Publications by authors named "Hiram Luna-Munguia"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Longitudinal changes in gray and white matter microstructure during epileptogenesis in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats.

Seizure 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Departamento de Neurobiologia Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus UNAM-Juriquilla, 76230, Queretaro, Mexico. Electronic address:

Purpose: Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with tissue abnormalities of several gray and white matter structures that are reproduced in animal models. Few longitudinal studies have focused on the identification of structural differences during epileptogenesis. The diffusion tensor model is a useful tool for evaluating cell death, gliosis, and axonal plasticity in epileptic subjects. This study aimed to evaluate temporal tissue changes after experimental status epilepticus in an animal model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

Methods: Systemic pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at three time points: prior to status epilepticus, and 24 and 64 days post-induction (early and late chronic, respectively). Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial diffusivity (D), and radial diffusivity (D) were evaluated in white (fimbria, cingulum, corpus callosum, and internal capsule) and gray (dorsal hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and CA3) matter regions for the three time points. Histological assessment of neurodegeneration in Klüver-Barrera preparations from the same animals was performed.

Results: Significantly reduced volume of dorsal hippocampus and fimbria of the epileptic animals was observed already at 24 days post-status epilepticus. Progressive changes of DTI parameters in both the white and gray matter structures of the experimental group were also observed. Stained sections confirmed such alterations.

Conclusion: Our study revealed time-dependent diffusion changes in gray and white matter structures after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The characterization of these alterations over time may be potential imaging markers for epileptogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.02.011DOI Listing
February 2021

Insights into Potential Targets for Therapeutic Intervention in Epilepsy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 13;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

. Departamento de Neurobiologia Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiologia, Campus UNAM-Juriquilla, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 76230 Queretaro, Mexico.

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that affects approximately 65 million people worldwide. However, despite the continuous development of antiepileptic drugs, over 30% patients with epilepsy progress to drug-resistant epilepsy. For this reason, it is a high priority objective in preclinical research to find novel therapeutic targets and to develop effective drugs that prevent or reverse the molecular mechanisms underlying epilepsy progression. Among these potential therapeutic targets, we highlight currently available information involving signaling pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and zinc signaling), enzymes (carbonic anhydrase), proteins (erythropoietin, copine 6 and complement system), channels (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 (TRPV1) channel) and receptors (galanin and melatonin receptors). All of them have demonstrated a certain degree of efficacy not only in controlling seizures but also in displaying neuroprotective activity and in modifying the progression of epilepsy. Although some research with these specific targets has been done in relation with epilepsy, they have not been fully explored as potential therapeutic targets that could help address the unsolved issue of drug-resistant epilepsy and develop new antiseizure therapies for the treatment of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697405PMC
November 2020

Memory deficits in Sprague Dawley rats with spontaneous ventriculomegaly.

Brain Behav 2020 08 25;10(8):e01711. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Departamento de Neurobiologia Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus UNAM-Juriquilla, Queretaro, Mexico.

Introduction: Spontaneous ventriculomegaly has been observed in rats that were presumed normal. Because the external phenotype of these animals is unremarkable, they can be inadvertently included in behavioral experiments, despite the considerable enlargement of the ventricular system, reduced cortical thickness, and hippocampal atrophy upon imaging. Given the role of such structures in memory consolidation, we evaluated long-term memory retention while decision making in rats with spontaneous ventriculomegaly.

Methods: We studied adult male Sprague Dawley rats, identified as having spontaneous ventriculomegaly, while performing baseline magnetic resonance imaging scanning intended for a different research protocol. Control (n = 7) and experimental (n = 6) animals were submitted to a delayed-alternation task (no delay, 30, 60, and 180 s) and an object-in-context recognition task. During the first task, we evaluated the number of correct choices as well as the latency to reach any of the cavities located at the end of each branch arm during each trial. The second task assessed the rodents' ability to remember where they had previously encountered a specific object, calculating the context recognition index.

Results: When compared to control animals, rats with spontaneous ventriculomegaly required significantly more training sessions to reach the 80% criterion during the training phase. Moreover, they showed reduced delayed-alternation performance in the evaluated times, reaching significance only at 180 s. Increased latencies while trying to reach the cavity were also observed. Evaluation of the long-term memory formation during the object-in-context recognition task showed that subjects with ventriculomegaly spent less time investigating the familiar object, resulting in a significantly decreased recognition index value.

