Publications by authors named "Hidetaka Yamamoto"

252 Publications

Tumor microenvironment in giant cell tumor of bone: evaluation of PD-L1 expression and SIRPα infiltration after denosumab treatment.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14821. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Pathological Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an intermediate malignant bone tumor that is locally aggressive and rarely metastasizes. Denosumab, which is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, can be used to treat GCTB. We focused on potential immunotherapy for GCTB and investigated the tumor microenvironment of GCTB. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) expression and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) infiltration were assessed by immunohistochemical studies of 137 tumor tissues from 96 patients. Of the naive primary specimens, 28% exhibited PD-L1 expression and 39% exhibited IDO1 expression. There was significantly more SIRPα, FOXP3, and CD8 cell infiltration in PD-L1- and IDO1-positive tumors than in PD-L1- and IDO1-negative tumors. The frequency of PD-L1 expression and SIRPα cell infiltration in recurrent lesions treated with denosumab was significantly higher than in primary lesions and recurrent lesions not treated with denosumab. PD-L1 expression and higher SIRPα cell infiltration were significantly correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival. PD-L1 and SIRPα immune checkpoint inhibitors may provide clinical benefit in GCTB patients with recurrent lesions after denosumab therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94022-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292371PMC
July 2021

Effect of the 2013 ASCO-CAP HER2 Testing Guideline on the Management of IHC/HER2 2+ Invasive Breast Cancer.

Anticancer Res 2021 Aug;41(8):4143-4149

Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background/aim: With advances in anti-HER2 treatment and improved prognoses of HER2-positive breast cancer, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) have revised the HER2 diagnostic guidelines several times. We examined how to respond clinically to the revisions of the interpretation of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method.

Patients And Methods: We re-evaluated 254 patients diagnosed as HER2 IHC equivocal, who underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) before and after the IHC diagnostic criteria update in 2013.

Results: Twenty of 131 (15.3%) IHC equivocal cases by the ASCO/CAP 2007 guideline were IHC score 3+ and one of 20 (0.76%) was negative for FISH. Five of 123 (4.1%) IHC equivocal cases by the ASCO/CAP 2013 guideline were negative for IHC as per the 2007 guideline and four were positive for FISH.

Conclusion: After revision of the ASCO/CAP 2013 guideline, 3.3% of HER2-negative cases before the revision should have received anti-HER2 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15217DOI Listing
August 2021

PD-L1 expression, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, mismatch repair deficiency, EGFR alteration and HPV infection in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The antitumor efficacies of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the usefulness of potential predictive markers such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively analyzed 131 SNSCCs with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression, TIL subpopulations and loss of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins as a surrogate for MSI-high. We also comprehensively evaluated the mutual relationships among these immuno-markers, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene status, and KRAS mutation. PD-L1 expression (tumor proportion score ≥ 1%) was detected in 60 (45.8%) SNSCC cases and was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0240). High density of cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)-positive TILs was significantly associated with better progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0368), and high density of forkhead box protein P3-positive TILs was significantly associated with better PFS and OS (p = 0.0007 and 0.0143, respectively). With respect to the combination of CD8 + TIL and PD-L1 expression, the high-CD8/PD-L1-negative group showed the most favorable prognosis, whereas the low-CD8/PD-L1-positive group showed the worst prognosis. MMR loss was detected in 3 (2.3%) of the 131 cases. HPV infection (6.1%), EGFR mutation (14.5%), EGFR copy number gain (26%), and MMR loss were essentially mutually exclusive; patients in these molecular groups showed significant differences in prognosis but not in the degree of PD-L1 expression or TILs. Among the nine ICI-treated patients, three (33.3%) were responders, and the EGFR-wild type cases (n = 7) showed better clinical responses to an ICI compared to the EGFR-mutant cases (n = 2). Among the patients with residual/recurrent EGFR-wild type tumors (n = 43), ICI treatment significantly improved OS (p = 0.0281). The results suggest that the evaluation of immuno-markers and molecular subclassification may be helpful for prognostic prediction and selecting an individualized therapeutic strategy for patients with SNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00868-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Temporal Bone Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objectives/hypothesis: The tumor immune microenvironment in temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC), including the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), has not been established.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: We performed immunohistochemistry analyses to retrospectively analyze 123 TBSCC cases for PD-L1 expression and TILs and their prognostic significance. We also evaluated the prognostic correlations between these immunomarkers and the therapeutic responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

