Publications by authors named "Hiroto Mizushima"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of GII.14[P7] norovirus and its genomic mutations from a case of long-term infection in a post-symptomatic individual.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 12 1;86:104612. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections, Nonthaburi, Thailand. Electronic address:

Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus shedding typically lasts one week to one month after the onset of diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. The occurrence of mutations in the genome during infection has contributed to the evolution of norovirus. It has been suggested that genomic mutations in the P2-domain of capsid protein VP1, the major antigenic site for virus clearance, are involved in the evasion of host immunity and prolonged shedding of norovirus. In our previous study, we found a case of long-term shedding of GII.14 norovirus in a post-symptomatic immunocompetent individual that lasted about three months. In this study, we characterized the genomic sequence of the GII.14 strain to gain insight into the context of long-term shedding. By sequencing a 4.8 kb region of the genome corresponding to half of ORF1 and the entire ORF2 and ORF3, which encode several non-structural proteins and the structural proteins VP1 and VP2, the GII.14 strain was found to be classified as recombinant GII.14[P7]. Six point-mutations occurred during the three-month period of infection in a time-dependent manner in the genomic regions encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, VP1, and VP2. Three of the six mutations were sense mutations, but no amino acid substitution was identified in the P2-domain of VP1. These results suggest that there is a mechanism by which long-term shedding of norovirus occurs in immunocompetent individuals independent of P2-domain mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104612DOI Listing
December 2020

Norovirus transmission mediated by asymptomatic family members in households.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(7):e0236502. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

The transmission of human norovirus excreted from infected persons occasionally causes sporadic infections and outbreaks. Both symptomatic patients and asymptomatic carriers have been reported to contribute to norovirus transmission, but little is known about the magnitude of the contribution of asymptomatic carriers. We carried out a 1-year survey of residents of a district of Bangkok, Thailand to determine the percentage of norovirus transmissions originating from asymptomatic individuals. We screened 38 individuals recruited from 16 families from May 2018 to April 2019 for GI and GII genotypes. Norovirus was detected every month, and 101 of 716 stool samples (14.1%) from individuals with no symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were norovirus-positive. The average infection frequency was 2.4 times per person per year. Fourteen genotypes were identified from the positive samples, with GII.4 being detected most frequently. Notably, 89.1% of the norovirus-positive samples were provided by individuals with no diarrhea episode. Similar to cases of symptomatic infections in Thailand, asymptomatic infections were observed most frequently in December. We detected 4 cases of NV infection caused by household transmission, and 3 of the 4 transmissions originated from asymptomatic individuals. We also identified a case in which norovirus derived from an asymptomatic individual caused diarrhea in a family member. These results suggest that asymptomatic individuals play a substantial role in both the maintenance and spreading of norovirus in a community through household transmission.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236502PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377487PMC
September 2020

Anti-Chikungunya Virus Monoclonal Antibody That Inhibits Viral Fusion and Release.

J Virol 2020 09 15;94(19). Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections (RCC-ERI), Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand

Chikungunya fever, a mosquito-borne disease manifested by fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia, is caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which belongs to the genus of the family Anti-CHIKV IgG from convalescent patients is known to directly neutralize CHIKV, and the state of immunity lasts throughout life. Here, we examined the epitope of a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody against CHIKV, CHE19, which inhibits viral fusion and release. docking analysis showed that the epitope of CHE19 was localized in the viral E2 envelope and consisted of two separate segments, an N-linker and a β-ribbon connector, and that its bound Fab fragment on E2 overlapped the position that the E3 glycoprotein originally occupied. We showed that CHIKV-E2 is lost during the viral internalization and that CHE19 inhibits the elimination of CHIKV-E2. These findings suggested that CHE19 stabilizes the E2-E1 heterodimer instead of E3 and inhibits the protrusion of the E1 fusion loop and subsequent membrane fusion. In addition, the antigen-bound Fab fragment configuration showed that CHE19 connects to the CHIKV spikes existing on the two individual virions, leading us to conclude that the CHE19-CHIKV complex was responsible for the large virus aggregations. In our subsequent filtration experiments, large viral aggregations by CHE19 were trapped by a 0.45-μm filter. This virion-connecting characteristic of CHE19 could explain the inhibition of viral release from infected cells by the tethering effect of the virion itself. These findings provide clues toward the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against the infection. Recent outbreaks of chikungunya fever have increased its clinical importance. Neither a specific antiviral drug nor a commercial vaccine for CHIKV infection are available. Here, we show a detailed model of the docking between the envelope glycoprotein of CHIKV and our unique anti-CHIKV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (CHE19), which inhibits CHIKV membrane fusion and virion release from CHIKV-infected cells. Homology modeling of the neutralizing antibody CHE19 and protein-protein docking analysis of the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and CHE19 suggested that CHE19 inhibits the viral membrane fusion by stabilizing the E2-E1 heterodimer and inhibits virion release by facilitating the formation of virus aggregation due to the connecting virions, and these predictions were confirmed by experiments. Sequence information of CHE19 and the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and their docking model will contribute to future development of an effective prophylactic and therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00252-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495367PMC
September 2020

