Publications by authors named "Hien Liu"

42 Publications

Impact of Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Conditioning Regimens in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative treatment option for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Both total body irradiation (TBI)-based and chemotherapy only-based myeloablative transplantation conditioning regimens have been applied, but the optimal regimen remains unclear. We performed a systematic review to assess the efficacy of TBI-based versus chemotherapy only-based myeloablative conditioning regimens. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and meeting abstracts for all studies comparing TBI-based and chemotherapy only-based conditioning regimens in patients who underwent allo-HCT for ALL. Two authors independently reviewed all studies for inclusion and extracted data related to overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Eight studies were included in the final analysis. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was optimal. TBI-based regimens showed evidence of benefit compared with chemotherapy only-based conditioning regimens in terms of relapse (relative risk [RR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.94; 6 studies, 5091 patients), OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.89; 7 studies, 4727 patients), and PFS (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.85; 7 studies, 4727 patients). The TBI-based regimen did not increase the likelihood of grade II-IV acute GVHD (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.36; 5 studies, 4996 patients) or chronic GVHD (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.21; 5 studies, 4490 patients), or NRM (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.28; 6 studies, 4522 patients). However, TBI-based regimens were associated with an increased risk of grade III-IV acute GVHD (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.63; 3 studies, 3675 patients). A subgroup comparison of patients age ≥16 years showed similar results. This systematic review represents evidence supporting the use of TBI-based conditioning regimen in patients undergoing allo-HCT for ALL who are candidates for myeloablative conditioning, as it offers better OS, PFS, and less relapse with acceptable NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.026DOI Listing
March 2021

ELN 2017 Genetic Risk Stratification Predicts Survival of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 2;27(3):256.e1-256.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 risk stratification by genetics is prognostic of outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic impact of the 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is not well established. We examined the effect of 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification on alloHCT outcomes of AML. We included 500 adult (≥18 years) AML patients in first (n = 370) or second (n = 130) complete remission receiving alloHCT from 2005 to 2016. Patients were classified into favorable (12%), intermediate (57%), and adverse (32%) 2017 ELN risk groups. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to conduct the multivariable analyses of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). Relapse and nonrelapse mortality were analyzed by the Fine-Gray regression model. OS at 2 years was 72% in the favorable versus 60% in the intermediate versus 45% in the adverse risk groups (P < .001). In multivariable analyses, the 2017 ELN classifier was an independent predictor of OS after alloHCT with significantly higher overall mortality in the intermediate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.68; P = .03) and adverse (HR = 2.50, 95% CI, 1.54-4.06; P < .001) risk groups compared to the favorable risk group. Similarly, LFS was worse in the intermediate (HR = 1.63, 95%, CI 1.06-2.53; P = .03) and adverse (HR 2.23, 95% CI, 1.41-3.54; P < .001) risk groups while relapse was higher in the adverse risk group (HR = 2.36, 95% CI, 1.28-4.35; P = .006) as compared to the favorable risk group. These data highlight the prognostic impact of the 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification on the survival of AML patients after alloHCT. Patients in the adverse risk group had the highest risk of relapse and worst survival. Thus the 2017 ELN prognostic system can help identify AML patients who may benefit from clinical trials offering relapse mitigation strategies to improve transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Incidence and Management of Effusions Before and After CD19-Directed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy in Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 27;27(3):242.e1-242.e6. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida; Department of Oncologic Sciences, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

