Publications by authors named "Hiroji Iwata"

295 Publications

The frequency of low HER2 expression in breast cancer and a comparison of prognosis between patients with HER2-low and HER2-negative breast cancer by HR status.

Breast Cancer 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, 1-1, Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-City, Aichi, 464-8681, Japan.

Purpose: The DESTINY-Breast04 clinical trial is currently investigating whether trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) is effective in HER2-low as well as HER2-positive breast cancer. This highlights the interest in treatment strategies for patients with HER2-low breast cancer. The current study was therefore designed to determine the frequency of HER2-low among all breast cancers, and to compare the prognosis of HER2-low patients with that of HER2-negative patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the biological data from 4,918 of 4,977 primary breast cancer patients who attended our institute. We quantified the overall frequency of breast cancer patients with a new HER2-low subtype that was defined by an immunohistochemistry score of IHC1 + or IHC2 + /ISH-. We then compared the clinical characteristics and prognosis of HER2-low patients with that of patients who did not have HER2 amplification (HER2-0).

Results: Low HER2 expression was found in 3169 (64.4%) patients; 2860 (58.1%) were HR-positive and 309 (6.3%) were HR-negative. Among HER2-0 patients, 681 (13.9%) were HR-positive and 157 (3.2%) were HR-negative. The HER2-0 group tended to have more poor prognostic factors than the HER2-low group, irrespective of HR status. There were no statistically significant differences between the prognosis of HER2-low and HER2-0 patients, regardless of HR status. However, patients in the HER2-low group tended to have better prognosis than those in the HER2-0 group.

Conclusion: HER2-low patients did not have a significantly different prognosis than HER2-0 patients, regardless of HR status. However, we should consider tailoring therapies for patients with HRE2-low early breast cancer according to their HR status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01303-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Adjuvant Olaparib in BRCA-Mutated Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 Oct;385(15):1439

Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Japan

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2112373DOI Listing
October 2021

Differences in baseline risk estimated by physicians and patients with early breast cancer.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Breast Surgery, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Physicians recommend adjuvant therapy to patients based on baseline risk. A common recognition for baseline risk between patients and physicians is critical for successful adjuvant therapy. We prospectively investigated the differences in estimated baseline risk between physicians and patients with early breast cancer.

Methods: This analysis was performed at a single institution in Japan. Early breast cancer patients over 18 years old were enrolled after surgery. After explaining the pathological results, physicians asked each patient about an estimated baseline risk. Differences in estimated baseline risk were defined as the baseline risk estimated by patients minus the baseline risk estimated by physicians. The primary endpoint was that the number of patients who estimate baseline risk higher than physicians was higher than those who estimate a lower baseline risk. The secondary endpoints were differences in estimated baseline risk by stage, subtype and the influence of patient factors to differences in estimated baseline risk.

Results: From July 2017 to December 2018, 262 patients were enrolled. Among the 262 patients, 190 estimated a higher baseline risk than physicians, 53 estimated a lower baseline risk and 19 estimated the same. Overall, patients estimated a significantly higher baseline risk than physicians (P < 0.001). Differences in estimated baseline risk was significantly smaller in patients who knew the term 'baseline risk' than patients who did not (P = 0.0037). Differences in estimated baseline risk were also significantly smaller in patients with stage II breast cancer than patients with stage I (P = 0.0239). However, there were no statistically significant differences of differences in estimated baseline risk according to other factors.

Conclusions: Patients with early breast cancer estimated a significantly higher baseline risk than physicians. Physicians should accurately explain baseline risk to patients for shared decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab152DOI Listing
October 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of a Randomized Study of Neoadjuvant Induction Dual HER2 Blockade with Trastuzumab and Lapatinib Followed by Weekly Paclitaxel Plus Dual HER2 Blockade for HER2-Positive Primary Breast Cancer (Neo-Lath Study).

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 9;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Breast Cancer Unit, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 606-8507, Kyoto, Japan.

We conducted the Neo-LaTH study in which patients were randomized to different lengths of neoadjuvant induction anti-HER2 therapy with lapatinib and trastuzumab followed by weekly paclitaxel plus the anti-HER2 therapy, and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients, with or without concurrent endocrine therapy. The use of endocrine therapy did not affect the response; comprehensive pathological complete response (CpCR) plus ypN0 rate was 57.6% and 30.3% in ER-negative and ER-positive patients, respectively. After surgery, patients received an anthracycline-based regimen based on physician's choice, followed by trastuzumab for 1 year, and in ER-positive patients, endocrine therapy for 5 years. Here, we report the 5-year survival outcomes. Among the followed-up patients ( = 212), the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), distant DFS, and overall survival rates were 87.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 82.5-91.6%], 93.7% (95% CI, 89.3-96.3%), and 95.6% (95% CI, 91.7-97.7%), respectively, with no difference between ER-negative and ER-positive patients. The 5-year DFS rate was significantly higher in patients who had a CpCR plus ypN0 after neoadjuvant treatment than in those who did not (91.7% vs. 85.1%; = 0.0387). The stratified analysis showed better survival outcomes in patients who had CpCRypN0 than in those who did not after neoadjuvant treatment, regardless of use of adjuvant anthracycline therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394774PMC
August 2021

Abemaciclib plus fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer in premenopausal women: subgroup analysis from the MONARCH 2 trial.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 08 23;23(1):87. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: In MONARCH 2, abemaciclib plus fulvestrant significantly improved median progression-free survival (PFS, 16.4 vs 9.3 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.553) and overall survival (OS, 46.7 vs 37.3 months; HR 0.757) compared with placebo plus fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients who were endocrine therapy (ET) resistant, regardless of menopausal status. Here, we report findings in the premenopausal subgroup of the MONARCH 2 trial.