The use of green fluorescent protein-tagged virus-like particles as a tracer in the early phase of chikungunya infection.

Virus Res 2019 10 21;272:197732. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections (RCC-ERI), Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; Research Institute for Microbial Diseases (RIMD), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

To visually examine the early phase of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in target cells, we constructed a virus-like particle (VLP) in which the envelope protein E1 is fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). This chikungunya VLP-GFP (CHIK-VLP-EGFP), purified by density gradient fractionation, was observed as 60-70 nm-dia. particles and was detected as tiny puncta of fluorescence in the cells. CHIK-VLP-EGFP showed binding properties similar to those of the wild-type viruses. Most of the fluorescence signals that had bound on Vero cells disappeared within 30 min at 37 °C, but not in the presence of anti-CHIKV neutralizing serum or an endosomal acidification inhibitor (bafilomycin A1), suggesting that the loss of fluorescence signals is due to the disassembly of the viral envelope following the internalization of CHIK-VLP-EGFP. In addition to these results, the fluorescence signals disappeared in highly susceptible Vero and U251MG cells but not in poorly susceptible A549 cells. Thus, CHIK-VLP-EGFP is a useful tool to examine the effects of the CHIKV neutralizing antibodies and antiviral compounds that are effective in the entry phase of CHIKV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197732DOI Listing
October 2019

The dynamics of norovirus genotypes and genetic analysis of a novel recombinant GII.P12-GII.3 among infants and children in Bangkok, Thailand between 2014 and 2016.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 06 20;60:133-139. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections (RCC-ERI), Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand; Research Institute of Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0781, Japan; Osaka Institute of Public Health, Osaka 537-0025, Japan. Electronic address:

Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis among all age groups in the world. We performed a molecular epidemiological study of the NoVs prevalent in Bangkok between November 2014 and July 2016 to investigate the emergence of new NoV variants in Thailand. A total of 332 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Bangkok, Thailand. NoVs were detected by real-time PCR. The genome of the N-terminal/shell domain was amplified, the nucleotide sequence was determined, and phylogenetic analyses were performed. GII NoV was detected in 58 (17.5%) of the 332 specimens. GII.17, a genotype strain prevalent from 2014 to mid-2015, was hardly detected and replaced by the GII.3 genotype strain. Entire genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis of the GII.3 genotype strains indicated that they are new recombinant viruses, because the genome encoding ORF1 is derived from a GII.12 genotype strain, whereas that encoding ORF2-3 is from a GII.3 genotype strain. The putative recombination breakpoints with the highest statistical significance were located around the border of 3D and ORF2. The change in the prevalent strain of NoV seems to be linked to the emergence of new forms of recombinant viruses. These findings suggested that the swapping of the structural and non-structural proteins of NoV is a common mechanism by which new epidemic variants are generated in nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.02.028DOI Listing
June 2018

ErbB1 and ErbB4 generate opposing signals regulating mesenchymal cell proliferation during valvulogenesis.