Conclusion: Our results are the first to show how spontaneous ventriculomegaly-induced cerebral structural damage affects decision-making behaviors, particularly when comparing between immediate and delayed trials. Moreover, this lesion disrupts the animals' ability to recall or express contextual information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428488PMC
August 2020

Chemical biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis in experimental epilepsy.

Neurobiol Dis 2019 01 7;121:177-186. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Epilepsy produces chronic chemical changes induced by altered cellular structures, and acute ones produced by conditions leading into individual seizures. Here, we aim to quantify 24 molecules simultaneously at baseline and during periods of lowered seizure threshold in rats. Using serial hippocampal microdialysis collections starting two weeks after the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, we evaluated how this chronic epilepsy model affects molecule levels and their interactions. Then, we quantified the changes occurring when the brain moves into a pro-seizure state using a novel model of physiological ictogenesis. Compared with controls, pilocarpine animals had significantly decreased baseline levels of adenosine, homovanillic acid, and serotonin, but significantly increased levels of choline, glutamate, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Step-wise linear regression identified that choline, homovanillic acid, adenosine, and serotonin are the most important features to characterize the difference in the extracellular milieu between pilocarpine and control animals. When increasing the hippocampal seizure risk, the concentrations of normetanephrine, serine, aspartate, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were the most prominent; however, there were no specific, consistent changes prior to individual seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2018.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242767PMC
January 2019

Use and Future Prospects of in Vivo Microdialysis for Epilepsy Studies.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 04 23;10(4):1875-1883. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Chemistry , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , Michigan 48109 , United States.

Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by recurrent unpredictable seizures. For the last 30 years, microdialysis sampling has been used to measure changes in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter concentrations before, during, and after seizures. These advances have fostered breakthroughs in epilepsy research by identifying neurochemical changes associated with seizures and correlating them to electrophysiological data. Recent advances in methodology may be useful in further delineating the chemical underpinnings of seizures. A new model of ictogenesis has been developed that allows greater control over the timing of seizures that are similar to spontaneous seizures. This model will facilitate making chemical measurements before and during a seizure. Recent advancements in microdialysis sampling, including the use of segmented flow, "fast" liquid chromatography (LC), and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) have significantly improved temporal resolution to better than 1 min, which could be used to measure transient, spontaneous neurochemical changes associated with seizures. Microfabricated sampling probes that are markedly smaller than conventional probes and allow for a much greater spatial resolution have been developed. They may allow the targeting of specific brain regions important to epilepsy studies. Coupling microdialysis sampling to optogenetics and light-stimulated release of neurotransmitters may also prove useful for studying epileptic seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524784PMC
April 2019

Author Correction: Control of in vivo ictogenesis via endogenous synaptic pathways.

Sci Rep 2017 12 6;7(1):17052. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17038-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719009PMC
December 2017

Control of in vivo ictogenesis via endogenous synaptic pathways.

Sci Rep 2017 05 2;7(1):1311. Epub 2017 May 2.

Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

The random nature of seizures poses difficult challenges for epilepsy research. There is great need for a reliable method to control the pathway to seizure onset, which would allow investigation of the mechanisms of ictogenesis and optimization of treatments. Our hypothesis is that increased random afferent synaptic activity (i.e. synaptic noise) within the epileptic focus is one endogenous method of ictogenesis. Building upon previous theoretical and in vitro work showing that synaptic noise can induce seizures, we developed a novel in vivo model of ictogenesis. By increasing the excitability of afferent connections to the hippocampus, we control the risk of temporal lobe seizures during a specific time period. The afferent synaptic activity in the hippocampus was modulated by focal microinjections of potassium chloride into the nucleus reuniens, during which the risk of seizure occurrence increased substantially. The induced seizures were qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from spontaneous ones. This model thus allows direct control of the temporal lobe seizure threshold via endogenous pathways, providing a novel tool in which to investigate the mechanisms and biomarkers of ictogenesis, test for seizure threshold, and rapidly tune antiseizure treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01450-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431002PMC
May 2017

Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces seizure activity and hippocampal glutamate release during status epilepticus.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2015 ;2015:6586-9

Previously we demonstrated that noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) with sub-effective doses of diazepam reduces status epilepticus (SE)-induced neuronal damage. However, it was unclear if this neuroprotective effect is a consequence of the decrease in the glutamate release. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of TFS on γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced SE. After pilocarpine administration, the rats showed progressive behavioral changes that culminated in SE with a significant increase of GABA and glutamate (95 and 128% respectively), even more evident at the end of the experiment (120 and 182% respectively), 5 hours after pilocarpine injection and was associated with the prevalence of high-voltage rhythmic spikes and increased spectral power in the 4-90 Hz bands. The TFS application during the SE decreased the convulsive expression, the prevalence of high-voltage rhythmic spikes and spectral power in 4-8 Hz and 30-90 Hz bands. These effects were associated with lower release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. These results support the anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects induced by TFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319902DOI Listing
September 2016

Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces the convulsive expression and amino acid release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

Epilepsy Behav 2015 Aug 23;49:33-9. Epub 2015 May 23.