Results: PD-L1 expression (≥1%) was detected in 62 (50.4%) TBSCC cases and was significantly associated with worse prognosis: progression-free survival (PFS), P < .0001; overall survival (OS), P = .0009. A high density of CD8 TILs was significantly associated with better prognosis (PFS, P = .0012; OS, P = .0120). In contrast, a high density of Foxp3 TILs tended to be associated with an unfavorable prognosis (PFS, P = .0148; OS, P = .0850). With regard to the tumor microenvironment subtypes defined by CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression, the CD8 /PD-L1 group showed significantly worse prognosis. Among the 36 neoadjuvant CRT-treated cases, PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with worse OS (P = .0132). Among the 32 CRT-treated cases without surgery, a high density of CD8 TILs tended to be more highly associated with complete response to CRT compared to a low density of CD8 TILs (P = .0702).

Conclusions: These results indicate that the evaluation of the tumor immune microenvironment may contribute to the prediction of prognoses and the selection of an individualized therapeutic strategy for patients with TBSCC.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29689DOI Listing
June 2021

Alectinib-responsive infantile anaplastic ganglioglioma with a novel VCL-ALK gene fusion.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Sep 21;68(9):e29122. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29122DOI Listing
September 2021

Histological background of dedifferentiated solitary fibrous tumour.

J Clin Pathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Aims: Dedifferentiation is a histological phenomenon characterised by abrupt transition of histology to a sarcomatous component with high-grade malignant potential in solitary fibrous tumour (SFT). The authors histologically reviewed SFT cases to reveal the histological background of dedifferentiated SFTs.

Methods: Clinicopathological and histopathological findings of 145 SFT cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining and genetic analysis were also performed.

Results: The non-dedifferentiated components showed a cellular component in 45 of 145 (31%), high mitotic rate (≥4/10 high-powered field) in 12 of 145 (8.2%) tumours, necrosis in 7 of 145 (4.8%) tumours, multinodular growth pattern in 39 of 132 (29.5%) available tumours and intratumoural fibrous septa in 37 of 131 (28.2%). Immunohistochemically, the non-dedifferentiated components were positive for CD34 in 128 of 141 (90.7%), bcl-2 in 101 of 133 (75.9%), nuclear pattern of β-catenin in 64 of 127 (50.3%) and p16 in 22 of 140 (15.7%). Loss of Rb protein expression was detected in 17 of 110 (15.4%) cases. Statistically, cellular component, multinodular structure, p16 overexpression and Rb protein loss were significantly associated with dedifferentiation. Moreover, cellular component and multinodular structure were significantly associated with p16 overexpression and Rb protein loss. All the non-deddifferentiated components showed wild type of p53 expression. The dedifferentiated components of all 10 dedifferentiated tumours presented positivity for p16 in 9 of 10 (90%) and mutational type of p53 in 5 of 10 (50%). Loss of Rb protein expression was detected in 6 of 10 (60%).

Conclusions: The authors propose that cellular or multinodular transformation may be associated with dedifferentiation. They also suggest that cellular and multinodular transformation may be associated with p16 overexpression and Rb downregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2020-207311DOI Listing
May 2021

Myxoepithelioid tumour with chordoid features: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic study of 14 cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient soft-tissue neoplasm.

Histopathology 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Aims: Complete loss of SMARCB1/INI1 in soft-tissue tumours such as malignant rhabdoid tumour, epithelioid sarcoma, myoepithelial tumour of soft tissue and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is often associated with high-grade malignancy and poor prognosis. The diagnosis is sometimes challenging, owing to histological similarities, so careful differential diagnosis is required. Therefore, soft-tissue tumours with complete SMARCB1/INI1 loss could potentially include an unknown entity.

Methods And Results: We analysed 160 cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient soft-tissue tumour, and found 14 cases that were not classifiable into already existing categories and had common clinical and histological features. These involved two male and 12 female patients, ranging in age from 20 years to 61 years. The tumours were located in the the puboinguinal region (n = 13) and pelvic cavity (n = 1). Histologically, the tumours showed relatively uniform epithelioid to spindle-shaped cells with myxoid stroma. All tumours showed immunoreactivity for brachyury, epithelial membrane antigen, and progesterone receptor, and 12 of 14 cases did so for oestrogen receptor. Variable positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin, S100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was seen. NR4A3 and EWSR1 gene rearrangements were not detected in 13 and 11 examined cases, respectively. Clinical follow-up data for the 14 patients showed that 13 were alive without disease and one had been lost to follow-up; four patients developed local recurrence and/or metastases.