J Cell Sci 2017 04 23;130(7):1321-1332. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Department of Cell Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an indispensable role in suppression of cell proliferation during mouse valvulogenesis. However, ligands of the EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), including HB-EGF, are generally considered as growth-promoting factors, as shown in cancers. HB-EGF binds to and activates ErbB1 and ErbB4. We investigated the role of ErbB receptors in valvulogenesis using ErbB1- and ErbB4-deficient mice, and an model of endocardial cushion explants. We show that HB-EGF suppresses valve mesenchymal cell proliferation through a heterodimer of ErbB1 and ErbB4, and an ErbB1 ligand (or ligands) promotes cell proliferation through a homodimer of ErbB1. Moreover, a rescue experiment with cleavable or uncleavable isoforms of ErbB4 in -null cells indicates that the cleavable JM-A, but not the uncleavable JM-B, splice variant of ErbB4 rescues the defect of the null cells. These data suggest that the cytoplasmic intracellular domain of ErbB4, rather than the membrane-anchored tyrosine kinase, achieves this suppression. Our study demonstrates that opposing signals generated by different ErbB dimer combinations function in the same cardiac cushion mesenchymal cells for proper cardiac valve formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.196618DOI Listing
April 2017

BK-UM in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer or peritoneal cancer: a first-in-human phase-I study.

BMC Cancer 2017 01 31;17(1):89. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Cell Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Disease, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Background: BK-UM (CRM197) is a mutant form of diphtheria toxin and a specific inhibitor of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). We assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, recommended dose, and efficacy of BK-UM in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer (OC) or peritoneal cancer (PC), and measured HB-EGF levels in serum and abdominal fluid after BK-UM administration.

Methods: Eleven patients with advanced or recurrent OC or PC were enrolled and treated with BK-UM via the intraperitoneal route. The dose was escalated (1.0, 2.0, 3.3, and 5.0 mg/m) using a 3 + 3 design.

Results: Eight of 11 patients completed treatment. No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was experienced at dose levels 1 (1.0 mg/m) and 2 (2.0 mg/m). Grade 3 transient hypotension as an adverse event (defined as a DLT in the present study) was observed in two of four patients at dose level 3 (3.3 mg/m). Treatment with BK-UM was associated with decreases in HB-EGF levels in serum and abdominal fluid in seven of 11 patients and five of eight patients, respectively. Clinical outcomes included a partial response in one patient, stable disease in five patients, and progressive disease in five patients.

Conclusions: BK-UM was well tolerated at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/m, with evidence for clinical efficacy in patients with recurrent OC or PC. A dose of 2.0 mg/m BK-UM is recommended for subsequent clinical trials.

Trial Registration: This trial was prospectively performed as an investigator-initiated clinical trial. The trial numbers are UMIN000001002 and UMIN000001001, with registration dates of 1/30/2008 and 2/4/2008, respectively. UMIN000001001 was registered as a trial for the continuous administration of BK-UM after UMIN000001002 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3071-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5286856PMC
January 2017

Identification of diphtheria toxin R domain mutants with enhanced inhibitory activity against HB-EGF.

J Biochem 2015 May 27;157(5):331-43. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Department of Cell Biology and Department of Molecular Bacteriology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; and Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a ligand of EGF receptor, is involved in the growth and malignant progression of cancers. Cross-reacting material 197, CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DT), specifically binds to the EGF-like domain of HB-EGF and inhibits its mitogenic activity, thus CRM197 is currently under evaluation in clinical trials for cancer therapy. To develop more potent DT mutants than CRM197, we screened various mutant proteins of R domain of DT, the binding site for HB-EGF. A variety of R-domain mutant proteins fused with maltose-binding protein were produced and their inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. We found four R domain mutants that showed much higher inhibitory activity against HB-EGF than wild-type (WT) R domain. These R domain mutants suppressed HB-EGF-dependent cell proliferation more effectively than WT R domain. Surface plasmon resonance revealed their higher affinity to HB-EGF than WT R domain. CRM197(R460H) carrying the newly identified mutation showed increased cell proliferation inhibitory activity and affinity to HB-EGF. These results suggest that CRM197(R460H) or other recombinant proteins carrying newly identified mutation(s) in the R domain are potential therapeutics targeting HB-EGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvu079DOI Listing
May 2015

HB-EGF and PDGF mediate reciprocal interactions of carcinoma cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts to support progression of uterine cervical cancers.

Cancer Res 2011 Nov 18;71(21):6633-42. Epub 2011 Oct 18.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka-Saiseikai-Nakatsu Hospital, Japan.

