Publications by authors named "Hiroaki Yamauchi"

32 Publications

Effect of combining additional bakery enzymes and high pressure treatment on bread making qualities.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Jan 22;57(1):134-142. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

1Department of Food Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, West 2-11, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 Japan.

Various enzymes are added to dough to improve the quality. Two enzymes are α-amylase and hemicellulase (bakery enzymes), whose substrates are damaged starch and insoluble dietary fiber, respectively. They improve the formation of gluten networks in the dough, resulting in a higher specific loaf volume (SLV). The use of high-pressure treatment has also increased as a substitute for heat treatment and various products are being processed utilizing high-pressure treatment. This study investigated the effect of combing bakery enzyme and high-pressure treatment on dough qualities. The optimal concentration of bakery enzymes and high-pressure level were determined using response surface methodology and optimization technique. Bread dough was prepared by the optimal condition, 0.20% of bakery enzyme and 43 MPa of high-pressure treatment, and the bread dough was then baked. Optimal combining bakery enzyme and high-pressure treatment drastically improved bread making qualities such as increased SLV, higher concentrations of reducing sugar, and lower concentrations of damaged starch and insoluble dietary fiber compared to the control and to those that were only treated with bakery enzymes or high-pressure treatment, respectively. In addition, the bread with both bakery enzymes and high-pressure treatment showed improved micro structure in the crumb and maintained freshness longer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04038-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952523PMC
January 2020

Analysis of the relationship between bread-making quality and dough stress during the proofing process using near-isogenic lines of 'Harunoakebono'.

Breed Sci 2019 Sep 1;69(3):478-486. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Life and Food Sciences, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 2-11 Nishi, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan.

The physical properties of various white bread doughs made from the flours of 'Harunoakebono' and 10 genotypes of its near-isogenic lines with different compositions of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMWGs) were measured with the Creep method based on a Maxwell-2-element model. The expansion stress in the proofing process of various doughs was obtained by a numerical calculation method. The results indicated that doughs with high elastic characteristics, namely large relaxation time (τ) and regularity coefficient of viscosity (η), have high dough stress throughout the proofing process and high stress at the proofing end (σ) and conversely, the low elastic dough with the small τ and η has the completely opposite tendency. This study also showed that there are significantly high correlations between the calculated σ and bread-making quality (BMQ) such as gas retention of dough and specific loaf volume (SLV). These results showed that BMQ, represented by SLV, of various white bread doughs were greatly influenced by the dough's physical properties, especially τ and η, which change with differences in the compositions of the HMWGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.19045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776135PMC
September 2019

Optimization of enzymes addition to improve whole wheat bread making quality by response surface methodology and optimization technique.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Mar 15;56(3):1454-1461. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

1Department of Food Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 2-11 West, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 Japan.

The functional ingredients in whole wheat flour, such as dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, have beneficial health effects. However, the excessive amount of dietary fiber in whole wheat flour inhibits gluten network formation and diminishes bread making qualities (BMQ). Adding appropriate amounts of enzymes, α-amylase (AM) and hemicellulase (HC), could be a solution to these problems. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) created a response surface model and Solver (Excel add-in software) calculated the optimal amounts of the enzymes. Adding optimum concentrations of AM and HC drastically improved BMQ (gas retention of dough, specific loaf volume, and bread staling) of whole wheat flour dough and bread compared to whole wheat flour dough and bread without the enzymes. These results showed that combining RSM and Solver was an effective and reasonably easy method that determines optimal concentrations of enzymes to obtain the highest quality bread using whole wheat flour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03629-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423247PMC
March 2019

[The Role and Actual Condition of the Dose Management System].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2018 12;74(12):1502-1505

Japan Medical Imaging and Radiological Systems Industries Association,  Radiation and Dose Committee.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.2018_JSRT_74.12.1502DOI Listing
December 2018

Selective optical assembly of highly uniform nanoparticles by doughnut-shaped beams.

Sci Rep 2013 Oct 25;3:3047. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

1] Division of Frontier Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan [2] Center for Quantum Materials Science under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan [3] PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.