In patients with lymphoma, third-space fluid accumulations may develop or worsen during cytokine release syndrome (CRS) associated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Pre-existing symptomatic pleural effusions were excluded by the ZUMA-1 trial of axicabtagene ciloleucel for large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) and variants. The incidence and management of effusions during CAR T cell therapy for LBCL are unknown. We performed a single-center retrospective study evaluating 148 patients receiving CD19-directed CAR T cell therapy for LBCL between May 2015 and September 2019. We retrospectively identified patients who had radiographic pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal effusions that were present prior to the time of CAR T infusion (pre-CAR T) or that newly developed during the first 30 days after CAR T-cell infusion (post-CAR T). Of 148 patients, 19 patients had a pre-CAR T effusion, 17 patients without pre-existing effusion developed a new infusion after CAR T, and 112 patients had no effusions. Comparing pre-CAR T effusions to new effusions post-CAR T, pre-CAR T effusions were more often malignant (84% versus 12%), persistent beyond 30 days (95% versus 18%), and required interventional drainage after CAR T infusion (79% versus 0%). Compared to patients with no effusion, patients with pre-CAR T therapy effusions had a higher frequency of high-risk baseline characteristics, such as bulky disease and high International Prognostic Index. Similarly, patients with pre-CAR T therapy effusions had a higher rate of toxicity with grade 3 or higher CRS occurring in 32% of patients. On multivariate analysis adjusting for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, bulky disease, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase, a pre-CAR T therapy effusion was associated with reduced overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 5.03; P = .03). Moreover, there was higher non-relapse mortality (11% versus 1%; P = .005). Post-CAR T effusions were not associated with significant difference in survival. Effusions commonly complicate CAR T cell therapy for lymphoma. Malignant effusions that occur prior to CAR T therapy are frequently persistent and require therapeutic intervention, and patients have a higher rate of toxicity and death. Effusions that newly occur after CAR T therapy can generally be managed medically and tend not to persist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.025DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of infused CD34+ stem cell dosing for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

Higher infused total nucleated cell dose (TNC) in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is associated with improved overall survival. As many centers prefer peripheral blood stem cell grafts (PBSCT) with PTCy, the effect of cell dose on outcomes with this platform also requires elucidation. We retrospectively evaluated 144 consecutive adult patients who received allogeneic T-cell replete PBSCT with PTCy-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for a hematologic malignancy from 2012-2018. The infused CD34+ cell dose was stratified into low (<5 × 10/kg), intermediate (5-10 × 10/kg) and high (>10 × 10/kg) dose level groups. In multivariate analysis, the low CD34+ cell dose group had worse non-relapse mortality (HR = 4.51, 95% CI: 1.92-10.58, p < 0.001), progression- free survival (HR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.07-8.15, p < 0.001), and overall survival (HR = 4.06, 95% CI: 2.00-8.25, p ≤ 0.001) compared to the intermediate group. Clinical outcomes between the intermediate and high CD34+ cell dose groups were similar. TNC and CD3+ cell dose had no significant impacts on outcomes. These findings suggest that, in patients receiving allogeneic PBSCT with PTCy, infused CD34+ cell doses >5 × 10 cells/kg may result in improved survival. Thus, this study supports targeting a CD34+ cell dose of >5 × 10 cells/kg for allogeneic PBSCT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01219-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Acute patient-reported outcomes in B-cell malignancies treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel.

Cancer Med 2021 Mar 28;10(6):1936-1943. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Tampa, FL, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) has considerably improved survival in adults with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma. This study reports patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as quality of life (QOL) and toxicity in the first 90 days after treatment. Hematologic cancer patients treated with axi-cel (N = 103, mean age = 61, 39% female) completed SF-36 or PROMIS-29 QOL questionnaires prior to treatment and 90 days after. PRO-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity items were completed by patients at baseline and 14, 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment. Mixed models examined change in PROs over time. From preinfusion to 90 days later, patients reported improvements in physical functioning, pain, and fatigue (ps < 0.01), but worsening of anxiety (p = 0.02). Patient-reported toxicities worsened by day 14 with improvement thereafter. The five most severe symptoms at day 14 included fatigue, decreased appetite, dry mouth, diarrhea frequency, and problems with concentration. Results indicate improvement in some domains of QOL over time with transient patient-reported toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957158PMC
March 2021

A phase 2 trial of GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy, sirolimus, and MMF after peripheral blood haploidentical transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(5):1154-1163

Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, and.