Tumor stroma drives the growth and progression of cancers. A heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, HB-EGF, is an EGF receptor ligand that stimulates cell growth in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. While elevated expression of HB-EGF in cancer cells and its contribution to tumor progression are well documented, the effects of HB-EGF expression in the tumor stroma have not been clarified. Here, we show that HB-EGF is expressed in stromal fibroblasts where it promotes cancer cell proliferation. In uterine cervical cancers, HB-EGF was detected immunohistochemically in the stroma proximal to the cancer epithelium. Proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro was enhanced by coculture with fibroblasts isolated from tumor tissues of patients with cervical cancer. Inhibition of HB-EGF function or treatment with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) inhibitors abrogated cancer cell growth enhanced by cervical cancer-associated fibroblast (CCF) coculture. Furthermore, tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model was enhanced by cotransplantation of CCF or mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not with embryonic fibroblasts from HB-EGF-deficient mice. Conversely, conditioned medium from cancer cells induced HB-EGF expression in CCF. Mechanistic investigations established that PDGF was the primary factor responsible. Together, our findings indicate that HB-EGF and PDGF reciprocally mediate the interaction of cancer cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts, promoting cancer cell proliferation in a paracrine manner that has implications for novel combinatorial cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0034DOI Listing
November 2011

Proteolytic activation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 in ovarian carcinoma cells.

Cancer Sci 2011 Jan 14;102(1):111-6. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Increased expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP) is frequently associated with various types of malignant tumor. HB EGF-like growth factor has been reported to promote the malignant progression of ovarian carcinoma. Based on this finding, inhibition of HB-EGF activity with CRM197 is now under phase I clinical evaluation. On the other hand, MT1-MMP expressed in ovarian carcinoma cells is thought to promote invasion and growth of tumor cells by degrading the extracellular matrix. However, we recently demonstrated that co-expression of MT1-MMP and HB-EGF in gastric carcinoma cells leads to cleavage of HB-EGF within its N-terminal heparin-binding region, converting it into a potent heparin-independent growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the importance of regulation of HB-EGF by MT1-MMP in clinical samples of ovarian carcinoma. We detected co-expression of HB-EGF and MT1-MMP in clear cell ovarian carcinoma tissues, particularly at the invasion front and in tumor cells that had disseminated into the ascites, whereas HB-EGF alone was expressed in non-invasive borderline ovarian tumor tissue. Furthermore, a soluble HB-EGF fragment that corresponds to that processed by MT1-MMP was detected in malignant ascites obtained from patients with metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Ovarian carcinoma cells that express MT1-MMP and HB-EGF exhibited enhanced cell growth in a 3D-collagen matrix and anchorage-independent growth in suspension. These results indicate that MT1-MMP co-expressed with HB-EGF in ovarian carcinoma cells potentiates the activity of HB-EGF to promote invasive tumor growth and spreading in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01748.xDOI Listing
January 2011

Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase cleaves off the NH2-terminal portion of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and converts it into a heparin-independent growth factor.

Cancer Res 2010 Jul 29;70(14):6093-103. Epub 2010 Jun 29.

Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (ErbB) and EGF family members represent promising targets for cancer therapy. Heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family and is an important target for therapy in some types of human cancers. Processing of HB-EGF by proprotein convertases, and successively, by ADAM family proteases, generates a soluble growth factor that requires heparin as a cofactor. Although heparin potentiates HB-EGF activity in vitro, it is not clear how the heparin-binding activity of HB-EGF is regulated. Here, we show that membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), a potent invasion-promoting protease, markedly enhances HB-EGF-dependent tumor formation in mice. MT1-MMP additionally cleaves HB-EGF and removes the NH(2)-terminal 20 amino acids that are important for binding heparin. Consequently, the processing of HB-EGF by MT1-MMP converts HB-EGF into a heparin-independent growth factor with enhanced mitogenic activity, and thereby, expression of both proteins costimulates tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The ErbB family of receptors expressed in human gastric carcinoma cells play a role in mediating enhanced HB-EGF activity by MT1-MMP during invasive cell growth in collagen. Thus, we shed light on a new mechanism whereby HB-EGF activity is regulated that should be considered when designing HB-EGF-targeted cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0346DOI Listing
July 2010

Integrin signal masks growth-promotion activity of HB-EGF in monolayer cell cultures.

J Cell Sci 2009 Dec 3;122(Pt 23):4277-86. Epub 2009 Nov 3.