A highly efficient natural light-harvesting antenna has a ring-like structure consisting of dye molecules whose absorption band changes through selective evolutionary processes driven by external stimuli, i.e., sunlight depending on its territory and thermal fluctuations. Inspired by this fact, here, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate the selective assembling of ring-like arrangements of many silver nanorods with particular shapes and orientations onto a substrate by the light-induced force of doughnut beams with different colours (wavelengths) and polarizations in conjunction with thermal fluctuations at room temperature. Furthermore, the majority of nanorods are electromagnetically coupled to form a prominent red-shifted collective mode of localized surface plasmons resonant with the wavelength of the irradiated light, where a spectral broadening also appears for the efficient broadband optical response. The discovered principle is a promising route for "bio-inspired selective optical assembly" of various nanomaterials that can be used in the wide field of nanotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep03047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505715PMC
October 2013

Permanent fixing or reversible trapping and release of DNA micropatterns on a gold nanostructure using continuous-wave or femtosecond-pulsed near-infrared laser light.

J Am Chem Soc 2013 May 23;135(17):6643-8. Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.

The use of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) for highly sensitive biosensors has already been investigated, and they are currently being applied for the optical manipulation of small nanoparticles. The objective of this work was the optical trapping of λ-DNA on a metallic nanostructure with femtosecond-pulsed (fs) laser irradiation. Continuous-wave laser irradiation, which is generally used for plasmon excitation, not only increased the electromagnetic field intensity but also generated heat around the nanostructure, causing the DNA to become permanently fixed on the plasmonic substrate. Using fs laser irradiation, on the other hand, the reversible trapping and release of the DNA was achieved by switching the fs laser irradiation on and off. This trap-and-release behavior was clearly observed using a fluorescence microscope. This technique can also be used to manipulate other biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides and will prove to be a useful tool in the fabrication of biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja401657jDOI Listing
May 2013

Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Breed Sci 2012 Dec 1;62(4):340-7. Epub 2012 Dec 1.

NARO Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center, Memuro Research Station , 9-4 Shinsei-minami, Memuro, Kasai, Hokkaido 082-0081, Japan.

The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.62.340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528331PMC
December 2012

Sedation with dexmedetomidine hydrochloride during endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric cancer.

Dig Endosc 2011 Apr 22;23(2):176-81. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Gastroenterology, Takeda General Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

Aim: Although the treatment of early gastric cancer with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely carried out, a standardized method of sedation for ESD has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sedation with dexmedetomidine (DEX).

Methods: We conducted a randomized study involving 90 patients with gastric tumors who were intended to be treated with ESD. The patients were sedated either with DEX (i.v. infusion of 3.0 µg/kg per h over 5 min followed by continuous infusion at 0.4 µg/kg per h [n = 30]), propofol (PF [n = 30]), or midazolam (MDZ [n = 30]). In all groups, 1 mg MDZ was added i.v. as needed.

Results: En bloc resection of the gastric tumor was achieved in 88 (98%) patients. None of the DEX-sedated patients showed a significant reduction of the oxygen saturation level. The percentage of patients who showed body movement in the DEX group was significantly lower than those in the PF and MDZ groups, and the mean dose of additional MDZ in the DEX group was significantly smaller than that in the MDZ group. The rate of effective sedation was significantly higher in the DEX group compared with the MDZ or PF group. The mean length of ESD in the DEX group was 65 min, which was significantly shorter than in the other two groups. No DEX-sedated patient developed major surgical complications.

Conclusions: Sedation with DEX is effective and safe for patients with gastric tumors who are undergoing ESD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1443-1661.2010.01080.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Evaluation of radiation force acting on macromolecules by combination of Brownian dynamics simulation with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 2010 Jun 18;81(6 Pt 1):061402. Epub 2010 Jun 18.

Division of Frontier Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Center for Quantum Materials Science under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.

The effect of optical gradient force from a focused laser beam on the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was investigated by a computing method based on Brownian dynamics simulation. A series of calculations revealed that, in relatively shallow optical force potential up to 1.0kTR (TR=298.15 K), the conventional theoretical model of FCS without consideration of the optical gradient force could evaluate the increase in the average number of molecules and the diffusion time in the potential. On the other hand, large deviation between the simulated fluorescence correlation curve and the theoretical model was observed under the potential depth >1.0kTR. In addition, by integrating the optical force potential with the temperature elevation under optical trapping condition, it was deduced that the temperature rise does not seriously affect the average number of particles in the sampling area, but the average residence time is more sensitively affected by the temperature elevation. The present study using the simulation also provides a method to experimentally estimate molecular polarizabilities from FCS measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.81.061402DOI Listing
June 2010

Colored potato extracts induce superoxide dismutase-2 mRNA via ERK1/2 pathway in HepG2 cells.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2010 Sep;65(3):266-70

Memuro Upland Farming Research Station, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081, Japan.