Methods: The premenopausal subgroup included patients with natural menstrual bleeding who received a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist at least 4 weeks prior to study treatment start date and for the entire study duration. Of the 669 patients enrolled in the MONARCH 2 trial, 114 were premenopausal (abemaciclib plus fulvestrant, n = 72; placebo plus fulvestrant, n = 42), and were included in this analysis. The primary objective was investigator-assessed PFS and secondary objectives were OS, objective response rate, and safety and tolerability. Exploratory analyses included time to second disease progression (PFS2), time to chemotherapy (TTC), and chemotherapy-free survival (CFS).

Results: At the primary objective cutoff (February 14, 2017), median PFS was not reached for the abemaciclib plus fulvestrant arm versus 10.52 months for the placebo plus fulvestrant arm (HR 0.415; 95% CI 0.246-0.698). At the pre-specified OS interim cutoff (20-June-2019), median PFS was 28.6 months in the abemaciclib plus fulvestrant arm compared with 10.26 months in the placebo plus fulvestrant arm (HR 0.477; 95% CI 0.302-0.755). A numerical OS benefit was observed with abemaciclib plus fulvestrant compared to fulvestrant alone (HR 0.689; 95% CI 0.379-1.252, median, not reached vs 47.3 months). Improvements were also observed for the exploratory outcomes of PFS2 (HR 0.599), TTC (HR 0.674), and CFS (HR 0.642) with the addition of abemaciclib to fulvestrant. The safety profile was generally consistent with results disclosed previously.

Conclusions: Results of the premenopausal subgroup in the MONARCH 2 trial were consistent with the improved clinical outcomes observed in the intent-to-treat population. The analysis provides support for the use of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant (with ovarian suppression) as an effective treatment option for premenopausal patients with HR+, HER2- ABC who are ET-resistant.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02107703. Registered April 08, 2014- Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02107703 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01463-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381581PMC
August 2021

A systematic literature review of prognostic factors in patients with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer in Japan.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct;51(10):1498-1508

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women in Japan and the fifth in mortality. This systematic review summarized the evidence for prognostic factors for patients with HR+/HER2- advanced and metastatic breast cancer in Japan.

Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched with keywords 'breast neoplasms' AND 'Japan' AND 'advanced' or equivalent, and Japan Medical Abstract Society database with 'breast cancer' AND 'advanced/metastatic' for publications from January 2010 to October 2019. ASCO, ESMO, ABC4 abstracts and WHO website were hand searched. The endpoints of interest were overall survival, progression-free survival, tumour response and post-progression survival. Factors were evaluated based on the consistency in direction and the strength (hazard ratios) of association.

Results: Searches identified 4530 publications, of which 27 were eligible. All were observational studies. Among the endpoints, overall survival was the most commonly assessed (n = 22) and evaluated further. Ki-67 expression, progesterone receptor expression status, tumour grade and lymph node metastases were consistently associated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. Short disease-free interval, the number of metastatic organs and liver metastasis were consistently associated with poor overall survival in both of univariate and multivariate analysis. The association was strong for liver metastasis (hazard ratio ≥2.8 in the majority of studies) and moderate for disease-free interval and the number of metastatic organs (hazard ratio 1.3-2.8 in the majority of studies).

Conclusions: Disease-free interval, the number of metastatic organs and liver metastasis were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. These findings may help clinical decision-making to improve outcomes in patients with HR+/HER2- advanced and metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491537PMC
October 2021

A randomized phase III study comparing trastuzumab emtansine with trastuzumab, pertuzumab and docetaxel in elderly patients with advanced stage HER2-positive breast cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG1607, HERB TEA study).

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug;51(9):1471-1474

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi, Japan.

The standard first-line treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer is a combination therapy of trastuzumab, pertuzumab and docetaxel, and the standard second-line treatment is trastuzumab emtansine. However, it may be difficult for the elderly to maintain sufficient intensity of treatment due to severe adverse events of trastuzumab, pertuzumab and docetaxel. The aim of this trial is to confirm the non-inferiority of trastuzumab emtansine over trastuzumab, pertuzumab and docetaxel in terms of overall survival in elderly (65-year-old or more) patients with human epidermal growth factor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. If improved overall survival and fewer toxicities are observed, trastuzumab emtansine may be a feasible new standard first-line treatment for elderly patients with human epidermal growth factor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer. A planned total 330 patients will be enrolled from 45 institutions over 6.5 years. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000030783 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab101DOI Listing
August 2021

PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Assay Comparison in Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel-Treated Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: In the Phase III IMpassion130 study, atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel (A+nP) showed clinical benefit in advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients who were programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) + (tumor-infiltrating immune cells [IC] ≥1%) using the SP142 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Here we evaluate 2 other PD-L1 assays for analytical concordance with SP142 and patient-associated clinical outcomes.