Department of Cell Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

The extracellular environment and tissue architecture contribute to proper cell function and growth control. Cells growing in monolayers on standard polystyrene tissue culture plates differ in their shape, growth rate and response to external stimuli, compared with cells growing in vivo. Here, we showed that the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) strongly stimulated cell growth in nude mice, but not in cells cultured in vitro. We explored the effects of HB-EGF on cell growth under various cell culture conditions and found that growth promotion by HB-EGF was needed in three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) culture systems in which cell-matrix adhesion was reduced. Under such conditions, cell growth was extremely suppressed in the absence of HB-EGF, but markedly potentiated in the presence of HB-EGF. When the integrin signal was reduced using antibodies or knockout of either integrin beta1 or focal adhesion kinase (FAK), cells showed HB-EGF-dependent growth. We also showed that EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) or ligands of other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) stimulated cell growth in 3D culture, but not in tissue culture plates. These results indicate that the integrin signal was sufficient to support cell growth in 2D tissue culture plates without addition of the growth factor, whereas stimulation by growth factors was clearly demonstrated in culture systems in which integrin signals were attenuated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.054551DOI Listing
December 2009

Diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 possesses weak EF2-ADP-ribosyl activity that potentiates its anti-tumorigenic activity.

J Biochem 2007 Jul 24;142(1):95-104. Epub 2007 May 24.

Department of Cell Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

CRM197, a mutated diphtheria toxin (DT), has long been recognized to be a non-toxic protein. Based on its non-toxic feature, this protein has been utilized for various purposes, including as an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and as an immunological adjuvant for vaccination. Here we show evidence that CRM197 has a weak toxicity. This toxicity was observed in cells over-expressing the DT receptor/proHB-EGF, but not in parental cells, indicating that the toxicity was mediated through DT receptor. CRM197 did not show any toxicity toward DT-resistant cells, which have a mutation in elongation factor 2, and a cell-free assay revealed the existence of weak EF-2-ADP ribosylation activity in fragment A of CRM197. Thus, the present study indicates a requirement for specific care in the use of CRM197 at a high dosage, although the toxicity of CRM197 is about 10(6) times less than that of wild-type DT. We found that a monoclonal antibody to DT inhibited CRM197 toxicity, but did not affect the inhibitory activity of CRM197 toward HB-EGF-induced mitogenic activity. CRM197 strongly inhibits tumour growth in nude mice. The anti-DT monoclonal antibody administered with CRM197 reduced the anti- tumourigenic effect of CRM197, indicating that the toxicity of CRM197 potentiates its anti- tumourigenic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvm116DOI Listing
July 2007

FRA1 is a determinant for the difference in RAS-induced transformation between human and rat fibroblasts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 Apr 28;103(14):5490-5. Epub 2006 Mar 28.

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Saito Bioincubator, Room 204, 7-7-15 Saito Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085, Japan.

Human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) immortalized by hTERT and simian virus 40 (SV40) early region (ER) exhibit a limited degree of transformation upon the expression of activated H-RAS (H-RAS V12) compared with rat embryonic fibroblasts (REF) immortalized by SV40 ER. Here, we identified FRA1 as a determinant for this difference in RAS-induced transformation. FRA1 was not induced by H-RAS V12 in the immortalized HDF, in contrast to its marked accumulation in the immortalized REF. Ectopic expression of FRA1 significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth of various HDF expressing hTERT, SV40 ER, and H-RAS V12. More importantly, FRA1 could induce anchorage-independent growth as well as nude mice tumor formation of the immortalized HDF in the absence of H-RAS V12. The results of an in vitro kinase assay clearly showed that the RAS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which is responsible for FRA1 induction, was markedly attenuated in the HDF compared with that in the REF, despite no obvious differences in the phosphorylation status of ERK between the species. Our results strongly suggest that HDF negatively regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway more efficiently than REF, and consequently express less malignant phenotypes in response to H-RAS V12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0601222103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1459382PMC
April 2006

Cytoplasmic domain phosphorylation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor.