Conclusion: The designation 'myxoepithelioid tumour with choroid features' (METC) was proposed as a tumour with intermediate malignancy controllable with appropriate treatment, including the entity of myoepithelioma-like tumour of the vulvar region. METC represents a novel and independent subset that is histologically, biologically and clinically distinct from already existing SMARCB1/INI1-deficient soft-tissue tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14393DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes of methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jul 6;194(1):101-110. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Science, Fukuoka, Japan.

Recently, the use of targeted synthetic or biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (ts/bDMARDs) in addition to conventional synthetic (cs)DMARDs including methotrexate (MTX) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has increased. However, whether ts/bDMARDs are associated with the development and clinicopathological features of MTX-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) in patients with RA remains unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of 121 patients with MTX-LPD. Results showed that prior use of ts/bDMARDs was not associated with the different histopathological subtypes of MTX-LPD. Patients with polymorphic-type LPD had a better event-free survival than those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), classical Hodgkin lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The pathological subtype of lymphoma could predict the clinical outcome of MTX-LPD. In patients with DLBCL, the use of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors prior to MTX-LPD onset was associated with a higher non-relapse mortality. Further, patients with RA previously treated with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors more commonly required chemotherapy than those treated with csDMARDs alone, indicating disease aggressiveness. Hence, special caution should be observed when managing patients with MTX-LPD previously treated with JAK or TNF-α inhibitors for RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17456DOI Listing
July 2021

The association between the expression of PD-L1 and CMTM6 in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 3;147(7):2003-2011. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Background: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a sarcoma with a poor prognosis. A clinical trial, SARC028, revealed that treatment with anti-PD-1 drugs was effective against UPS. Studies have reported that UPS expresses PD-L1, sometimes strongly (≥ 50%). However, the mechanism of PD-L1 expression in UPS has remained unclear. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 6 (CMTM6) was identified as a novel regulator of PD-L1 expression. The positive relationship between PD-L1 and CMTM6 has been reported in several studies. The aim of this study was thus to examine CMTM6 expression in UPS and evaluate the relationship between PD-L1 and CMTM6 in this disease.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-one primary UPS samples were subjected to CMTM6 and PD-L1 immunostaining. CMTM6 expression was assessed using proportion and intensity scores. CMTM6 gene copy number was also evaluated using a real-time PCR-based copy number assay. We also analyzed the mRNA expression and copy number variation of PD-L1 and CMTM6 in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.

Results: TCGA data indicated that the mRNAs encoded by genes located around 3p22 were coexpressed with CMTM6 mRNA in UPS. Both proportion and intensity scores of CMTM6 positively correlated with strong PD-L1 expression (≥ 50%) (both p = 0.023). CMTM6 copy number gain increased CMTM6 expression. Patients with UPS with a high CMTM6 intensity score had a worse prognosis for overall survival.

Conclusions: UPS showed variation in CMTM6 copy number and CMTM6 expression. CMTM6 expression was significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression, especially with strong PD-L1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03616-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Brachyury expression in intracranial SMARCB1-deficient tumors: important points for distinguishing poorly differentiated chordoma from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

Hum Pathol 2021 Jun 17;112:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Loss of SMARCB1 protein expression has recently been identified in a variety of tumor types such as poorly differentiated chordoma (PCh) and malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) including atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT). PCh is characterized by poorly differentiated epithelioid tumor cells, sheet arrangement, and coexpression of nonepithelial and epithelial markers. Rhabdoid cells are sometimes present. Therefore, the differentiation of these tumors is often difficult. Brachyury is a transcription factor within the T-box family typically expressed in notochord tissue and chordomas. Some studies have reported high specificity and sensitivity of brachyury expression in chordomas. In the present study, we analyzed immunohistochemical brachyury expression in SMARCB1-deficient tumors and discuss important clinicopathological and diagnostic points, especially in cases of intracranial SMARCB1-deficient tumors with brachyury expression. Brachyury and cytokeratin immunoexpression status was examined in 42 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded SMARCB1-deficient tumor specimens (PCh, 6 cases; extra-central nervous system [CNS] MRT, 26 cases; AT/RT, 10 cases) and 25 cases of conventional chordoma (CCh). All cases of PCh and CCh showed diffuse immunopositivities for cytokeratin 8, pan-cytokeratin, and brachyury. Brachyury immunoexpression was present in 2 extra-CNS MRT (8%) and 5 AT/RT (50%) cases, but immunopositivity was focal not diffuse. Indeed, in almost all cases of AT/RT (cytokeratin 8, 7/10 cases; pan-cytokeratin, 7/10 cases) and extra-CNS MRT (cytokeratin 8, 23/26 cases; pan-cytokeratin, 25/26 cases), fewer than 50% of cells showed immunoreactivity. Although the histological and clinical features of PCh resemble those of AT/RT, semiquantitative evaluations of the degree of brachyury and cytokeratin immunoexpressivity may help to distinguish PCh from AT/RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.03.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Salivary Duct Carcinoma With Rhabdoid Features-No or Aberrant Expression of E-cadherin and Genetic Changes in CDH1: Immunohistochemical and Genetic Analyses of 17 Cases.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 04;45(4):439-449