Rats fed a diet containing Shadow Queen (SQ), an anthocyanin-rich potato cultivar, previously showed an increase in the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 mRNA level. We investigated whether an extract of SQ would directly increase the hepatic SOD-2 mRNA level in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we estimated the intracellular signaling pathway for the induction of SOD-2 mRNA expression. HepG2 cells were stimulated using extracts of four crops, including SQ, for 12 h; only extracts of colored potatoes induced SOD-2 mRNA expression significantly. This induction of SOD-2 mRNA expression was blocked by an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway. Furthermore, an extract of SQ increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 after 15 or 30 min of stimulation. These data indicate that an extract of SQ directly induces hepatic SOD-2 mRNA expression via activation of ERK1/2 pathway in HepG2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-010-0171-7DOI Listing
September 2010

Effects of lipase, lipoxygenase, peroxidase and free fatty acids on volatile compound found in boiled buckwheat noodles.

J Sci Food Agric 2010 May;90(7):1232-7

National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Shinsei, Memuro, Kasai-gun, Hokkaido 082-0081, Japan.

Background: Relationships between buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour lipase, lipoxygenase and peroxidase activity, along with levels of individual free fatty acids (FFAs) and levels of headspace volatile compounds of boiled buckwheat noodles, were investigated for 12 different buckwheat varieties. Enzyme activities and FFA levels in flour were correlated with their respective varietal arrays of boiled noodle headspace volatile compounds, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: The volatiles hexanal, tentative butanal, tentative 3-methylbutanal and tentative 2-methylbutanal showed significant positive correlation with one another, indicating that they may be generated through similar mechanisms. These important volatile components of buckwheat flavor were also positively correlated with lipase and/or peroxidase activity, indicating that enzymatic reactions are important in flavor generation in boiled buckwheat noodles. On the other hand, pentanal, which showed no significant correlation with any enzyme activity, showed a significant positive correlation to the levels of C18:2 and C18:3 FFAs, suggesting the existence of a 'non-enzymatic' and/or 'uncertain enzymatic pathway' for flavor generation in boiled buckwheat noodles.

Conclusion: Lipase and peroxidase in buckwheat flour are important for flavor generation of boiled buckwheat noodles. This information is important for increasing desirable flavor of buckwheat products as well as for selecting varieties with improved flavor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3958DOI Listing
May 2010

Deoxynivalenol Distribution in Flour and Bran of Spring Wheat Lines with Different Levels of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance.

Plant Dis 2010 Mar;94(3):335-338

Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, 641-12 Maioka-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 244-0813, Japan.

The level of the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in milled flour and its partitioning between flour and bran of 15 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines with different levels of Fusarium head blight (FHB; mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum) resistance was investigated in Hokkaido, Japan between 2004 and 2007. The DON levels in flour (DON) and bran (DON) showed positive linear relationships with DON levels in whole kernels (DON) (R = 0.94, n = 60, P ≤ 0.01 and R = 0.93, n = 60, P ≤ 0.01, respectively). Results indicated that the DON partitioning ratio between flour and bran is primarily related to the level of DON, and the DON level was approximately doubled in DON and halved in DON for any level of DON. Only one pattern of DON partitioning supported the conventional strategy to select FHB-resistant lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0335DOI Listing
March 2010

Yam contributes to improvement of glucose metabolism in rats.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2009 Sep;64(3):193-8

Memuro Upland Farming Research Station, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Memuro, Hokkaido, Japan.

To investigate whether yam improves glucose metabolism, yam-containing diets were given to Wistar rats. In a short-term experiment, fasted-rats were given 1.0 g of a control and 20% yam-containing diets. At 60 min after start of the feeding, glucose level in the yam diet group was lower or tended to be lower than that in the control diet. Insulin levels at 30 min and 60 min were significantly lower than those in the control group. In a long-term experiment, a normal diet (N) or 25% high fat diets with (Y) or without 15% yam powder (HF) were given to rats for 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, in an oral glucose tolerance test, the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma glucose level was higher in the HF group than that in the N group, whereas those in the Y groups did not differ from that in the N group. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels had similar tendency to the AUCs. Plasma leptin levels in the Y groups were significantly higher than that in the N group. In conclusion, yam may contribute to improvement of glucose metabolism. Additionally, we speculated that leptin level is possibly involved in the insulin-response to yam diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-009-0126-zDOI Listing
September 2009

Time-course study and effects of drying method on concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid, flavonoids, anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine in leaves of buckwheats.