The introduction of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) made performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA haplotype-incompatible donors possible. In a setting of PTCy and tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, a peripheral blood (PB) graft source as compared with bone marrow reduces the relapse rate but increases acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). This phase 2 trial assessed sirolimus and MMF efficacy following PTCy as a GVHD prophylaxis after PB haploidentical HCT (haplo-HCT). With 32 evaluable patients (≥18 years) enrolled, this study had 90% power to demonstrate a reduction in 100-day grade II-IV aGVHD to 20% from the historical benchmark of 40% after haplo-HCT using PTCy/tacrolimus/MMF. At a median follow-up of 16.1 months, the primary end point of the trial was met with a day-100 grade II-IV aGVHD cumulative incidence of 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5% to 34.0%). There were no graft-failure events and the 1-year probability of National Institutes of Health (NIH) moderate/severe cGVHD was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), nonrelapse mortality was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), relapse was 22.2% (95% CI, 9.6% to 38.2%), disease-free survival was 59.0% (95% CI, 44.1% to 79.0%), GVHD-free relapse-free survival was 49.6% (95% CI, 34.9% to 70.5%), and overall survival was 71.7% (95% CI, 57.7% to 89.2%) for the entire cohort. These data demonstrate that GVHD prophylaxis with sirolimus/MMF following PTCy effectively prevents grade II-IV aGVHD after PB haplo-HCT, warranting prospective comparison of sirolimus vs tacrolimus in combination with MMF following PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis after PB HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03018223.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948297PMC
March 2021

DNA methylation inhibition in myeloma: Experience from a phase 1b study of low-dose continuous azacitidine in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Semin Hematol 2021 Jan 28;58(1):45-55. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH; Department of Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL; Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. Electronic address:

The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor azacytidine (aza) may reactivate pathways associated with plasma cell differentiation, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and immune recognition and thereby restore sensitivity to lenalidomide (len) and dexamethasone (dex) in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). We aimed to develop an aza regimen that reaches epigenetically active levels 8 times in 28 days with less bone marrow toxicity than the myeloid malignancy standard of 7 consecutive doses to enable safe combination with len. Aza was escalated from 30 mg/m once a week up to a predefined maximum of 50 mg/m twice a week in combination with GFR-adjusted len (≥ 60 mL/min: 25 mg, 3059 mL/min: 10 mg) day 1 to 21 every 28 days and dex 40 mg once a week followed by a limited expansion study to a total N of 23 at the highest tolerated dose. Fifty-one patients (pts) with RRMM were screened, 42 were treated and 41 were evaluable for response based on at least 1 response assessment or progression after treatment start. The median number of prior lines of therapy was 5 (1-11) and 81% (34) were refractory to len and/or pomalidomide (pom). Two DLTs occurred in different cohorts, 1 neutropenic fever in 1/6 pts on the aza 40 mg/m twice a week GFR ≥ 60 mL/min cohort and 1 GGT elevation in 1/6 pts on the aza 50 mg/m GFR 30-59 mL/min cohort. An MTD was not reached and aza 50 mg/m SC twice a week was chosen for the expansion study. At least possibly related Grade 3/4 AEs occurred in 28 pts (67%) with the following in > 1 pt: neutropenia (N = 16, 38%), anemia (N = 6, 14%), lymphopenia (N = 5, 12%), thrombocytopenia (N = 4, 10%), leukopenia (N = 4, 10%), febrile neutropenia (N = 4, 10%), fatigue (N = 3, 7%), fever (N = 2, 5%), and infection (N = 2, 5%). At a median follow up time for alive pts of 60.2 months (range: 36.1-82.5 months), the overall response rate (≥ partial response) and clinical benefit response rate (≥ minor response) was 22 and 32%, respectively, with 4 very good partial responses (10%), 5 partial responses (12%), and 4 minor responses (10%). The median PFS was 3.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-5.1 months), median TTP 2.7 months (95% CI: 2.1-7.5 months), and median OS 18.6 months (95% CI: 12.9-33.0 months). Achieving at least minor response and reaching TTP > 6 months was associated with approximately 35% lower median plasma levels of the enzyme that inactivates aza, plasma cytidine deaminase (CDA, P< .0001). Two of the len refractory pts achieved longer disease control than with any prior regimen and 1 responded immediately after progression on len, bortezomib, and prednisone. Analyses of the methylation state of over 480,000 CpG sites in purified myeloma cells at screening were possible in 11 pts and on day 28 in 8 of them. As in other studies, the majority of differentially methylated CpGs compared to normal plasma cells were hypomethylated in myeloma. Treatment decreased the number of CpGs that were differentially methylated in normal plasma cells by > 0.5% in 6 and by > 5% in 3 of the 8 pts, most pronounced in 2 pts with clinically convincing aza contribution who achieved a reduction in overall differentially methylated CpGs by 23 and 68%, respectively, associated with increased expression of immunoglobulin genes. The study demonstrated tolerability of twice a week SC aza at 50 mg/m with len and dex in RRMM and suggested aza may help overcome the len/pom refractory state, possibly by activating differentiation pathways. Relatively low response rates and association of clinical benefit with low plasma levels of the aza inactivating enzyme CDA suggest the aza regimen will need to be optimized further and pt selection may be required to maximize benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminhematol.2020.12.004DOI Listing
January 2021

