selection, age, sex, current smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, prevalent diabetes mellitus, the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLC), interaction terms of age by SBP, and age by current smoking were retained as predictors for CHD. Sex was excluded in the stroke equation. We did not consider TC/HDLC as a risk factor for the stroke and CVD equations. The pooled C-indices for CHD, stroke, and CVD were 0.83, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively, and the corresponding p-values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were 0.18, 0.003, and 0.25, respectively.

Conclusions: Risk equations in the present study can adequately estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from CHD, stroke, and CVD. Future work will evaluate the system as an education and risk communication tool for primary prevention of CHD and stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.58958DOI Listing
October 2020

The relationship between serum levels of LOX-1 ligand containing ApoAI as a novel marker of dysfunctional HDL and coronary artery calcification in middle-aged Japanese men.

Atherosclerosis 2020 11 23;313:20-25. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan; Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

Background And Aims: Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond HDL concentrations. Recently, a novel method has been introduced to measure LOX-1 ligand containing apolipoprotein AI (LAA), which is an indicator of various types of modified HDL with binding capacity to LOX-1 and related to impaired anti-atherogenic functions of HDL. This study aimed to examine the relationship between LAA as a novel marker of dysfunctional HDL and coronary artery calcification (CAC).

Methods: We selected 910 community-dwelling Japanese men aged 40-79 years without a history of CVD. The odds ratios per 1SD of LAA for the presence of CAC (Agatston score >10) were estimated using logistic regression model adjusted for confounders, including HDL-C or HDL particle (HDL-P) concentration. In addition, we performed further analysis stratified by age (<65 and ≥ 65 years).

Results: The mean age of the participants was 63.6 years, and the median LAA was 187.0 ng/mL. The prevalent CAC was 46.2%. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1SD of LAA for CAC was 1.14 (0.96-1.36) for all participants. After stratification by age, multivariable adjusted odds ratios per 1SD of LAA were 1.34 (1.02-1.76) and 0.97 (0.77-1.23) in men aged <65 and ≥ 65 years, respectively.

Conclusions: The present study showed that LAA was associated with CAC independent of HDL-C or HDL-P in middle-aged Japanese men. This finding suggests that LAA might be an early marker for CVD events. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.09.013DOI Listing
November 2020

Study profile of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study.

J Epidemiol 2020 Sep 19. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of International Island and Community Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.

Background: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants.

Methods: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples.

Results: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women.

Conclusions: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200147DOI Listing
September 2020

Cross-sectional association of bone mineral density with coronary artery calcification in an international multi-ethnic population-based cohort of men aged 40-49: ERA JUMP study.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Oct 18;30:100618. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: Inverse associations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis with osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in post-menopausal women and elderly men. We aimed to investigate an association between vetebral bone density (VBD) and coronary artery cacification (CAC) in an international multi-ethnic cohort of middle-aged men in the EBCT and Risk Factor Assessment among Japanese and US Men in the Post-World-War-II birth cohort (ERA JUMP).

Methods: ERA JUMP examined 1134 men aged 40-49 (267 white, 84 black, and 242 Japanese Americans, 308 Japanese in Japan, and 233 Koreans in South Korea) free from CVD for CAC, and VBD, biomarkers of coronary atherosclerosis and BMD, respectively, with electron-beam computed tomography, and other risk factors. CAC was quantified with the Agatston method and VBD by computing the mean Hounsfield Unit (HU) value of the T12 to L3 vertebrae. To examine multivariable-adjusted associations of CAC with VBD, we used robust linear and logistic regressions.

Results: The mean VBD and median CAC were 175.4 HU (standard deviation: 36.3) and 0 (interquartile range: (0, 4.5)), respectively. The frequency of CAC was 19.0%. There was no significant interaction by race. VBD had a significant inverse association with CAC score (β = -0.207, p-value = 0.005), while a 10-unit increase in VBD was significantly associated with the frequency of CAC (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.929 (0.890-0.969)). Both associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates.