Department of Pathology, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka City.

Salivary duct carcinoma is a relatively uncommon malignancy of the salivary glands; however, it frequently occurs as a carcinomatous component of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We previously reported salivary duct carcinoma with rhabdoid features (SDCRF) as an extremely rare subtype of salivary duct carcinoma, and that it occurred as a salivary counterpart of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast (PLCB). We collected new cases of SDCRF for this study, in which we examined a total of 17 cases immunohistochemically and genetically. As it is known that PLCB exhibits loss of or aberrant E-cadherin expression and carries nonsense/missense mutations in or deletion of the CDH1 gene, we examined the CDH1 gene status of our SDCRF cases. All of the examined SDCRF cases involved the diffuse proliferation of large ovoid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei, which displayed reduced cell-cell adhesion. Most cases were positive for pan-cytokeratin, androgen receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily B member 1, and WI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 4, whereas they were negative for vimentin. No and decreased/cytoplasmic E-cadherin expression was observed in 11 and 4 of 17 cases, respectively, whereas no and decreased/cytoplasmic β-catenin expression were observed in 10 and 5 of 17 cases, respectively. Among the 11 cases that could be genetically analyzed, a nonsense mutation (1 case), missense mutations (6 cases), and insertions (1 case) were detected in the CDH1 gene. In conclusion, we propose that SDCRF is the salivary counterpart of PLCB due to its morphology and immunophenotype, and the genetic status of CDH1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001672DOI Listing
April 2021

p16 overexpression and Rb loss correlate with high-risk HPV infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Histopathology 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Kyushu University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Aims: p16 is a sensitive surrogate marker for transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), but it is not sufficient in all clinical settings.

Methods And Results: We examined the p16 and Rb expression status in 177 OPSCC cases by immunohistochemistry and the presence of transcriptionally active HR-HPV infection by mRNA in-situ hybridisation. The 177 cases were divided into p16 /HPV (n = 105, 59.3%), p16 /HPV (n = 8, 4.5%) and p16 /HPV (n = 64, 36.2%) groups. The p16 /HPV and p16 /HPV groups had a trend towards worse overall survival (OS) or significantly worse OS than the p16 /HPV group (n = 105) (P = 0.0610, P = 0.0004, respectively). We divided the Rb status into preserved expression (> 90%, n = 68), partial loss (PL) (10-90%, n = 97) and complete loss (CL) (< 10%, n = 12). Among the HPV-positive cases (n = 105), the Rb pattern was typically PL (n = 97, 92.4%) and rarely CL (n = 8, 7.6%), but never preserved expression (0%). In contrast, among the HPV-negative cases (n = 72), the Rb pattern was typically preserved expression (n = 68, 94.4%) and rarely CL (n = 4, 5.6%), but never PL (0%). Compared to p16 alone, the combination of p16 overexpression and Rb-PL/CL showed equally excellent sensitivity (each 100%) and improved specificity (97.2 versus 88.9%) and positive predictive values (98.1 versus 92.9%).

Conclusions: These results suggest that the combined use of p16 and Rb immunohistochemistry could be a reliable, cost-effective method to predict HR-HPV infection in OPSCCs; however, HPV specific testing is necessary on inconclusive cases. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for practical use of these markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14337DOI Listing
January 2021

Genomic Sequencing of Cancer-related Genes in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Inverted Papilloma.