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Evidence-Based Review from the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 20;27(1):6-20. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Paris, France; Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the management of newly diagnosed adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is reviewed and critically evaluated in this evidence-based review. An AML expert panel, consisting of both transplant and nontransplant experts, was invited to develop clinically relevant frequently asked questions covering disease- and HCT-related topics. A systematic literature review was conducted to generate core recommendations that were graded based on the quality and strength of underlying evidence based on the standardized criteria established by the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Steering Committee for evidence-based reviews. Allogeneic HCT offers a survival benefit in patients with intermediate- and high-risk AML and is currently a part of standard clinical care. We recommend the preferential use of myeloablative conditioning in eligible patients. A haploidentical related donor marrow graft is preferred over a cord blood unit in the absence of a fully HLA-matched donor. The evolving role of allogeneic HCT in the context of measurable residual disease monitoring and recent therapeutic advances in AML with regards to maintenance therapy after HCT are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.020DOI Listing
January 2021

High metabolic tumor volume is associated with decreased efficacy of axicabtagene ciloleucel in large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(14):3268-3276

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, and.

High metabolic tumor volume (MTV) predicts worse outcomes in lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. However, it is unknown if this holds for patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an anti-CD19 targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between MTV and survival (overall survival [OS] and progression-free survival [PFS]) in patients with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) treated with axi-cel. Secondary objectives included finding the association of MTV with response rates and toxicity. The MTV values on baseline positron emission tomography of 96 patients were calculated via manual methodology using commercial software. Based on a median MTV cutoff value of 147.5 mL in the first cohort (n = 48), patients were divided into high and low MTV groups. Median follow-up for survivors was 24.98 months (range, 10.59-51.02 months). Patients with low MTV had significantly superior OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.66) and PFS (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89). Results were successfully validated in a second cohort of 48 patients with a median follow-up for survivors of 12.03 months (range, 0.89-25.74 months). Patients with low MTV were found to have superior OS (HR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.05-0.42) and PFS (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.69). In conclusion, baseline MTV is associated with OS and PFS in axi-cel recipients with LBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391155PMC
July 2020

Immune reconstitution and associated infections following axicabtagene ciloleucel in relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma.

Haematologica 2021 Apr 1;106(4):978-986. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Dept. of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, USA.

CD19 CAR T-cell therapy with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for relapsed or refractory (R/R) large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) may lead to durable remissions, however, prolonged cytopenias and infections may occur. In this single center retrospective study of 85 patients, we characterized immune reconstitution and infections for patients remaining in remission after axi-cel for LBCL. Prolonged cytopenias (those occurring at or after day 30 following infusion) were common with >= grade 3 neutropenia seen in 21/70 (30-0%) patients at day 30 and persisting in 3/31 (9-7%) patients at 1 year. B cells were undetectable in 30/34 (88-2%) patients at day 30, but were detected in 11/19 (57-9%) at 1 year. Median IgG levels reached a nadir at day 180. By contrast, CD4 T cells decreased from baseline and were persistently low with a median CD4 count of 155 cells/μl at 1 year after axi-cel (n=19, range 33 - 269). In total, 23/85 (27-1%) patients received IVIG after axi-cel, and 34/85 (40-0%) received G-CSF. Infections in the first 30 days occurred in 31/85 (36-5%) patients, of which 11/85 (12-9%) required intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization ("severe") and were associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS), neurotoxicity, tocilizumab use, corticosteroid use, and bridging therapy on univariate analyses. After day 30, 7 severe infections occurred, with no late deaths due to infection. Prolonged cytopenias are common following axi-cel therapy for LBCL and typically recover with time. Most patients experience profound and prolonged CD4 T cell immunosuppression without severe infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.238634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017820PMC
April 2021