Conclusions: VBD had a significant inverse association with CAC in this international multi-ethnic cohort of men aged 40-49.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452517PMC
October 2020

Differences between home blood pressure and strictly measured office blood pressure and their determinants in Japanese men.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jan 31;44(1):80-87. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

Conventional office blood pressure (OBP) and home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are often inconsistent. The purpose of this research was (1) to test whether strictly measured OBP values with sufficient rest time before measurement (st-OBP) is comparable to HBP at the population level and (2) to ascertain whether there are particular determinants for the difference between HBP and st-OBP at the individual level. Data from a population-based group of 1056 men aged 40-79 years were analyzed. After a five-min rest, st-OBP was measured twice. HBP was measured after a 2-min rest every morning for seven consecutive days. To determine factors related to ΔSBP (HBP minus st-OBP measurements), multiple linear regression analyses and analyses of covariance were performed. While st-OBP and HBP were comparable (136.5 vs. 137.2 mmHg) at the population level, ΔSBP varied with a standard deviation of 13.5 mmHg. Smoking was associated with a larger ΔSBP regardless of antihypertensive usage, and BMI was associated with a larger ΔSBP in participants using antihypertensive drugs. The adjusted mean ΔSBP in the highest BMI tertile category was 4.6 mmHg in participants taking antihypertensive drugs. st-OBP and HBP measurements were comparable at the population level, although the distribution of ΔSBP was considerably broad. Smokers and obese men taking antihypertensive drugs had higher HBP than st-OBP, indicating that their blood pressure levels are at risk of being underestimated. Therefore, this group would benefit from the addition of HBP measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-00533-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Isolated systolic hypertension and 29-year cardiovascular mortality risk in Japanese adults aged 30--49 years.

J Hypertens 2020 11;38(11):2230-2236

Department of Public Health.

Objective: The prognostic implication of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as SBP at least 140 mmHg and DBP less than 90 mmHg, among young-to-middle-aged adults remains controversial. We examined the association of ISH with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults aged 30-49 years.

Methods: In a prospective cohort of representative Japanese general populations from the NIPPON DATA80 (1980-2009), we studied 4776 participants (mean age, 39.4 years; 55.4% women) without clinical CVD or antihypertensive medication. Participants were classified as follows: normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP/DBP, <120/<80 mmHg), high-normal BP (120-129/<80 mmHg), elevated BP (130-139/80-89 mmHg), ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) (<140/≥90 mmHg), and systolic--diastolic hypertension (SDH) (≥140/≥90 mmHg).

Results: ISH was observed in 389 (8.1%) participants. During the 29-year follow-up, 115 participants died of CVD, 28 of coronary heart disease, and 49 of stroke. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics and CVD risk factors showed that participants with ISH had higher risk of CVD mortality than those with normal BP [hazard ratio (confidence interval), 4.10 (1.87-9.03)]. The magnitude of CVD mortality risk related to ISH was comparable with that related to IDH [3.38 (1.31-8.72)] and not as great as that related to SDH [5.41 (2.63-11.14)]. We found significant associations of ISH with coronary and stroke mortality. The association of ISH with CVD mortality was consistent across men and women and those aged 30-39 and 40-49 years.

Conclusion: ISH among young-to-middle-aged Japanese adults was independently associated with higher risk of CVD mortality later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002533DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of hypertension stratified by diabetes on the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in Japan: a pooled analysis of data from the Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan study.