Methods: Samples from 614 patients (68.1% of intention-to-treat population) were centrally evaluated by IHC for PD-L1 status on IC (VENTANA SP142, SP263, Dako 22C3) or as a combined positive score (CPS; 22C3).

Results: Using SP142, SP263, and 22C3 assays, PD-L1 IC ≥ 1% prevalence was 46.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.5-50.4%), 74.9% (95% CI = 71.5-78.3%), and 73.1% (95% CI = 69.6-76.6%), respectively; 80.9% were 22C3 at CPS ≥1. At IC ≥ 1% (+), the analytical concordance between SP142 and SP263 and 22C3 was 69.2% and 68.7%, respectively. Almost all SP142+ cases were captured by other assays (double positive), but several SP263 + (29.6%) or 22C3 + (29.0%) cases were SP142- (single positive). A+nP clinical activity vs placebo+nP in SP263+ and 22C3+ patients (progression-free survival [PFS] hazard ratios [HRs] = 0.64-0.68; overall survival [OS] HRs = 0.75-0.79) was driven by double-positive (PFS HRs = 0.60-0.61; OS HRs = 0.71-0.75) rather than single-positive cases (PFS HRs = 0.68-0.81; OS HRs = 0.87-0.95). Concordance for harmonized cutoffs for SP263 (IC ≥ 4%) and 22C3 (CPS ≥10) to SP142 IC ≥ 1% was subpar (approximately 75%).

Conclusions: 22C3 and SP263 assays identified more patients as PD-L1 + (IC ≥ 1%) than SP142. No inter-assay analytical equivalency was observed. Consistent improved A+nP efficacy was captured by the SP142 PD-L1 IC ≥ 1% subgroup nested within 22C3 and SP263 PD-L1 + (IC ≥ 1%) populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab108DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer: Analyses From PALOMA-3.

Oncologist 2021 08 12;26(8):e1339-e1346. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Molecular Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

Background: This analysis investigated whether baseline characteristics affect the survival benefit derived from palbociclib-fulvestrant and the optimal timing of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor therapy for advanced breast cancer (ABC) in patients from PALOMA-3.

Patients And Methods: In total, 521 patients were randomized 2:1 to receive palbociclib (125 mg/day, 3/1 schedule)-fulvestrant (500 mg, intramuscular injection, on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1, and then day 1 of each subsequent cycle) or matching placebo-fulvestrant. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Multivariable analysis identified endocrine sensitivity, nonvisceral disease, no prior chemotherapy for ABC, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0 as significant prognostic factors for OS. Patients without chemotherapy for ABC had fewer prior lines of treatment in any setting and in the ABC setting versus patients with prior chemotherapy for ABC (two or fewer prior systemic therapies: 69% vs. 42%; no more than one prior line for ABC: 82% vs. 33%, respectively). Median OS was prolonged with palbociclib-fulvestrant in patients without prior chemotherapy for ABC (39.7 vs. 29.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-1.01) and was similar in patients with prior chemotherapy for ABC (25.6 vs. 26.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI: 0.63-1.32]) versus placebo-fulvestrant.

Conclusion: Prognostic factors for OS included endocrine sensitivity, nonvisceral disease, ECOG PS of 0, and no prior chemotherapy for ABC. Exploratory analyses suggest improved OS with palbociclib-fulvestrant versus placebo-fulvestrant in patients with no prior chemotherapy for ABC, prior endocrine sensitivity, and fewer prior regimens of systemic therapy. (Clinical trial identification number: NCT01942135).

Implications For Practice: Prognostic factors for overall survival in HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer (ABC) include the absence of prior chemotherapy in the advanced setting, endocrine sensitivity, nonvisceral disease, and an ECOG performance status of 0. Improved overall survival benefit was observed with palbociclib-fulvestrant versus placebo-fulvestrant in patients (regardless of menopausal status or visceral involvement) with no prior chemotherapy for ABC, with prior endocrine sensitivity, and fewer prior regimens of systemic therapy. Progression-free survival was prolonged with palbociclib across subgroups (regardless of chemotherapy exposure in ABC). These exploratory findings suggest that patients may receive greater clinical benefit from palbociclib-fulvestrant if they receive the combination before chemotherapy in the advanced setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342589PMC
August 2021

Increased chemosensitivity via BRCA2-independent DNA damage in DSS1- and PCID2-depleted breast carcinomas.

Lab Invest 2021 08 24;101(8):1048-1059. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Immunology, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