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Jan;57(1):259-64

National Agricultural and Food Research Organization for Hokkaido Region, Memuro, Hokkaido, Japan.

Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), rutin, minor flavonoids (such as orientin), anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine (2HN) were quantified in the leaves of common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., respectively), at 14, 28, and 42 days after sowing (DAS). GABA and rutin concentrations peaked at 42 DAS, whereas anthocyain, 2HN, and minor flavonoid concentrations declined with the age of the plants. However, at 42 DAS, anthocyanin concentrations in the leaves of tartary buckwheat Hokkai T10 leaves were at least 10-fold greater than in the other buckwheats tested. In addition, the effects on target compound concentrations and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of three different drying methods (20 h at 40 degrees C, 7 h at 70 degrees C, or lyophilization) were investigated. In general, the drying method had no significant effect on the parameters tested. These results indicate that, in terms of GABA, rutin, and anthocyanin concentrations, leaf powder from 42 day old Hokkai T10 has the potential to be a useful food ingredient, such as Ao-jiru juice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf802731dDOI Listing
January 2009

Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

Food Chem 2008 Oct 23;110(4):814-20. Epub 2008 Feb 23.

National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Memuro-Cho, Kasai-Gun, Hokkaido 082-0071, Japan.

The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.050DOI Listing
October 2008

[A case of probable autoimmune hepatitis from which the persistence of hepatitis A IgM antibody, and the improvement was pathologically obtained by ursodeoxycholic acid medication].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2008 Sep;105(9):1367-74

Department of Gastroenterological Center, Ijinkai Takeda General Hospital, Japan.

We present a 68 years old woman who was referred to our department due to impaired liver function. Hepatitis A IgM antibody and anti-nuclear antibody were positive, IgG, and gamma-globulin were elevated. Percutaneous liver biopsy was performed and autoimmune hepatitis was suspected pathologically. Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid was started and liver function was normalized three months later. The improvement of a hepatitis image was examined by percutaneous liver biopsy one year later. Although hepatitis A IgM antibody was positive throughout the course, hepatitis A virusemia was not considered the cause of persistent positive hepatitis A. IgM antibody could not be clarified. There was a possibility of a non-specific reaction and abnormalities in antibody production control were considered possible. We present this case and discuss the previous literature.
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September 2008

Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007 Dec;53(6):501-7

The United Graduate School of Agriculture Sciences, Iwate University, Iwate, Japan.

We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.53.501DOI Listing
December 2007

Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

J Agric Food Chem 2007 Nov 18;55(23):9571-5. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

National Agricultural and Food Research Organization for Hokkaido Region, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0071, Japan.

The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf071474lDOI Listing
November 2007

Identification of anthocyanins in the sprouts of buckwheat.

J Agric Food Chem 2007 Jul 20;55(15):6314-8. Epub 2007 Jun 20.

National Agricultural and Food Research Organization for Hokkaido Region, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0071, Japan.

The anthocyanin profiles and varieties/breeding line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in common/tartary buckwheat sprouts have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactopyranosyl-rhamnoside, were isolated from the sprouts of common buckwheat, were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS techniques. In tartary buckwheat sprouts, two anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) were identified. Among 19 common/tartary buckwheat varieties/breeding lines, Hokkai T10 contained the highest amounts of anthocyanins. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside concentrations in 6-10 days after seeding sprouts of Hokkai T10 ranged from 0.16 to 0.20 mg/g dry wt and from 5.55 to 6.57 mg/g dry wt, respectively. In addition, dark-grown sprouts of Hokkai T10 accumulated 0.091 and 2.77 mg/g dry wt of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside whereas other varieties/breeding lines accumulated trace amounts of anthocyanins. Given its anthocyanin-rich red cotyledons, Hokkai T10 is a promising line for use as "Moyashi" type sprouts and is strongly recommended as a new functional food, rich in dietary anthocyanins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0704716DOI Listing
July 2007

Structural elucidation of 4-(cystein-S-yl)butyl glucosinolate from the leaves of Eruca sativa.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007 Jan 7;71(1):114-21. Epub 2007 Jan 7.