Hypertens Res 2020 12 3;43(12):1437-1444. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Lifetime risk is an informative estimate to motivate people to change lifestyle behaviors, especially from a younger age, in public health education. The impact of the combination of hypertension and diabetes on the lifetime risk of cardiovascular mortality has not been investigated in Asian populations. A pooled analysis of individual data from nine cohorts was performed. A total of 57,339 Japanese men and women were eligible for the analysis. We used the modified Kaplan-Meier approach and estimated the remaining lifetime risk of cardiovascular mortality starting from the index age of 35 years. Participants were classified into four categories defined by hypertension and diabetes. The lifetime risk was increased in the order of those without either risk, those without hypertension but with diabetes, those with hypertension but without diabetes, and those with both risks. The lifetime risk of cardiovascular mortality at the 35-year index age was as follows: 7.8% in men and 6.2% in women for those without either hypertension or diabetes, 13.2% in men and 9.5% in women for those without hypertension but with diabetes, 17.2% in men and 11.7% in women for those with hypertension but without diabetes, and 19.4% in men and 15% in women for those with both risks. These findings reinforce the need for a life-course perspective in the management of hypertension and diabetes from a younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-0502-5DOI Listing
December 2020

Smoking habits and progression of coronary and aortic artery calcification: A 5-year follow-up of community-dwelling Japanese men.

Int J Cardiol 2020 09 8;314:89-94. Epub 2020 May 8.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan; Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

Background And Aims: To examine whether smoking habits, including smoking amount and cessation duration at baseline, are associated with atherosclerosis progression.

Methods: At baseline (2006-08, Japan), we obtained smoking status, amount of smoking and time since cessation for quitters in a community-based random sample of Japanese men initially aged 40-79 years and free of cardiovascular disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and aortic artery calcification (AAC) as biomarker of atherosclerosis was quantified using Agatston's method at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. We defined progression of CAC and AAC (yes/no) using modified criteria by Berry.

Results: A total of 781 participants was analyzed. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of CAC and AAC progression for current smokers were 1.73 (95% CI, 1.09-2.73) and 2.47 (1.38-4.44), respectively, as compared to never smokers. In dose-response analyses, we observed a graded positive relationship of smoking amount and CAC progression in current smokers (multivariable adjusted ORs: 1.23, 1.72, and 2.42 from the lowest to the highest tertile of pack-years). Among the former smokers, earlier quitters (≥10.7 years) had similar ORs of the progression of CAC and AAC to that of participants who had never smoked.

Conclusions: Compared with never smokers, current smokers especially those with greater pack-years at baseline had higher risk of atherosclerosis progression in community-dwelling Japanese men. Importantly, the residual adverse effect appears to be present for at least ten years after smoking cessation. The findings highlight the importance of early avoidance or minimizing smoking exposure for the prevention of atherosclerotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.05.016DOI Listing
September 2020

A Combination of Blood Pressure and Total Cholesterol Increases the Lifetime Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: EPOCH-JAPAN.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jan 8;28(1):6-24. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Keio University.

Aim: Lifetime risk (LTR) indicates the absolute risk of disease during the remainder of an individual's lifetime. We aimed to assess the LTRs for coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality associated with blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels in an Asian population using a meta-analysis of individual participant data because no previous studies have assessed this risk.

Methods: We analyzed data from 105,432 Japanese participants in 13 cohorts. Apart from grade 1 and 2-3 hypertension groups, we defined "normal BP" as systolic/diastolic BP <130/<80 mmHg and "high BP" as 130-139/80-89 mmHg. The sex-specific LTR was estimated while considering the competing risk of death.

Results: During the mean follow-up period of 15 years (1,553,735 person-years), 889 CHD deaths were recorded. The 10-year risk of CHD mortality at index age 35 years was ≤ 0.11%, but the corresponding LTR was ≥ 1.84%. The LTR of CHD at index age 35 years steeply increased with an increase in BP of participants with high total cholesterol levels [≥ 5.7 mmol/L (220 mg/dL)]. This risk was 7.73%/5.77% (95% confidence interval: 3.53%-10.28%/3.83%-7.25%) in men/women with grade 2-3 hypertension and high total cholesterol levels. In normal and high BP groups, the absolute differences in LTRs between the low and high total cholesterol groups were ≤ 0.25% in men and ≤ 0.40% in women.