Breast cancer, the most common malignancy among women, is closely associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA. DSS1, a component of the TRanscription-EXport-2 (TREX-2) complex involved in transcription and mRNA nuclear export, stabilizes BRCA2 expression. DSS1 is also related to poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer owing to the induction of chemoresistance. Recently, BRCA2 was shown to be associated with the TREX-2 component PCID2, which prevents DNA:RNA hybrid R-loop formation and transcription-coupled DNA damage. This study aimed to elucidate the involvement of these TREX-2 components and BRCA2 in the chemosensitivity of breast carcinomas. Our results showed that compared with that in normal breast tissues, DSS1 expression was upregulated in human breast carcinoma, whereas PCID2 expression was comparable between normal and malignant tissues. We then compared patient survival time among groups divided by high or low expressions of DSS1, BRCA2, and PCID2. Increased DSS1 expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in recurrence-free survival time, whereas no differences were detected in the high and low BRCA2 and PCID2 expression groups. We performed in vitro analyses, including propidium iodide nuclear staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and clonogenic survival assays, using breast carcinoma cell lines. The results confirmed that DSS1 depletion significantly increased chemosensitivity, whereas overexpression conferred chemoresistance to breast cancer cell lines; however, BRCA2 expression did not affect chemosensitivity. Similar to DSS1, PCID2 expression was also inversely correlated with chemosensitivity. These results strongly suggest that DSS1 and PCID2 depletion is closely associated with increased chemosensitivity via BRCA2-independent DNA damage. Together with the finding that DSS1 is not highly expressed in normal breast tissues, these results demonstrate that DSS1 depletion confers a druggable trait and may contribute to the development of novel chemotherapeutic strategies to treat DSS1-depleted breast carcinomas independent of BRCA2 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00613-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Exposure-Response Relationships in Patients With HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer and Other Solid Tumors Treated With Trastuzumab Deruxtecan.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 10 10;110(4):986-996. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., Basking Ridge, New Jersey, USA.

Trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) is a HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate composed of a novel enzyme-cleavable linker and membrane-permeable topoisomerase I inhibitor payload. T-DXd has been approved for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and for HER2-positive metastatic gastric cancer. The approval in breast cancer was based on results from the DESTINY-Breast01 (U201; NCT03248492) and J101 (NCT02564900) trials. Here, we present dose justification for the approved 5.4 mg/kg every-3-weeks (Q3W) dose based on exposure-efficacy evaluated in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (N = 337) from these 2 trials. Exposure-safety was assessed in patients with all tumor types (N = 639, n = 512 with breast cancer) across 5 trials, including J101 and DESTINY-Breast01. T-DXd doses ranged from 0.8-8.0 mg/kg Q3W; most patients received 5.4 (n = 312) or 6.4 mg/kg (n = 291). For each end point, multivariate logistic or Cox regression analysis was performed using various exposure metrics of T-DXd and released drug. A statistically significant association was observed between intact T-DXd area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and confirmed objective response rate (ORR; P = 0.028). No significant exposure-response relationships were observed between intact T-DXd or released drug and duration of response or progression-free survival; however, follow-up was limited. All evaluated safety end points demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) relationship with either intact T-DXd or released drug, with higher adverse event (AE) rates projected at higher exposures. Dose-response projections suggested an increase in ORR (67.5% vs. 62.9%) and toxicity (e.g., grade ≥ 3 all-cause treatment-emergent AEs: 61% vs. 54%) with T-DXd 6.4 vs. 5.4 mg/kg. Results demonstrate the benefit-risk profile at different doses and guide clinicians in the use of the 5.4-mg/kg Q3W dose in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2291DOI Listing
October 2021

Compression therapy using surgical gloves does not prevent paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: results from a double-blind phase 2 trial.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 13;21(1):548. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect of paclitaxel (PTX). There is no known prophylactic measure, although there are some reports of prevention with compression therapy using surgical gloves. On account of its predominantly subjective symptoms, it is difficult to exclude bias when assessing for CIPN. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the same procedure for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced PN based on a double-blind study design.

Methods: The patients with early and recurrent breast cancer (with no prior PTX exposure) initiating weekly chemotherapy with PTX 80 mg/m were enrolled. Each patient donned two gloves on each hand at every PTX infusion. Two one-size-smaller gloves were donned on one hand (study side) and two normal-size gloves were donned on the other hand (control side) during 90 min from 30 min before the infusion to 30 min after the end of the infusion. Study side are blind for both patients and assessing physicians according to determination of the study side by research nurses in the chemotherapy unit. The primary outcome was the difference in the frequency of CIPN (motor/sensory) determined by the physician using the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE v4.0), with an evaluation at each cycle of PTX infusion. McNemar test was used to assess the primary outcome.

Results: Between July 2017 and November 2018, 56 patients were enrolled and 49 patients were evaluated. Overall, Grade ≥ 2 PN (sensory) was observed in 30.6 and 36.7% in the study and control sides, respectively (McNemar p = 0.25). PN (motor) was observed in 4.1 and 6.1% in the study and control sides, respectively (McNemar p = 1.0).

Conclusion: Surgical glove compression therapy showed no statistically significant effect on the incidence of PTX-induced PN.

Trial Registrations: This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry managed by the National University Hospital Council of Japan ( UMIN000027944 ). Registered 26 June 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08240-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120772PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of the Association of Polymorphisms With Palbociclib-Induced Neutropenia: Pharmacogenetic Analysis of PALOMA-2/-3.

Oncologist 2021 07 7;26(7):e1143-e1155. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event in clinical trials with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib is neutropenia. Allelic variants in ABCB1 and ERCC1 might be associated with early occurrence (i.e., end of week 2 treatment) of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Pharmacogenetic analyses were performed to uncover associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, patient baseline characteristics, and early occurrence of grade 3/4 neutropenia.