Cell Struct Funct 2006 ;31(1):15-27

Department of Cell Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is synthesized as a transmembrane precursor protein that is anchored to the plasma membrane. The extracellular EGF-like domain acts as a mitogen and motogen upon ectodomain shedding, but the functional roles of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF is phosphorylated by external stimuli, and that the phosphorylation site is involved in HB-EGF-dependent tumorigenesis. Treatment of Vero cells overexpressing human HB-EGF with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) caused ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF and generated two carboxyl (C)-terminal fragments with distinct electrophoretic mobilities. Mutation analysis showed that Ser207 in the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF is phosphorylated upon TPA stimulation, generating two C-terminal fragments with distinct phosphorylation states. Treatment of cells with lysophosphatidic acid, anisomycin, and calcium ionophore, all of which are known to induce ectodomain shedding, also caused phosphorylation of HB-EGF. Although ectodomain shedding and phosphorylation of HB-EGF occurred coordinately, Ala substitution of Ser207 had no effect on TPA-induced or constitutive ectodomain shedding. Injection of cells overexpressing HB-EGF into nude mice showed that Ala substitution of Ser207 reduced the tumorigenic activity of HB-EGF, even though the cell surface level and ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF were not affected by the mutation. Moreover, we found that the cytoplasmic domain of another EGFR ligand, transforming growth factor-alpha, is phosphorylated upon TPA stimulation. Thus, the present results suggest a novel role for the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF and other EGF family growth factors that is regulated by phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.31.15DOI Listing
April 2006

Clinical significance of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 expression in human ovarian cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2005 Jul;11(13):4783-92

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Purpose: Lysophosphatidic acid, which is enriched in the peritoneal fluid of ovarian cancer patients, plays a key role in the progression of ovarian cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid can generate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal transactivation involving processing of EGFR ligands by ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family metalloproteases. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of EGFR ligands and ADAM family in the lysophosphatidic acid-induced pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.

Experimental Design: We examined the expression of EGFR ligands and ADAM family members in 108 patients with normal ovaries or ovarian cancer, using real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization, and analyzed the clinical roles of these molecules. Statistical analyses of these data were done using the Mann-Whitney test, Kaplan-Meier method, or Spearman's correlation analysis.

Results: Large differences in expression were found for heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and other EGFR ligands and for ADAM 17 and other ADAM family members. HB-EGF expression was significantly increased in advanced ovarian cancer compared with that in normal ovaries (P < 0.01). HB-EGF expression was significantly associated with the clinical outcome (P < 0.01). ADAM 17 expression was significantly enhanced in both early and advanced ovarian cancer compared with that in normal ovaries (both P < 0.01), although it had no clinical significance in the progression-free survival. HB-EGF expression was significantly correlated with ADAM 17 expression (gamma = 0.437, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HB-EGF and ADAM 17 contribute to the progression of ovarian cancer and that HB-EGF plays a pivotal role in the aggressive behavior of a tumor in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1426DOI Listing
July 2005

Regulation of biological activity and matrix assembly of laminin-5 by COOH-terminal, LG4-5 domain of alpha3 chain.

J Biol Chem 2005 Apr 28;280(15):14370-7. Epub 2005 Jan 28.

Division of Cell Biology, Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, Japan.

The basement membrane protein laminin-5 (LN5; alpha3beta3gamma2) undergoes specific proteolytic processing of the 190-kDa alpha3 chain to the 160-kDa form after the secretion, releasing its COOH-terminal, LG4-5 domain. To clarify the biological significance of this processing, we tried to express a recombinant precursor LN5 with a 190-kDa alpha3 chain (pre-LN5), in which the cleavage sequence Gln-Asp was changed to Ala-Ala by point mutation. When the wild-type and mutated LN5 heterotrimers were expressed in HEK293 cells, the wild-type alpha3 chain was completely cleaved, whereas the mutated alpha3 chain was partially cleaved at the same cleavage site (Ala-Ala). pre-LN5 was preferentially deposited on the extracellular matrix, but this deposition was effectively blocked by exogenous heparin. This suggests that interaction between the LG4-5 domain and heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and/or extracellular matrix is important in the matrix assembly of LN5. Next, we purified both pre-LN5 and the mature LN5 with the processed, 160-kDa alpha3 chain (mat-LN5) from the conditioned medium of the HEK293 cells and compared their biological activities. mat-LN5 showed higher activities to promote cell adhesion, cell scattering, cell migration, and neurite outgrowth than pre-LN5. These results indicate that the proteolytic removal of LG4-5 from the 190-kDa alpha3 chain converts the precursor LN5 from a less active form to a fully active form. Furthermore, the released LG4-5 fragment stimulated the neurite outgrowth in the presence of mat-LN5, suggesting that LG4-5 synergistically enhances integrin signaling as it is released from the precursor LN5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M413051200DOI Listing
April 2005

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy.