National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Japan.

The structurally unique glucosinolate (GSL), 4-(cystein-S-yl)butyl GSL, was identified in the leaves of hydroponically-grown rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.). Its electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS spectrum indicated that this unusual GSL had a molecular weight of 414 as a desulfo (DS)-GSL, and a molecular formula of C(14)H(25)N(2)O(8)S(2) based on its negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) spectrum. For further confirmation, the 4-(cystein-S-yl)butyl DS-GSL was prepared with authentic L-Ser and purified dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl DS-GSL, and its chemical structure then confirmed by ESI-MS/MS data. It is named "glucorucolamine" as a trivial name from its ammonia sensitivity. This unique GSL was found to the greatest extent when rocket salad was grown in a 100% NH4+-N nutrient solution. Despite it clearly seems to reduce the detoxification of excess NH4+ in the leaves of rocket salad, present knowledge about the unique GSL is still far from being sufficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.60400DOI Listing
January 2007

Hepatoprotective effects of purple potato extract against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006 Jun;70(6):1432-7

Department of Agriculture and Life Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido.

We investigated the hepatoprotective effect of purple potato extract (PPE) against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury in rats. PPE (400 mg) was administered once daily for 8 d, and then GalN (250 mg/kg of body weight) was injected at 22 h before the rats were killed. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and asparate aminotranferase (AST) levels increased significantly after injection of GalN, but PPE inhibited GalN-induced alterations in serum TNF-alpha, LDH, ALT, and AST levels. Hepatic lipid peroxide and glutathione levels in the control + GalN group were higher and lower respectively than those in the control group, and those in the PPE + GalN group did not differ from that in the control group. The lipid peroxide level in hepatic microsomes treated with 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride in the PPE group was significantly lower than that in the control group. This suggests that PPE has hepatoprotective effects against GalN-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibition lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.50670DOI Listing
June 2006

Effects of storage temperature on the contents of sugars and free amino acids in tubers from different potato cultivars and acrylamide in chips.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006 May;70(5):1173-80

Department of Upland Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Saitama, Japan.

To clarify the effects of storage temperature on potato components and acrylamide in chips, tubers from five cultivars were stored at various temperatures (2, 6, 8, 10, and 18 degrees C) for 18 weeks, and the contents of sugars, free amino acids in tubers, and acrylamide in chips after frying were analyzed. At temperatures lower than 8 degrees C, the contents of reducing sugars increased markedly in all cultivars, with similar increases in the acrylamide level and dark brown chip color. Free amino acids showed little change at the storage temperatures tested and varied within certain ranges characteristic of each cultivar. The contents of reducing sugars correlated well with the acrylamide level when the fructose/asparagine molar ratio in the tubers was <2. When the fructose/asparagine ratio was >2 by low-temperature storage, the asparagine content, rather than the reducing sugar content, was found to be the limiting factor for acrylamide formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.70.1173DOI Listing
May 2006

Change in content of sugars and free amino acids in potato tubers under short-term storage at low temperature and the effect on acrylamide level after frying.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005 Jul;69(7):1232-8

Department of Upland Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0071, Japan.

Changes in the sugar and amino acid contents of potato tubers during short-term storage and the effect on the acrylamide level in chips after frying were investigated. The acrylamide content in chips began to increase after 3 days of storage at 2 degrees C in response to the increase of glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. There was strong correlation between the reducing sugar content and acrylamide level, R(2)=0.873 for fructose and R(2)=0.836 for glucose. The sucrose content had less correlation with the acrylamide content because of its decrease after 4 weeks of storage at 2 degrees C, while the reducing sugar in potato tubers and the acrylamide in chips continued to increase. The contents of the four amino acids, i.e., asparatic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and glutamine, showed no significant correlation with the acrylamide level. These results suggest that the content of reducing sugars in potato tubers determined the degree of acrylamide formation in chips. The chip color, as evaluated by L* (lightness), was correlated well with the acrylamide content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.69.1232DOI Listing
July 2005

Changes in sugar content and activity of vacuolar acid invertase during low-temperature storage of potato tubers from six Japanese cultivars.