Materials And Methods: ABCB1 (rs1045642, rs1128503) and ERCC1 (rs3212986, rs11615) were analyzed in germline DNA from palbociclib-treated patients from PALOMA-2 (n = 584) and PALOMA-3 (n = 442). SNP, race, and cycle 1 day 15 (C1D15) absolute neutrophil count (ANC) data were available for 652 patients. Univariate and multivariable analyses evaluated associations between SNPs, patient baseline characteristics, and early occurrence of grade 3/4 neutropenia. Analyses were stratified by Asian (n = 122) and non-Asian (n = 530) ethnicity. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of genetic variants on palbociclib pharmacokinetics was analyzed.

Results: ABCB1 and ERCC1_rs11615 SNP frequencies differed between Asian and non-Asian patients. Multivariable analysis showed that low baseline ANC was a strong independent risk factor for C1D15 grade 3/4 neutropenia regardless of race (Asians: odds ratio [OR], 6.033, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.615-13.922, p < .0001; Non-Asians: OR, 6.884, 95% CI, 4.138-11.451, p < .0001). ABCB1_rs1128503 (C/C vs. T/T: OR, 0.57, 95% CI, 0.311-1.047, p = .070) and ERCC1_rs11615 (A/A vs. G/G: OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 0.901-3.397, p = .098) were potential independent risk factors for C1D15 grade 3/4 neutropenia in non-Asian patients. Palbociclib mPFS was consistent across genetic variants; exposure was not associated with ABCB1 genotype.

Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive assessment of pharmacogenetic data in relationship to exposure to a CDK4/6 inhibitor. Pharmacogenetic testing may inform about potentially increased likelihood of patients developing severe neutropenia (NCT01740427, NCT01942135).

Implications For Practice: Palbociclib plus endocrine therapy improves hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer outcomes, but is commonly associated with neutropenia. Genetic variants in ABCB1 may influence palbociclib exposure, and in ERCC1 are associated with chemotherapy-induced severe neutropenia. Here, the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes and baseline characteristics with neutropenia were assessed. Low baseline absolute neutrophil count was a strong risk factor (p < .0001) for grade 3/4 neutropenia. There was a trend indicating that ABCB1_rs1128503 and ERCC1_rs11615 were potential risk factors (p < .10) for grade 3/4 neutropenia in non-Asian patients. Pharmacogenetic testing could inform clinicians about the likelihood of severe neutropenia with palbociclib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265363PMC
July 2021

The significance of biopsy scar excision at the time of skin- or nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug;51(8):1212-1218

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Neoplastic seeding (NS) can occur after tissue biopsy, which is a clinical issue especially in mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. This is because postoperative radiation is not usually given and local recurrence of preserved skin flap may increase. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of preoperative evaluation of NS and the validity of biopsy scar excision.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analysed 174 cases of mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction. The primary endpoint is the frequency of clinical and pathological NS and the secondary endpoint is the problem of excision of needle biopsy site.

Results: Three cases (1.7%) had preoperative clinical findings of NS. Pathological examination revealed NS in all three cases. Biopsy scars could be excised in 115 cases among 171 cases without clinical NS. Pathological NS was found in 1 of 66 (1.5%) cases of which pathological examination was performed. Biopsy scars could not be excised in the remaining 56 cases: the biopsy scar could not be identified in 41 cases, and there was concern about a decrease in flap blood flow after excision in 15 cases. In 12 of these 15 cases, the scars were close to the skin incision; excision of these scars might have triggered skin necrosis between the incision and the biopsy scar excision site. No postoperative complications were observed.

Conclusions: It is important to preoperatively evaluate clinical NS, and biopsy scars should be excised in clinical NS cases. Even in cases without clinical NS, biopsy scar excision should be considered. It is also important to perform a biopsy in consideration of the incision design for reconstructive surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326383PMC
August 2021

Impact of adjuvant endocrine therapy on prognosis in small hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer.

Breast Cancer 2021 Sep 22;28(5):1087-1095. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Background: The efficacy of adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer has been previously established. However, significant adverse events related to endocrine therapy cannot be ignored. T1 breast cancer is expected to have a good prognosis. Therefore, adjuvant endocrine therapy for T1a breast cancer patients is controversial. Thus, in this study, we examined the effect of endocrine therapy on the prognosis of T1N0 hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients in each tumor size group, and re-considered the application of endocrine therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively obtained clinical and pathological data from medical records of 7635 patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer at Aichi Cancer Hospital between January 2000 and December 2017. The primary end point of our analysis was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary end points were distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The log-rank test, cumulative survival generated curves with Kaplan-Meier methods and the hazard ratio (HR) calculated with a Cox regression model were used to assess the effects of endocrine therapy on prognosis.

Results: The 5-year DFS was worse in the non-endocrine therapy (non-ET) group (78%) than the endocrine therapy (ET) group (95%) in the T1c population (p < 0.001, HR 0.25). However, there was no statistically significant difference in DFS between the ET and the non-ET groups in T1a (ET 96% vs non-ET 93%, p = 0.9314, HR 0.94) and T1b (ET 96% vs non-ET 93%, p = 0.1481HR 0.53) breast cancer. The OS, DDFS, and BCSS of the patients also showed that endocrine therapy was associated with improvement of the prognosis in the T1c group, but not in the T1a and T1b groups.