Conclusions: High total cholesterol levels contributed to an elevated LTR of CHD mortality in hypertensive individuals. These findings could help guide high-risk young individuals toward initiating lifestyle changes or treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.52613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875142PMC
January 2021

Food Sources of Dietary Potassium in the Adult Japanese Population: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP).

Nutrients 2020 Mar 17;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

A lower-than-recommended potassium intake is a well-established risk factor for increased blood pressure. Although the Japanese diet is associated with higher sodium intake and lower potassium intake, few studies have examined the source foods quantitatively. Studies on dietary patterns in association with potassium intake will be useful to provide dietary advice to increase potassium intake. Twenty-four-hour (hr) dietary recall data and 24-hr urinary potassium excretion data from Japanese participants (574 men and 571 women) in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) were used to calculate food sources of potassium and compare food consumption patterns among quartiles of participants categorized according to 24-hr urinary potassium excretion per unit of body weight (UK/BW). The average potassium intake was 2791 mg/day per participant, and the major sources were vegetables and fruits (1262 mg/day), fish (333 mg/day), coffee and tea (206 mg/day), and milk and dairy products (200 mg/day). Participants in the higher UK/BW quartile consumed significantly more vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk and dairy products, and ate less rice and noodles. Conclusion: Advice to increase the intake of vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk may be useful to increase potassium intake in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146396PMC
March 2020

Electrocardiographic Left Atrial Abnormality and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in a General Japanese Population: NIPPON DATA2010.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jan 19;28(1):34-43. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Aims: P-wave terminal force in lead V (PTFV) is an electrocardiogram marker of increased left atrial pressure and may be a noninvasive and early detectable marker for future cardiovascular events in the general population compared to serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration. The clinical significance of PTFV in the contemporary general population is an area of unmet need. We aimed to demonstrate the correlation between PTFV and BNP concentrations in a contemporary representative Japanese population.

Methods: Among 2,898 adult men and women from 300 randomly selected districts throughout Japan (NIPPON DATA2010), we analyzed 2,556 participants without cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation). Elevated BNP was defined as a value of ≥ 20 pg/mL based on the definition from the Japanese Circulation Society guidelines.

Results: In total, 125 (4.9%) participants had PTFV. Participants with PTFV were older with a higher prevalence of hypertension, major electrocardiographic findings, and elevated BNP concentrations (13.5 [6.9, 22.8] versus 7.8 [4.4, 14.5] pg/mL; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, PTFV was correlated with elevated BNP (odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.62; P=0.030). This correlation was consistent among various subgroups and was particularly evident in those aged <65 years or those without a history of hypertension.

Conclusions: In the contemporary general population cohort, PTFV was independently related to high BNP concentration. PTFV may be an alternative marker to BNP in identifying individuals at a higher risk of future cardiovascular events in the East Asian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.54171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875149PMC
January 2021

Physical activity levels in American and Japanese men from the ERA-JUMP Study and associations with metabolic syndrome.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 03 30;9(2):170-178. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global health problem. Physical activity (PA) is a known modifiable risk factor for MetS and individual MetS components. However, the role of PA could differ between sub-populations due to differences in the variability of PA and other MetS risk factors. To examine these differences, multi-country studies with standardized outcome measurement methods across cohorts are needed.

Methods: Cross-sectional PA levels (total and domain specific) in healthy middle-aged (44-56 years) men in the Risk Factor Assessment among Japanese and U.S. Men in the Post-World War II Birth Cohort (ERA-JUMP) Study ( = 730; American:  = 417; Japanese:  = 313; from population-representative samples in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan) were compared. The relationships between PA levels and MetS (overall and specific components) in/across the American and Japanese sub-cohorts (adjusting for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were also assessed using the same instruments (pedometer and validated questionnaire) to measure PA in both cohorts.