J Plant Res 2004 Apr 24;117(2):131-7. Epub 2004 Feb 24.

Department of Upland Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0071, Japan.

The storage of potato tubers at low temperatures leads to the accumulation of sugars in a process called "low-temperature sweetening." To understand this phenomenon, we measured the sugar contents and the activity of acid invertase over several months in tubers of six Japanese cultivars stored at 4 degrees C or 20 degrees C. At 20 degrees C, few changes in sugar contents took place in any of the tubers. On the other hand, when stored at 4 degrees C, three types of changes were observed among the cultivars: (1) increased levels of reducing sugars during storage; (2) a pattern similar to that of type 1, but with 4- to 6-fold lower levels of reducing sugars throughout storage; and (3) increased sucrose, but not reducing sugars. The activity of vacuolar acid invertase increased in the type-1 cultivars, whereas, in the type-2 and type-3 cultivars, the activities were very low during storage at 4 degrees C. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of acid invertase showed that the transcripts of the enzyme accumulated in the tubers stored at 4 degrees C in the type-1 cultivars but not in type-3. These results suggest that the activity of vacuolar acid invertase is related to the types of changes that occurred in sugar content during low-temperature storage among the potato cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-003-0137-zDOI Listing
April 2004

Gamma-amino-butyric acid immunoreactivity in intramucosal colonic tumors.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003 Sep;18(9):1089-94

Department of Anatomy, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan.

Background And Aim: The level of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is reported to be increased in colon cancer. Moreover, data suggests that GABA plays a role in the proliferation or maturation of some types of cells. We examined the expression of GABA in intramucosal colonic tumors to clarify the relation between GABA and the degree of atypia.

Methods: Paraffin sections were prepared from 56 protruded-type colonic neoplasms, which were classified as intramucosal adenocarcinoma (AC), adenoma with severe atypia (ASA), or adenoma with mild to moderate atypia (AMA). Expression of GABA was investigated immunohistochemically, and GABA immunoreactivity was compared to the staining patterns of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer-associated antigen (CA19-9) which were classified into three categories.

Results: Intense GABA immunoreactivity was observed in 73.7%, 54.6%, 13.3%, and 5.4% of AC, ASA, AMA, and normal mucosa specimens, respectively. Kendall's correlation coefficient between GABA immunoreactivity and the degree of atypia was 0.447. Strong, positive CEA staining (pattern 3) was observed in 57.9%, 36.3%, and 13.3% of AC, ASA, and AMA specimens, respectively. Strong, positive CA19-9 staining was observed: 26.3%, 9.1% and 0%, respectively. In AC and ASA, the proportion of glands with strong GABA immunoreactivity was greater than the proportion of glands that were strongly positive for CA19-9.

Conclusion: GABA may be useful as a tumor marker in combination with other tumor markers such as CEA and CA19-9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2003.03131.xDOI Listing
September 2003

[Clinical pathway for inpatients with gastric ulcer: evaluation of usefulness].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2003 Jul;100(7):844-51

Department of Digestive Disease, Ijinkai Takeda General Hospital.

Based on the results of a retrospective review of clinical data on inpatients with gastric ulcer treated at our department, we devised on original clinical pathway and tested it in the clinical setting. From the results obtained, we created an improved clinical pathway and evaluated its usefulness. The duration of hospitalization was 16.2 +/- 6.9 (mean +/- SD) days in the non-path group, 14.1 +/- 3.0 days in the original path group, and 10.9 +/- 2.0 days in the improved path group. The hospital time was significantly shorter in the improved path group. For patients with bleeding gastric ulcer, the duration of hospitalization was 18.0 +/- 6.3 days in the non-path group, 15.1 +/- 2.3 days in the original path group, and 11.2 +/- 1.8 days in the improved path group. This period was also significantly shorter in the improved path group. With regard to the occurrence of rebleeding from the gastric ulcers, there were no significant differences between the non-path group and both clinical path groups. These results indicate that devising a clinical pathway is useful for shortening the duration of hospitalization for patients with gastric ulcer.
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July 2003

Primary prophylaxis against bleeding from gastric fundal varices.

Gastrointest Endosc 2003 May;57(6):808; author reply 809-10

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mge.2003.226DOI Listing
May 2003
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