Influence of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A polymorphisms on cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2020 Mar 24;13(1):32-39. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective/background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are common infectious complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is a ligand of the natural killer (NKG2D) receptor on immune effector cells that helps mediate NK cell alloreactivity. We hypothesized that MICA polymorphisms may influence CMV infection and disease incidence after alloHCT.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 423 adults at the Cleveland Clinic with hematologic malignancies treated with a matched related or unrelated donor alloHCT. CMV cases analyzed included a compositive of instances of viral copy replication above detection limits as well as any biopsy-proven tissue invasive disease episodes. Genotypes at the MICA-129 position have been categorized as weak (valine/valine; V/V), intermediate (methionine/valine; M/V), or strong (methionine/methionine; M/M) receptor affinity.

Results: In multivariable analysis, V/V donor MICA-129 genotype was associated with CMV infection and disease (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.96; p = .05), but not MICA mismatch (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 0.83-2.29; p = .22). There was no association of acute or chronic GVHD with MICA donor-recipient mismatch (HR = 1.05; 95% 95% CI, 0.66-1.68; p = .83 and HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.51-1.76; p = .85, respectively) or V/V donor MICA-129 genotypes (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79-1.31; p = .89 and HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65-1.22; p = .47, respectively).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the donor MICA-129 V/V genotype with weak NKG2D receptor binding affinity is associated with an increased risk of CMV infection and disease after alloHCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2019.10.001DOI Listing
March 2020

Body mass index does not impact hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

J Clin Apher 2019 Dec 5;34(6):638-645. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Background: Obesity has implications for hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization, chemotherapy administration, and medication dosing. We analyzed the impact of obesity on HPC mobilization as well as key outcomes that are associated with cell dose in autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) recipients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 556 consecutive eligible AHCT recipients at our institution from 1/2004 to 12/2009. Patients were categorized into four groups based on the body mass index (BMI): underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), or obese (≥30.0). Primary endpoints of interest included HPC mobilization, neutrophil and platelet recovery, hospital stay and survival.

Results: The diagnoses were mostly non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of the patients had received three or less prior chemotherapy regimens and had not received prior radiation therapy. Most patients had chemosensitive disease at time of transplant. For HPC mobilization regimen, 68% received chemotherapy and G-CSF, 32% received G-CSF alone. Busuflan/etoposide/cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and busulfan/cyclophosphamide were used for conditioning. Obesity did not correlate with HPC mobilization and had no association with neutrophil or platelet recovery, or length of transplant hospitalization. On multivariable analysis, obese patients demonstrated better survival than those who were not obese.

Conclusion: Obese AHCT recipients had similar rates of HPC mobilization, neutrophil and platelet engraftment and length of transplant hospitalization, and experienced better survival compared with recipients with lower BMI. High BMI by itself should not be considered as a contraindication to AHCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21739DOI Listing
December 2019

Radiation Therapy as a Bridging Strategy for CAR T Cell Therapy With Axicabtagene Ciloleucel in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 12 5;105(5):1012-1021. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Bridging therapy may be required for lymphoma control during the manufacturing interval between collection of autologous T cells and final CAR T product administration. The optimal bridging therapy is not known and patients are often chemorefractory. We present a case series of patients receiving radiation as a bridge to axi-cel.

Methods And Materials: Between December 2017 and October 2018, 12 patients were intended to receive bridging radiation before axi-cel. The group was characterized by highly aggressive disease including 6 of 12 with "double hit" lymphoma and 6 of 12 with disease ≥10 cm in diameter. All patients received 2 to 4 Gy/fraction to a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 6-36.5 Gy). Half of patients received either 30 Gy in 10 fractions or 20 Gy in 5 fractions. Seven patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Eleven patients underwent axi-cel infusion and one did not. Median follow-up was 3.3 months (range, 1.1-12.0 months).