Results: A total of 510 individuals provided complete data on PA (American:  = 265; Japanese:  = 245). The American cohort had significantly lower mean ± SD steps/day (7878 ± 3399 steps/day) the Japanese cohort (9055 ± 3797 steps/day) ( < 0.001) but had significantly higher self-reported moderate-vigorous leisure PA (American: 15.9 (7.4-30.3) metabolic task equivalent hours per week (MET-h/week) Japanese: 4.0 (0-11.3) MET-h/week, < 0.0001). In both sub-cohorts, each 1000 steps/day increase was associated with lower odds of having MetS (American: OR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83-0.98; Japanese: OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95) and the individual MetS component of high waist circumference (American: OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.79-0.94; Japanese: OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.80-0.95). In the American cohort only, higher self-reported leisure PA (Met-h/week) was associated with lower odds of MetS and high waist circumference (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97-0.99 for MetS and waist circumference, respectively).

Conclusion: Higher total step counts/day had an important protective effect on MetS prevalence in both the Japanese and American cohorts, despite differences in PA levels and other MetS risk factors. The effect of steps/day (across all intensity levels) was much greater than domain-specific moderate-vigorous PA captured by questionnaire, suggesting the need for measurement tools that can best capture total movement when examining the effects of PA on MetS development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2019.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031775PMC
March 2020

Relationship Between Calcium Intake and Impaired Activities of Daily Living in a Japanese Population: NIPPON DATA90.

J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 8;31(2):119-124. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Background: Major reasons for long-term care insurance certification in Japan are stroke, dementia, and fracture. These diseases are reported to be associated with calcium intake. This study examined the association between calcium intake and impaired activities of daily living (ADL) using the data from NIPPON DATA90, consisting of representative sample of the Japanese population.

Methods: A population-based nested case-control study was performed. A baseline survey was conducted in 1990, followed by ADL surveys of individuals ≥65 years old in 2000. Individuals with impaired ADL and selected age- and sex-matched controls were then identified. We obtained 132 pairs. Calcium intake was energy-adjusted using the residual method. The association between calcium intake and impaired ADL was examined using conditional logistic regression models. To assess the accuracy of the estimates, we conducted bootstrap analyses.

Results: The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for impaired ADL compared with the group with a calcium intake of <476 mg/day were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.40) for the 476-606 mg/day group and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.21-0.94) for the ≥607 mg/day group in 2000 (P for linear trend = 0.03). After the bootstrap analyses, the inverse relationship unchanged (median OR per 100-mg rise in calcium intake, 0.87 [1,000 resamplings]; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97).

Conclusions: After bootstrap analyses, calcium intake was inversely associated with impaired ADL 10 years after the baseline survey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20190234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813771PMC
February 2021

The Association Between Coronary Artery Calcification and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Diseases in Men: An Observational Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Sep 22;27(9):995-1009. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Aim: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent predictor of stroke and dementia, in which subclinical cerebrovascular diseases (SCVDs) play a vital pathogenetic role. However, few studies have described the association between CAC and SCVDs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical relationship between CAC and SCVDs in a healthy Japanese male population.

Methods: In this observational study, 709 men, free of stroke, were sampled from a city in Japan from 2010 to 2014. CAC was scored using the Agatston method. The following SCVDs were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging: intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS), lacunar infarction, deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH), periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), and microbleeds. The participants were categorized according to CAC scores as follows: no CAC (0), mild CAC (1-100), and moderate-to-severe CAC (>100). The adjusted odds ratios of prevalent SCVDs were computed in reference to the no-CAC group using logistic regression.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 68 (8.4) years. Participants in the moderate-to-severe CAC category showed significantly higher odds of prevalent lacunar infarction, DSWMH, and ICAS in age-adjusted and risk-factor-adjusted models. Microbleeds and PVH, in contrast, did not show any significant associations. The trends for CAC with lacunar infarction, DSWMH, and ICAS were also significant (all P-values for trend ≤ 0.02).

Conclusions: Higher CAC scores were associated with higher odds of lacunar infarction, DSWMH, and ICAS. The presence and degree of CAC may be a useful indicator for SCVDs involving small and large vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.51284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508726PMC
September 2020