Cancer Res 2004 Aug;64(16):5720-7

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death among all gynecologic cancers. We demonstrate here that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced ectodomain shedding of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a critical to tumor formation in ovarian cancer. We found that among the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of growth factors, HB-EGF gene expression in cancerous tissues and HB-EGF protein levels in patients' ascites fluid were significantly elevated. The human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and RMG-1 form tumors in nude mice. Tumor formation of these cells was enhanced by exogenous expression of pro-HB-EGF and completely blocked by pro-HB-EGF gene RNA interference or by CRM197, a specific HB-EGF inhibitor. Transfection with mutant forms of HB-EGF indicated that the release of soluble HB-EGF is essential for tumor formation. LPA, which is constitutively produced by ovarian cancer cells, induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding in SKOV3 and RMG-1 cells, resulting in the transactivation of EGFR and the downstream kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase. LPA-induced transactivation was abrogated by HB-EGF gene RNA interference or by CRM197. Introduction of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase, which hydrolyzes LPA, decreased the constitutive shedding of HB-EGF, EGFR transactivation, and the tumorigenic potential of SKOV3 and RMG-1 cells. These results indicate that HB-EGF is the primary member of the EGFR family of growth factors expressed in ovarian cancer and that LPA-induced ectodomain shedding of this growth factor is a critical step in tumor formation, making HB-EGF a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0811DOI Listing
August 2004

Mice with defects in HB-EGF ectodomain shedding show severe developmental abnormalities.

J Cell Biol 2003 Nov 3;163(3):469-75. Epub 2003 Nov 3.

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is first synthesized as a membrane-anchored form (proHB-EGF), and its soluble form (sHB-EGF) is released by ectodomain shedding from proHB-EGF. To examine the significance of proHB-EGF processing in vivo, we generated mutant mice by targeted gene replacement, expressing either an uncleavable form (HBuc) or a transmembrane domain-truncated form (HBdeltatm) of the molecule. HB(uc/uc) mice developed severe heart failure and enlarged heart valves, phenotypes similar to those in proHB-EGF null mice. On the other hand, mice carrying HBdeltatm exhibited severe hyperplasia in both skin and heart. These results indicate that ectodomain shedding of proHB-EGF is essential for HB-EGF function in vivo, and that this process requires strict control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200307035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2173637PMC
November 2003

Differential regulation of cellular adhesion and migration by recombinant laminin-5 forms with partial deletion or mutation within the G3 domain of alpha3 chain.

J Cell Biochem 2003 Feb;88(3):506-20

Division of Cell Biology, Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, 641-12 Maioka-cho, Totsuka-ku, Japan.

The basement membrane protein laminin-5 promotes cell adhesion and migration. The carboxyl-terminal G3 domain in the alpha3 chain is essential for the unique activity of laminin-5. To investigate the function of the G3 domain, we prepared various recombinant laminin-5 forms with a partially deleted or mutated G3 domain. The deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 28 amino acids (region III) markedly decreased the cell adhesion activity with a slight loss of the cell motility activity toward BRL and EJ-1 cells. This change was attributed to the loss of Lys-Arg-Asp sequence. Further deletion of 83 amino acids (region II) led to almost complete loss of the cell motility activity. All charged amino acid residues tested in this region were not responsible for the activity loss. These results suggest that the G3 domain contains two distinct regions that differently regulate cell adhesion and migration. Analysis of laminin-5 receptors showed that integrins alpha3beta1, alpha6beta1, and alpha6beta4 had different but synergistic effects on cell adhesion and migration on laminin-5. However, the structural change of the G3 domain appeared not to change integrin specificity. The present study demonstrates that the G3 domain in laminin-5 plays a central role to produce different biological effects on cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.10350DOI Listing
February 2003

Laminin-6 is activated by proteolytic processing and regulates cellular adhesion and migration differently from laminin-5.

J Biol Chem 2002 Dec 11;277(51):49287-95. Epub 2002 Oct 11.

Division of Cell Biology, Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, 641-12 Maioka-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 244-0813, Japan.