Results: No significant toxicities were identified during bridging radiation, and no patient experienced in-field progression of disease before axi-cel infusion. One patient experienced abdominal pain, which resolved after dose reduction. Two patients had out-of-field progression of disease during the bridging period. After axi-cel infusion, 3 of 11 patients (27%) experienced severe cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity. At 30 days, the objective response rate was 81.8% (11 of 12 evaluable; 1 stable disease, 1 out-of-field progression), with complete response in 27% (3 of 11). At last follow-up, the best objective response rate was 81.8%, with a complete response attained in 45% (5 of 11). Lymphocyte counts decreased slightly in 10 of 12 patients during radiation (median, 0.25 k/uL).

Conclusions: Radiation (with or without concurrent chemotherapy) can be safely administered as a bridge to axi-cel in high-risk lymphoma. Caution should be taken if irradiation is started before apheresis, and lymphocyte counts should be monitored closely throughout. Future investigation is warranted to optimize the use of bridging radiation before CAR T therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.05.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872916PMC
December 2019

Clinical utilization of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cells (CAR-T) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-an expert opinion from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 15;54(11):1868-1880. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College, London, UK.

On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring and disease assessments. To address these issues, experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant (ASBMT), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT), formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0451-2DOI Listing
November 2019

Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Mobilization for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma in Contemporary Era.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 04 20;19(4):200-205. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Therapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.

Successful stem cell mobilization and adequate harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) is necessary for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Several advances have increased the efficiency and yield of HPC collection methods, and sufficient CD34 cell collection can be expected for most patients with MM considered to be ASCT candidates. However, in some patients, HPCs will fail to mobilize and an adequate number of CD34 cells will not be collected. In our review, we have discussed the various strategies available for mobilizing HPCs in patients with MM and the evolution of these strategies over time. We have also discussed the concept of mobilization failure, the factors predictive of poor mobilization, and the potential mobilization regimens for such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2018.12.010DOI Listing
April 2019

Progression with clinical features is associated with worse subsequent survival in multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2019 04 6;94(4):439-445. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Taussig Cancer Center, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Response rate and survival in multiple myeloma (MM) has improved in the era of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. However, most patients eventually relapse with biochemical progression (BP) alone or with clinical features of end-organ damage (CP: clinical progression), without or without extramedullary (EM) disease. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 252 patients with MM experiencing first relapse (time, T ) to evaluate survival following CP with and without EM as a function of BP. Patients were divided into three groups: BP (n = 134; 53%), CP/EM- (n = 87; 35%) and CP/EM+ (n = 31; 12%). The median time from diagnosis to T was significantly shorter in CP/EM+ compared to CP/EM- and BP groups (13 vs 25 vs 25 months; P < 0.001). The incidence of abnormal metaphase cytogenetics at diagnosis was significantly higher in CP/EM+ compared to CP/EM- and BP groups (46% vs 18% vs 11% respectively; P < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 26 months from T , median overall survival was 50, 19 and 10 months for BP, CP/EM- and CP/EM+ groups, respectively (P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, pattern of progression was a significant prognostic factor for OS (HR for CP/EM- vs BP: 3.6; CP/EM+ vs BP: 8.7 and CP/EM+ vs CP/EM-: 2.42; P < 0.001 for all comparisons), along with age at T . In conclusion, progression pattern is an important prognostic factor in the current era, with subsequent survival being dismal in patients with end-organ damage or EM disease at relapse. Clinical trials in relapsed MM should consider reporting patterns of progression at baseline to ensure balance between study arms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25415DOI Listing
April 2019

Clinical Utilization of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in B Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Expert Opinion from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 18;25(3):e76-e85. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College, London, United Kingdom.