Conclusions: Adjuvant endocrine therapy may be essential for T1c breast cancer patients. In contrast, this therapy should be discussed for T1a and T1b luminal breast cancer patients under some circumstances, such as suffering from adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01245-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Health-Related Quality of Life With Trastuzumab Monotherapy Versus Trastuzumab Plus Standard Chemotherapy as Adjuvant Therapy in Older Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 9;39(22):2452-2462. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biostatistics Division, Clinical Research Support Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: We report findings on quality of life (QoL) in the RESPECT trial, which compared adjuvant trastuzumab monotherapy with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in older patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC).

Patients And Methods: Patients age 70-80 years with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive surgically treated breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive trastuzumab (T) or trastuzumab plus chemotherapy (T + C). QoL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire, and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence at baseline and after 2, 12, and 36 months. Comparisons were based on individual changes from baseline and were performed by Fisher's test or mixed-model repeated-measures.

Results: Among 275 patients in the parent study, 231 (84%) (average age: 74 years) were included in the analysis. At 2, 12, and 36 months, 198, 177, and 178 patients completed surveys, and the mean FACT-G scores at each survey point were 78.9, 80.4, 82.7, and 79.1 in group T and 79.5, 74.5, 78.4, and 78.5 in group T + C. Compared with group T + C, the proportion of patients showing QoL deterioration (≥ 5 points decrease from baseline in FACT-G) was significantly lower at 2 months (31% 48%; = .016) and 12 months (19% 38%; = .009). In group T, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score ( = .003) and the proportion of severe sensory peripheral neuropathy ( = .001) were significantly lower at 2 months, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence scores were significantly higher ( = .024, .042) at 12 months. At 36 months, there were no significant differences in any QoL items.

Conclusion: Detrimental effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on global QoL, morale, and activity capacity lasted for at least 12 months but were not observed at 36 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02751DOI Listing
August 2021

Japanese subpopulation analysis of MONARCH 2: phase 3 study of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant for treatment of hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer that progressed on endocrine therapy.

Breast Cancer 2021 Sep 1;28(5):1038-1050. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Breast Cancer Unit, Breast Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaracho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: This was a Japanese subpopulation analysis of MONARCH 2, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study of abemaciclib plus fulvestrant in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC).

Methods: Eligible women had progressed on (neo)adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET), ≤ 12 months from end of adjuvant ET, or on first-line ET for ABC, and had not received chemotherapy for ABC. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive abemaciclib or placebo plus fulvestrant. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), pharmacokinetics (PK), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and safety.

Results: In Japan, 95 patients were randomized (abemaciclib, n = 64; placebo, n = 31). At final PFS analysis (February 14, 2017), median PFS was 21.2 and 14.3 months, respectively, in the abemaciclib and placebo groups (hazard ratio: 0.672; 95% confidence interval: 0.380-1.189). Abemaciclib had a higher objective response rate (37.5%) than placebo (12.9%). PK and safety profiles for Japanese patients were consistent with those of the overall population, without clinically meaningful differences across most HRQoL dimensions evaluated. The most frequent adverse events in the abemaciclib versus placebo groups were diarrhea (95.2 versus 25.8%), neutropenia (79.4 versus 0%), and leukopenia (66.7 versus 0%). At a second data cutoff (June 20, 2019), median OS was not reached with abemaciclib and 47.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio: 0.755; 95% confidence interval: 0.390-1.463).

Conclusions: Results of the Japanese subpopulation were consistent with the improved clinical outcomes and manageable safety profile observed in the overall population.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02107703; U.S. National Library of Medicine: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02107703 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01239-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354907PMC
September 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients With -Mutated Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer From SOLAR-1.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 29;39(18):2005-2015. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: In the phase III SOLAR-1 trial (NCT02437318), the PI3Kα-selective inhibitor and degrader alpelisib significantly improved median progression-free survival when added to fulvestrant in patients with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ()-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. We assessed health-related quality of life using patient-reported outcome measures in these patients.

Materials And Methods: In the -mutant cohort, 341 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive alpelisib 300 mg daily or placebo plus fulvestrant 500 mg on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of subsequent 28-day cycles. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL of Cancer Patients and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form questionnaires. Changes from baseline and time to 10% deterioration were analyzed using repeated measurement models and Cox models, respectively.

Results: Global Health Status/QoL and functional status were maintained from baseline (mean changes < 10 points) in the alpelisib (overall change from baseline [95% CI], -3.50 [-8.02 to 1.02]) and placebo arms (overall change from baseline [95% CI], 0.27 [-4.48 to 5.02]). Overall treatment effect in Global Health Status/QoL was not significantly different between arms (-3.77; 95% CI, -8.35 to 0.80; = .101). Time to 10% deterioration for Global Health Status/QoL was similar between arms (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.48). Compared with placebo, deterioration in social functioning and in diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue symptom subscales occurred with alpelisib. Numerical improvement in Worst Pain was observed with alpelisib versus placebo (42% 32%, week 24; = .090).