Laminin-6 (LN6) and laminin-5 (LN5), which share the common integrin-binding domain in the laminin alpha3 chain, are thought to cooperatively regulate cellular functions, but the former has poorly been characterized. Human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells expressing an exogenous alpha3 chain were found to secrete LN6 with the full-length alpha3 chain and a smaller amount of its processed form lacking the carboxyl-terminal G4-5 domain, besides mature LN5 without G4-5 (mat-LN5). We prepared the unprocessed LN6 and mat-LN5, as well as LN6 mutants without G4-5 (LN6DeltaG4-5) or G5 (LN6DeltaG5). These laminins supported attachment of HT1080 cells and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) through integrins alpha(3)beta(1) and/or alpha(6)beta(1). LN6DeltaG4-5, LN6DeltaG5, and mat-LN5 promoted rapid cell spreading, whereas LN6 did hardly. A purified G4-5 fragment of the laminin alpha3 chain supported cell attachment through interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans and promoted cell spreading in combination with mat-LN5 or LN6DeltaG4-5. These results imply that the G4-5 domain within the LN6 molecule suppresses cell adhesion, while the released G4-5 promotes it. The presence of G5 rather than the heparin-binding domain G4 was responsible for the impaired cell spreading activity of LN6. However, the unprocessed LN6 promoted cell spreading in the presence of mat-LN5. Unlike mat-LN5, both LN6DeltaG4-5 and LN6 did weakly or did not stimulate cell motility. These findings demonstrate that LN6 and LN5 have distinct biological activities, but they may cooperatively support cell adhesion. The proteolytic processing of the alpha3 chain seems to regulate the physiological functions of LN6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111096200DOI Listing
December 2002

Expression of laminin-5 enhances tumorigenicity of human fibrosarcoma cells in nude mice.

Jpn J Cancer Res 2002 Jun;93(6):652-9

Division of Cell Biology, Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 244-0813.

Laminin-5 (LN5), which consists of laminin alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains, is a laminin isoform produced by various kinds of normal epithelial cells and tumor cells. Strong activity of LN5 in adhesion, migration and scattering of cells in vitro and its frequent detection in human tumor tissues have suggested a possible role of LN5 in the malignant growth of tumor cells. To examine whether LN5 affects the malignant potential of tumor cells, we prepared human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell lines producing LN5 by transfecting a cDNA of laminin alpha3 chain into the parent cell line, which constitutively expressed the laminin beta3 and gamma2 chains. The exogenous alpha3 chain associated with the endogenous beta3 and gamma2 chains to secrete the LN5 heterotrimer that has strong cell-scattering and cell adhesion activities. The HT1080 transfectants expressing LN5 efficiently adhered to culture dishes in a serum-free condition as compared with control HT1080 cells, which secreted the monomers and heterodimer of the beta3 and gamma2 chains. When injected into nude mice subcutaneously, the HT1080 transfectants expressing LN5 grew faster and formed much larger tumors than the control cells. This suggests that LN5 promotes tumor growth in vivo.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927054PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2002.tb01303.xDOI Listing
June 2002

Regulation of melanoma cell migration and invasion by laminin-5 and alpha3beta1 integrin (VLA-3).

Clin Exp Metastasis 2002 ;19(2):127-34

Department of Microbiology, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan.

We evaluated the role of soluble factors produced from epidermal cells in melanoma cell motility by using the Boyden chamber chemoinvasion system. The migration of two melanoma cell lines, A375 and Mewo, was potentiated by conditioned media of A431 epidermoid cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The enhancement of A375 melanoma cell motility induced by the conditioned medium was blocked by antibodies against either alpha3 or beta1 integrin subunit. The motility-stimulating activity was recovered in the same fraction as the alpha3 integrin-dependent adhesion-promoting activity in a high-molecular-weight (>200 kDa) fraction on Superose 12 gel chromatography, and adsorbed with an anti-laminin-5 antibody. Purified laminin-5 was capable of potentiating melanoma cell migration as measured in either the chemotaxis assay with a soluble form of laminin-5 or the haptotaxis assay with membranes coated with a mixture of laminin-5 and Matrigel. Furthermore, immobilized laminin-5 induced A375 melanoma cells to secrete matrix metalloproteinase-9 (type IV collagenase) into the culture medium. These results strongly suggest that the interaction of laminin-5 produced in the epidermis with alpha3beta1 integrin on melanoma cells is involved in cell migration, invasion, and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1014573204062DOI Listing
May 2002