On August 30, 2017 the US Food and Drug Administration approved tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present, ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring, and disease assessments. To address these issues experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy, and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.12.068DOI Listing
March 2019

Ocular graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation: Expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 7;54(5):662-673. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in more than half of patients who develop chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), causing prolonged morbidity, which affects activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of ocular GVHD in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Recent updates in ocular GVHD, regarding pathophysiology, preclinical models, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis, response criteria, evaluation measures, and treatment are discussed in this review. Ocular GVHD has at least three biological processes: lacrimal gland dysfunction, meibomian gland dysfunction, and corneoconjunctival inflammation. Preclinical models have found several novel pathogenic mechanisms, including renin angiotensin system and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling that can be targeted by therapeutic agents. Many studies have identified reliable tests for establishing diagnosis and response assessment of ocular GVHD. Efficacy of systemic and topical treatment for ocular GVHD is summarized. It is important for all health professionals taking care of HCT recipients to have adequate knowledge of ocular GVHD for optimal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0340-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Expert Review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 24;25(2):e46-e54. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in more than one-half of patients who develop chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), causing prolonged morbidity that affects activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of ocular GVHD in a collaboration between transplantation physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Recent updates in ocular GVHD regarding pathophysiology, preclinical models, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis, response criteria, evaluation measures, and treatment are discussed. Ocular GVHD involves at least 3 biological processes: lacrimal gland dysfunction, meibomian gland dysfunction, and corneoconjunctival inflammation. Preclinical models have identified several novel pathogenic mechanisms, including the renin angiotensin system and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, which can be targeted by therapeutic agents. Numerous studies have identified reliable tests for establishing diagnosis and response assessment of ocular GVHD. The efficacy of systemic and topical treatment for ocular GVHD is summarized. It is important that all health professionals caring for HCT recipients have adequate knowledge of ocular GVHD to provide optimal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362842PMC
February 2019

Effect of bone marrow CD34+cells and T-cell subsets on clinical outcomes after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 30;54(5):775-781. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Blood & Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Donor-derived T-cells mediate graft-versus-leukemia effect, immune reconstitution, and graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We examined the association of donor cell subsets with outcomes in recipients of myeloablative allogeneic HCT using bone marrow (BM, N = 359) grafts from 2002 to 2014 with related or unrelated donors. Analysis considered pre-infusion graft total nucleated cell (TNC), CD34+ CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ doses. Most patients received busulfan-cyclophosphamide or etoposide-total body irradiation conditioning for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Calcineurin inhibitor-mycophenolate mofetil (CNI-MMF) (49%) or calcineurin inhibitor-methotrexate (CNI-MTX) (47%) were used for GvHD prophylaxis. In multivariable analysis, higher CD34+ dose was associated with platelet engraftment (P < 0.001) and lymphocyte recovery (P = 0.006). There was no association of donor cell subsets with donor chimerism or overall survival. In conclusion, BM graft composition is associated with myeloablative allogeneic HCT outcomes and future studies to evaluate optimal graft composition are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0380-5DOI Listing
May 2019

Daratumumab proves safe and highly effective in AL amyloidosis.

Br J Haematol 2019 04 25;185(2):342-344. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15455DOI Listing
April 2019

Intravenous compared to oral busulfan with cyclophosphamide for autologous hematopoietic cell transplant conditioning for plasma cell myeloma.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2018 Dec 24;11(4):253-256. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2018.03.006DOI Listing
December 2018

Prognostic Factors for Mortality among Day +100 Survivors after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 31;24(5):1029-1034. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Although day +100 survival among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients has improved over time, longer-term survival remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for survival among patients surviving longer than 100 days using baseline characteristics and factors identified within the first 100 days after transplantation. Of 413 patients undergoing a first allogeneic HCT between 2006 and 2014, 335 survived >100 days post-transplantation. The majority underwent a myeloablative transplantation (75%) with a bone marrow (BM) (52%) graft source. One-year all-cause mortality (ACM) was 29%, with 16% relapse mortality (RM) and 12% nonrelapse mortality. In multivariable analysis, high-risk disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; P = .003), non-cytomegalovirus infection (HR, 1.79; P = .003), more days hospitalized (HR, 1.16; P < .001), and relapse (HR, 4.38; P < .001) within the first 100 days were associated with increased risk of ACM. Patients with higher income (HR, .89; P = .024) and those who received BM (HR, .52; P < .001) or umbilical cord blood (HR, .40; P = .002) relative to peripheral blood stem cells had lower risk of ACM. Our study identifies risk factors for adverse long-term survival in 100-day survivors, a time point when patients frequently are discharged from transplantation centers. In addition to disease- and transplantation-related factors, low socioeconomic status was associated with worse long-term survival, highlighting the need for focused efforts to improve outcomes in vulnerable patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953837PMC
May 2018

Efficacy of Standard Dose R-CHOP Alternating With R-HDAC Followed by Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation as Initial Therapy of Mantle Cell Lymphoma, a Single-Institution Experience.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 01 6;18(1):e95-e102. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, George Washington Cancer Center, Washington, DC.