Conclusion: In SOLAR-1, there was no statistical difference in deterioration of Global Health Status/QoL between arms, whereas symptom subscales favored placebo for diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue, known side effects of alpelisib. Treatment decisions must consider efficacy and tolerability; taken with clinical efficacy, these results support the benefit-risk profile of alpelisib in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative -mutated advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210974PMC
June 2021

Abemaciclib in combination with endocrine therapy for East Asian patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer: MONARCH 2 & 3 trials.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 1;112(6):2381-2392. Epub 2021 May 1.

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

This post hoc analysis of MONARCH 2 and MONARCH 3 assesses the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of abemaciclib in combination with endocrine therapy (ET) in East Asian patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. MONARCH 2 and MONARCH 3 are global, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 studies of abemaciclib/placebo + fulvestrant and abemaciclib/placebo + nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI, anastrozole or letrozole), respectively. The East Asian population comprised 212 (31.7%) of the 669 intent-to-treat (ITT) population in the MONARCH 2 trial and 144 (29.2%) of the 493 ITT patients in the MONARCH 3 trial. In the East Asian population, median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly prolonged in the abemaciclib arm compared with placebo in both MONARCH 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.520; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.362 to 0.747; P < .001; median: 21.2 vs 11.6 months) and MONARCH 3 (HR, 0.326; 95% CI, 0.200 to 0.531, P < .001; median: not reached vs 12.82 months). Diarrhea (MONARCH 2: 90%; MONARCH 3: 88%) and neutropenia (MONARCH 2: 68%; MONARCH 3: 58%) were the most frequent adverse events observed in the East Asian populations. Abemaciclib exposures and PK were similar in East Asians and the non-East Asian populations of both trials. Abemaciclib in combination with ET in the East Asian populations of MONARCH 2 and MONARCH 3 provided consistent results with the ITT populations, demonstrating improvements in efficacy with generally tolerable safety profiles for patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177785PMC
June 2021

Clinicopathological predictors of postoperative upstaging to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in patients preoperatively diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study.

Breast Cancer 2021 Jul 18;28(4):896-903. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Background: We conducted a prospective study with the intention to omit surgery for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. We aimed to identify clinicopathological predictors of postoperative upstaging to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in patients preoperatively diagnosed with DCIS.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with DCIS diagnosed through biopsy between April 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014, from 16 institutions. Clinical, radiological, and histological variables were collected from medical records.

Results: We identified 2,293 patients diagnosed with DCIS through biopsy, including 1,663 DCIS (72.5%) cases and 630 IDC (27.5%) cases. In multivariate analysis, the presence of a palpable mass (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.6), mammography findings (≥ category 4; OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.6), mass formations on ultrasonography (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), and tumor size on MRI (> 20 mm; OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.4) were independent predictors of IDC. Among patients with a tumor size on MRI of ≤ 20 mm, the possibility of postoperative upstaging to IDC was 22.1%. Among the 258 patients with non-palpable mass, nuclear grade 1/2, and positive for estrogen receptor, the possibility was 18.1%, even if the upper limit of the tumor size on MRI was raised to ≤ 40 mm.

Conclusion: We identified four independent predictive factors of upstaging to IDC after surgery among patients with DCIS diagnosed by biopsy. The combined use of various predictors of IDC reduces the possibility of postoperative upstaging to IDC, even if the tumor size on MRI is larger than 20 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01225-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213581PMC
July 2021

Atezolizumab and nab-Paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Biomarker Evaluation of the IMpassion130 Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Aug;113(8):1005-1016

Centre for Experimental Cancer Medicine, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: Understanding the impact of the tumor immune microenvironment and BRCA1/2-related DNA repair deficiencies on the clinical activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors may help optimize both patient and treatment selection in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. In this substudy from the phase 3 IMpassion130 trial, immune biomarkers and BRCA1/2 alterations were evaluated for association with clinical benefit with atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel (A+nP) vs placebo and nP in unresectable (P+nP) locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

Methods: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle) and atezolizumab 840 mg every 2 weeks or placebo until progression or toxicity. Progression-free survival and overall survival were evaluated based on programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on immune cells (IC) and tumor cells, intratumoral CD8, stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and BRCA1/2 mutations.

Results: PD-L1 IC+ in either primary or metastatic tumor tissue was linked to progression-free survival and overall survival benefit with A+nP. PD-L1 IC+ low (26.9%; 243 of 902 patients) and high (13.9%; 125 of 902 patients) populations had improved outcomes that were comparable. Intratumoral CD8 and stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes positivity (sTIL+) were associated with PD-L1 IC+ status; improved outcomes were observed with A+nP vs P+nP only in CD8+ and sTIL+ patients who were also PD-L1 IC+. BRCA1/2 mutations (occurring in 14.5% [89 of 612 patients]) were not associated with PD-L1 IC status, and PD-L1 IC+ patients benefited from A+nP regardless of BRCA1/2 mutation status.

Conclusions: Although A+nP was more efficacious in patients with richer tumor immune microenvironment, clinical benefit was only observed in patients whose tumors were PD-L1 IC+.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328980PMC
August 2021

Prospective observational study estimating willingness-to-pay for breast cancer treatments through contingent valuation method in Japanese breast cancer patients (JCOG1709A).

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar;51(3):498-503

Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi, Japan.