Pharmacobiology Department, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus under basal conditions and during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were previously implanted with a guide cannula attached to a bipolar electrode into the right ventral hippocampus and a concentric ring electrode placed on the skull surface. The first microdialysis experiment was designed to determine, under basal conditions, the effects of TFS (300 Hz, 200 μs biphasic square pulses, for 30 min) on afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and the release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. The results obtained indicate that at low current intensities (<2800 μA), TFS enhances and decreases the basal extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate, respectively. However, TFS did not modify the ADT. During the second microdialysis experiment, a group of animals was subjected to SE induced by pilocarpine administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.; SE group). The SE was associated with a significant rise of GABA and glutamate release (up to 120 and 182% respectively, 5h after pilocarpine injection) and the prevalence of high-voltage rhythmic spikes and increased spectral potency of delta, gamma, and theta bands. A group of animals (SE-TFS group) received TFS continuously during 2h at 100 μA, 5 min after the establishment of SE. This group showed a significant decrease in the expression of the convulsive activity and spectral potency in gamma and theta bands. The extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus remained at basal conditions. These results suggest that TFS induces anticonvulsant effects when applied during the SE, an effect associated with lower amino acid release. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.04.037DOI Listing
August 2015

Glutamate-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Multidrug-Resistance Protein BCRP/ABCG2 in Porcine and Human Brain Capillaries.

Mol Pharm 2015 Jun 30;12(6):2049-60. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

†Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Koeniginstrasse 16, D-80539 Munich, Germany.

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) functions as a major molecular gatekeeper at the blood-brain barrier. Considering its impact on access to the brain by therapeutic drugs and harmful xenobiotics, it is of particular interest to elucidate the mechanisms of its regulation. Excessive glutamate concentrations have been reported during epileptic seizures or as a consequence of different brain insults including brain ischemia. Previously, we have demonstrated that glutamate can trigger an induction of the transporter P-glycoprotein. These findings raised the question whether other efflux transporters are affected in a comparable manner. Glutamate exposure proved to down-regulate BCRP transport function and expression in isolated porcine capillaries. The reduction was efficaciously prevented by coincubation with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801. The involvement of the NMDA receptor in the down-regulation of BCRP was further confirmed by experiments showing an effect of NMDA exposure on brain capillary BCRP transport function and expression. Pharmacological targeting of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) using the nonselective inhibitor indomethacin, COX-1 inhibitor SC-560, and COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib revealed a contribution of COX-2 activity to the NMDA receptor's downstream signaling events affecting BCRP. Translational studies were performed using human capillaries isolated from surgical specimens of epilepsy patients. The findings confirmed a glutamate-induced down-regulation of BCRP transport activity in human capillaries, which argued against major species differences. In conclusion, our data reveal a novel mechanism of BCRP down-regulation in porcine and human brain capillaries. Moreover, together with previous data sets for P-glycoprotein, the findings point to a contrasting impact of the signaling pathway on the regulation of BCRP and P-glycoprotein. The effect of glutamate and arachidonic acid signaling on BCRP function might have implications for brain drug delivery and for radiotracer brain access in epilepsy patients and patients with other brain insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp500841wDOI Listing
June 2015

Glutamate-mediated upregulation of the multidrug resistance protein 2 in porcine and human brain capillaries.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015 Feb 12;352(2):368-78. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany (H.L.M., J.D.S., H.P.); Neuropediatric Clinic and Clinic for Neurorehabilitation, Epilepsy Center for Children and Adolescents (B.P., T.P., T.G., G.K.) and Clinic for Neurosurgery and Epilepsy Surgery (M.K.), Schön Klinik Vogtareuth, Vogtareuth, Germany; and Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria (G.K.)