Background: Young fit patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are commonly treated with induction chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). Induction regimens with modifications of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and/or incorporation of high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) appear more effective than R-CHOP alone.

Patients And Methods: We adopted a modification of the Nordic protocol using standard, rather than higher dose R-CHOP, alternating with HDAC (rituximab plus HDAC), for 3 cycles each or, for patients already treated with R-CHOP alone before referral for AHCT, an additional 2 cycles of rituximab plus HDAC. We herein report our experience with 28 patients treated with this regimen who proceeded to AHCT, and compare their outcomes with patients treated with either standard-dose R-CHOP (n = 38) or R-HCVAD/MA (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate, and cytarabine; n = 21), before AHCT.

Results: With a median follow-up duration of 26 months, our data show that this modification of the Nordic regimen is a highly effective pre-AHCT first-line therapy for MCL (3-year progression-free and overall survival rates of 69% and 75%, respectively).

Conclusion: By using a less intense induction, this regimen can serve as a platform for combined use of novel agents, with less risk of additive toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2017.11.002DOI Listing
January 2018

Neutropenic fever during peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization is associated with decreased CD34+ cell collection and increased apheresis collection days.

J Clin Apher 2018 Jun 14;33(3):303-309. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Blood & Marrow Transplant Program, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilization with chemotherapy in addition to Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) improves cell collection compared to G-CSF alone; however, it is associated with increased risk of neutropenic fever (NF).

Methods: We analyzed risk factors for post-priming NF and NF association with autologous stem cell transplant outcomes. Between 1998 and 2008, 593 adult patients with lymphoma underwent PBPC mobilization with etoposide and G-CSF.

Results: Median age was 51 years (range 18-77) and 372 (63%) were male. Diagnoses were 457 (77%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 136 (23%) Hodgkin lymphoma. Of 554 (93%) transplanted patients, majority were in complete or partial remission at time of transplant (88%). Overall, 141 (24%) patients were hospitalized for NF. Nine patients (6%) had bacteremia, 4 (3%) had pneumonia, 2 (<1%) had herpes simplex viral infections, and the remaining 126 (90%) had no identified infection source. NF patients had lower likelihood of proceeding to transplant (86% vs. 96%, P < .001), lower CD34+ cell dose collection (median 7.23 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg vs. 8.98 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg, P = .002), and were more likely to require > 4 days of apheresis (48% vs. 37%, P < .001). NF was associated with a higher 30-day readmission rate following transplant hospitalization (17% vs. 9%, P = .012).

Conclusion: NF during etoposide priming is associated with lower likelihood of proceeding to transplant, lower CD34+ cell dose collection, more apheresis days required for collection and a higher 30-day readmission rate following transplant discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21605DOI Listing
June 2018

Prognostic value of pre-transplant PET/CT in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation.

Leuk Lymphoma 2018 05 30;59(5):1195-1201. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

a Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology , Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland , OH , USA.

Pre-transplant PET/CT may be prognostic in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We reviewed relapsed and pre-transplant PET/CT scans of 32 patients with DLBCL treated with ASCT to determine the Deauville score and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). Patients with a Deauville score of 4 had a significantly inferior prognosis. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with Deauville 1-3 score was 64%, compared to 0% for Deauville 4, while the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 84% and 25%, respectively (p < .001, p = .002). The change in the SUV (>66 versus ≤66%) was not predictive of PFS or OS, but a high pre-transplant SUV (>6) demonstrated a trend towards an inferior PFS. Pre-transplant PET/CT is a tool for identifying DLBCL patients at high risk for treatment failure with ASCT and could be used to risk-stratify patients in prospective clinical trials of novel transplant strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2017.1369065DOI Listing
May 2018

Centrifuge bowl leak during extracorporeal photopheresis.

Transfusion 2017 08;57(8):1860-1861

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.13929DOI Listing
August 2017