In April 2016, the Japanese government introduced health technology assessment as a response to rising medical expenses due to 'medical innovation'. This study investigates how Japanese breast cancer patients who received treatment in Japan consider the financial value (willingness-to-pay; WTP) for their life and health by using the contingent valuation method (CVM) prospectively. First, 168 patients (84 primary breast cancer patients and 84 metastatic breast cancer patients) were pre-examined their WTP with dichotomous-choice method survey form. Next, 1,596 patients (798 primary breast cancer patients and 798 metastatic breast cancer patients) will be surveyed to their WTP for hypothetical scenarios in CVM. Based on our results, we will construct an evaluation axis from the patients' viewpoint for the cost-effectiveness of clinical trials to establish standard treatments for breast cancer. We believe this research can contribute to create a meaningful healthcare system for patients, clinicians, industries, and healthcare policymakers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937425PMC
March 2021

Nuclear grade and comedo necrosis of ductal carcinoma in situ as histopathological eligible criteria for the Japan Clinical Oncology Group 1505 trial: an interobserver agreement study.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar;51(3):434-443

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: The Japan Clinical Oncology Group 1505 trial is a single-arm multicentre prospective study that examined the possibility of non-surgical follow-up with endocrine therapy for patients with low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. In that study, the eligible criteria included histopathological findings comprising low to intermediate nuclear grade and absence of comedo necrosis, and cases were entered according to the local histopathological diagnosis. Nuclear grade is largely based on the Consensus Conference criteria (1997), whereas comedo necrosis is judged according to the Rosen's criteria (2017). The purpose of this study was to standardize and examine the interobserver agreement levels of these histopathological criteria amongst the participating pathologists.

Methods: We held slide conferences, where photomicrographs of haematoxylin-eosin-stained slides from 68 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ were presented using PowerPoint. The nuclear grade and comedo necrosis statuses individually judged by the pathologists were analysed using κ statistics.

Results: In the first and second sessions, where 22 cases each were presented, the interobserver agreement levels of nuclear grade whether low/intermediate grade or high grade were moderate amongst 29 and 24 participating pathologists, respectively (κ = 0.595 and 0.519, respectively). In the third session where 24 cases were presented, interobserver agreement levels of comedo necrosis or non-comedo necrosis were substantial amongst 25 participating pathologists (κ = 0.753).

Conclusion: Although the concordance rates in nuclear grade or comedo necrosis were not high in a few of the cases, we believe that these results could provide a rationale for employing the present criteria of nuclear grade and comedo necrosis in the clinical study of ductal carcinoma in situ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa235DOI Listing
March 2021

Adjuvant S-1 plus endocrine therapy for oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, primary breast cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 01;22(1):74-84

Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Oral fluoropyrimidines, such as S-1, have been shown to have a role in controlling disease progression in metastatic breast cancer. We examined adjuvant treatment with S-1 in patients with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and HER2-negative primary breast cancer.

Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial in 139 sites (137 hospitals and two clinics). Eligible patients were women aged 20-75 years with histologically diagnosed stage I to IIIB invasive breast cancer (intermediate to high risk of recurrence). Patients were temporarily registered at participating institutions and biopsy or surgical samples were collected and sent for central pathological assessment. Patients received 5 years of standard adjuvant endocrine therapy (selective oestrogen receptor modulators with or without ovarian suppression and aromatase inhibitors) with or without 1 year of S-1. Oral S-1 80-120 mg/day was administered twice a day for 14 days with 7 days off. Randomisation (1:1) using the minimisation method was done with six stratification factors (age, axillary lymph node metastasis at surgery or sentinel lymph node biopsy, preoperative or postoperative (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) chemotherapy, preoperative endocrine therapy, proportion of ER-positive cells, and study site). The primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival, in the full analysis set (all randomly assigned patients, excluding those with significant protocol deviations). The safety analysis set consisted of all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. Here, we report the results from the interim analysis at the data cutoff date Jan 31, 2019. This trial is registered with Japan Registry of Clinical Trials, jRCTs051180057, and the University hospital Medical Information Network, UMIN000003969.

Findings: Between Feb 1, 2012, and Feb 1, 2016, 1930 patients were enrolled in the full analysis set, 957 (50%) received endocrine therapy plus S-1 and 973 (50%) received endocrine therapy alone. Median follow-up was 52·2 months (IQR 42·1-58·9). 155 (16%) patients in the endocrine therapy alone group and in 101 (11%) patients in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group had invasive disease-free survival events (hazard ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·49-0·81, p=0·0003). As the primary endpoint was met at interim analysis, the trial was terminated early. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (72 [8%] of 954 patients in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group vs seven [1%] of 970 patients in the endocrine therapy alone group), diarrhoea (18 [2%] vs none), decreased white blood cells (15 [2%] vs two [<1%]), and fatigue (six [<1%] vs none). Serious adverse events were reported in nine (1%) of 970 patients in the endocrine therapy alone group and 25 (3%) of 954 patients in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group. There was one (<1%) possible treatment-related death in the endocrine therapy plus S-1 group due to suspected pulmonary artery thrombosis.

Interpretation: These data suggest that this combination of S-1 with endocrine therapy could be a potential treatment option for this intermediate and high-risk group of patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative primary breast cancer.

Funding: Public Health Research Foundation (Japan), Taiho Pharmaceutical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30534-9DOI Listing
January 2021
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