As a member of the multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) family, MRP2 affects the brain entry of different endogenous and exogenous compounds. Considering the role of this transporter at the blood-brain barrier, the regulation is of particular interest. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that regulate MRP2 in neurologic disease states. Thus, we addressed the hypothesis that MRP2 might be affected by a glutamate-induced signaling pathway that we previously identified as one key mechanism in the regulation of P-glycoprotein. Studies in isolated porcine brain capillaries confirmed that glutamate and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) exposure upregulates expression and function of MPR2. The involvement of the NMDA receptor was further suggested by the fact that the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 [(5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine], as well as the NMDA receptor glycine binding site antagonist L-701,324 [7-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenoxy)phenyl-2(1H)-quinolinone], prevented the impact of glutamate. A role of cyclooxygenase-2 was indicated by coincubation with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib and the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 inhibitor indomethacin, which both efficaciously abolished a glutamate-induced upregulation of MRP2. Translational studies in human capillaries from surgical specimen demonstrated a relevant MRP2 efflux function and indicated an effect of glutamate exposure as well as its prevention by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Taken together the findings provide first evidence for a role of a glutamate-induced NMDA receptor/cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway in the regulation of MRP2 expression and function. The response to excessive glutamate concentrations might contribute to overexpression of MRP2, which has been reported in neurologic diseases including epilepsy. The overexpression might have implications for brain access of various compounds including therapeutic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.114.218180DOI Listing
February 2015

Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation alone and associated with a sub-effective dose of diazepam on pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and subsequent neuronal damage in rats.

Epilepsy Behav 2013 Sep 23;28(3):432-6. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) applied via tripolar concentric ring electrodes, alone and associated with a sub-effective dose of diazepam (DZP) on the expression of status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine (LP) and subsequent neuronal damage in the hippocampus. Immediately before pilocarpine injection, male Wistar rats received TFS (300Hz, 200-μs biphasic square charge-balanced 50-mA constant current pulses for 2min) alone or combined with a sub-effective dose of DZP (0.41mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast with DZP or TFS alone, DZP plus TFS reduced the incidence of, and enhanced the latency to, mild and severe generalized seizures and SE induced by LP. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the number of degenerated neurons in the hippocampus. The present study supports the notion that TFS combined with sub-effective doses of DZP may represent a therapeutic tool to induce anticonvulsant effects and reduce the SE-induced neuronal damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.06.021DOI Listing
September 2013

CNS transporters and drug delivery in epilepsy.

Curr Pharm Des 2014 ;20(10):1534-42

Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Koeniginstr. 16, D-80539 Munich, Germany.

Unfortunately, antiepileptic drug therapy fails to control seizure activity in a relevant percentage of epilepsy patients. Epidemiological data as well as findings in human epileptic tissue and in rodent models indicate that drug resistance is a multi-factorial phenomenon with various factors contributing to therapeutic failure. Enhanced efflux transport of antiepileptic drugs as a consequence of seizure-associated up-regulation of transporters such as P-glycoprotein constitutes one factor discussed in this context. Evidence exists that expression rates of P-glycoprotein correlate with drug response in rodent models and in patients. Moreover, add-on of a Pglycoprotein modulator proved to be efficacious in a rat model of drug-resistant epilepsy. Further proof is obviously needed regarding the relative functional relevance of blood-brain barrier efflux for antiepileptic drug efficacy in epilepsy patients. Ongoing studies with positron emission tomography using transporter substrate radiotracers might provide further information. However, these studies also face major challenges considering the complexity of various factors affecting the kinetics of radiotracers in central nervous system pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/13816128113199990461DOI Listing
November 2014

Toward a noninvasive automatic seizure control system in rats with transcranial focal stimulations via tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2012 Jul;20(4):422-31

Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We are developing a noninvasive, or minimally invasive, transcranial focal electrical stimulation system through our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes to control seizures. In this study, we demonstrate feasibility of an automatic seizure control system in rats with pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures through single and multiple stimulations. These stimulations are automatically triggered by a real-time electrographic seizure activity detector based on a disjunctive combination of detections from a cumulative sum algorithm and a generalized likelihood ratio test. An average seizure onset detection accuracy of 76.14% was obtained for the test set (n = 13). Detection of electrographic seizure activity was accomplished in advance of the early behavioral seizure activity in 76.92% of the cases. Automatically triggered stimulation significantly (p = 0.001) reduced the electrographic seizure activity power in the once stimulated group compared to controls in 70% of the cases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first closed-loop automatic seizure control system based on noninvasive electrical brain stimulation using tripolar concentric ring electrode electrographic seizure activity as feedback.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2197865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3525521PMC
July 2012

Noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes lessens behavioral seizure activity of recurrent pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2013 May 5;21(3):383-90. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 USA.

Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We have been developing a noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation with our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. In this study we demonstrate the effect of focal stimulation on behavioral seizure activity induced by two successive pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats. Seizure onset latency, time of the first behavioral change, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score were studied and compared for focal stimulation treated (n = 9) and control groups (n = 10). First, we demonstrate that no significant difference was found in behavioral activity for focal stimulation treated and control groups after the first pentylenetetrazole administration. Next, comparing first and second pentylenetetrazole administrations, we demonstrate there was a significant change in behavioral activity (time of the first behavioral change) in both groups that was not related to focal stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate focal stimulation provoking a significant change in seizure onset latency, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score. We believe that these results, combined with our previous reports, suggest that transcranial focal stimulation may have an anticonvulsant effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2198244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3601189PMC
May 2013

Electric fields in hippocampus due to transcranial focal electrical stimulation via concentric ring electrodes.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011 ;2011:5488-91

Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of brain has recently shown potential as an additive seizure control therapy. In this study we applied focal transcranial electrical stimulation (TFS) on the surface of the skull of rats via concentric ring electrodes. We recorded electric potentials with a bipolar electrode consisting of two stainless steel wires implanted into the left ventral hippocampus. TFS current was gradually increased by 20% starting at 103 μA allowing us to assess the relationship between TFS current and both potentials recorded from the bipolar electrode and the resulting electric field. Generally, increases in TFS current resulted in increases in the electric field. This allows us to estimate what extra-cranial TFS current would be sufficient to cause the activation of neurons in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091400DOI Listing
June 2012

Effects of high frequency electrical stimulation and R-verapamil on seizure susceptibility and glutamate and GABA release in a model of phenytoin-resistant seizures.

Neuropharmacology 2011 Sep 27;61(4):807-14. Epub 2011 May 27.

Department of Pharmacobiology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico City, Mexico.

The present study was focused to characterize the effects of intrahippocampal application of R-verapamil, a P-glycoprotein blocker, and High Frequency Electrical Stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz, on seizure susceptibility and extracellular concentrations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in hippocampus of kindled rats with drug-resistant seizures. Fully kindled rats classified in responsive and non-responsive to phenytoin were used for this purpose. In contrast with responsive animals, non-responsive rats showed lower afterdischarge threshold (ADT) values in pre-kindling conditions and required less number of kindling trials to achieve the kindled state. Once the animals attained the kindled state, both epileptic groups presented high glutamate and low GABA interictal release, effect more evident in non-responsive rats. In hippocampus of responsive animals, GABA levels demonstrated two increases at 120 and 240 min after the ictal event, a situation no detected for non-responsive rats. Kindled animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented ADT, an effect associated with enhanced GABA release in responsive rats. Intrahippocampal perfusion of R-verapamil (5 mM) decreased the seizure susceptibility (high ADT values), enhanced the interictal GABA release and the postictal levels of glutamate and GABA in responsive and non-responsive rats. It is conclude that alterations of glutamate and GABA release in the epileptic hippocampus of non-responsive animals resemble those found in hippocampus of patients with refractory TLE. In addition, intrahippocampal application of HFS and R-verapamil modifies the amino acid release and reduces the seizure susceptibility of both, responsive and non-responsive rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.05.027DOI Listing
September 2011

Effects of hippocampal high-frequency electrical stimulation in memory formation and their association with amino acid tissue content and release in normal rats.

Hippocampus 2012 Jan 29;22(1):98-105. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Department of Pharmacobiology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico City, Mexico, USA.

Hippocampal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy to control neurological disorders such as intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was carried out to determine the effects of hippocampal HFS on the memory process and the probable involvement of amino acids. Using the autoshaping task, we found that animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented short-term, but not long-term memory formation, an effect blocked by bicuculline pretreatment and associated with enhanced tissue levels of amino acids in hippocampus. In addition, microdialysis experiments revealed high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, and alanine during the application of hippocampal HFS. In contrast, GABA release augmented during HFS and remained elevated for more than 1 h after the stimulation was ended. HFS had minimal effects on glutamine release. The present results suggest that HFS has an activating effect on specific amino acids in normal hippocampus that may be involved in the enhanced short-term memory formation. These data further provide experimental support for the concept that hippocampus may be a promising target for focal stimulation to treat intractable seizures in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.20868DOI Listing
January 2012