Anticancer Res 2021 Jan;41(1):71-79

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: The genetic basis of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP)-derived squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not yet been well characterized.

Aim: To characterize the genetic abnormalities of SNIP and SNIP-derived SCC and to uncover their differences.

Materials And Methods: Mutations of 409 genes were analyzed using amplicon targeted sequencing in a total of six papilloma/carcinoma samples from four patients with SNIP-derived SCC.

Results: The genes that were mutated in multiple cases were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (3/6), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (3/6), lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) (3/6), tumor protein p53 (TP53) (3/6), neurofibromin 1 (NF1) (3/6), phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein (PDE4DIP) (3/6), cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6 (CYP2D6) (2/6), fms-related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) (2/6) and myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) (2/6). Of the two cases analyzed in the papilloma-oncology carcinoma pair, one did not have any common mutations; the other showed a staged functional deletion of TP53 during the process of malignant transformation from SNIP to SCC.

Conclusion: CDKN2A, KMT2D, NF1, PDE4DIP, CYP2D6, FLT4, and MYH9 were identified as candidate novel SNIP-derived SCC-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14752DOI Listing
January 2021

Pathological evaluation of tumor grade for salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma: A proposal of an objective grading system.

Cancer Sci 2021 Mar 2;112(3):1184-1195. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

Three pathological grading systems advocated by Perzin/Szanto, Spiro, and van Weert are currently used for adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). In these systems, the amount or presence of the solid tumor component in AdCC specimens is an important index. However, the "solid tumor component" has not been well defined. Salivary AdCC cases (N = 195) were collected after a central pathology review. We introduced a novel criterion for solid tumor component, minAmax (minor axis maximum). The largest solid tumor nest in each AdCC case was histologically screened, the maximum oval fitting the solid nest was estimated, and the length of the minor axis of the oval (minAmax) was measured. The prognostic cutoff for the minAmax was determined using training and validation cohorts. All cases were evaluated for the four grading systems, and their prognostic impact and interobserver variability were examined. The cutoff value for the minAmax was set at 0.20 mm. Multivariate prognostic analyses showed the minAmax and van Weert systems to be independent prognostic tools for overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival while the Perzin/Szanto and Spiro systems were selected for overall survival but not for disease-free or distant metastasis-free survival. The highest hazard ratio for overall survival (11.9) was obtained with the minAmax system. The reproducibility of the minAmax system (kappa coefficient of 0.81) was scored as very good while those of the other three systems were scored as moderate. In conclusion, the minAmax is a simple, objective, and highly reproducible grading system useful for prognostic stratification for salivary AdCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935776PMC
March 2021

Pan-tropomyosin receptor kinase immunoreactivity, ETV6-NTRK3 fusion subtypes, and RET rearrangement in salivary secretory carcinoma.

Hum Pathol 2021 Mar 7;109:37-44. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582 Japan.

Salivary secretory carcinoma (SASC) is frequently associated with ETV6-neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) 3 fusion and more rarely with RET, MET, or ALK rearrangement. We aimed to elucidate the potential diagnostic utility of pan-tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) immunohistochemistry and its relationship with the fusion gene subtype in SASC. We examined 33 cases of SASC for immunoexpression of pan-Trk, ALK and ROS1, and gene rearrangement of the ETV6, NTRK3, and RET genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty (90.9%) of 33 SASCs harbored ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene transcripts by RT-PCR and/or both ETV6 and NTRK3 gene rearrangements by FISH, and 3 cases (9.1%) had RET gene rearrangement. Most NTRK3-rearranged SASCs (27/33 cases; 81.8%) had conventional ETV6 exon 5-NTRK3 exon 15 fusion, whereas 2 cases (6.1%) had both the conventional fusion and a novel ETV6 exon 4-NTRK3 exon 15 fusion variant. In the remaining one case (3%), only FISH revealed both ETV6 and NTRK3 rearrangements, suggesting an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion with an as yet undetermined break point. All 30 SASCs with ETV6-NTRK3 fusion and/or NTRK3 rearrangement showed nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for pan-Trk. In contrast, 3 SASCs with RET rearrangement showed negative or only weak cytoplasmic staining for pan-Trk. There was no case harboring ALK and ROS1 rearrangements. All 17 non-SASC tumors were negative for pan-Trk. The results suggest that nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for pan-TRK may be helpful to identify ETV6-NTRK3-fused SASCs and to distinguish them from RET-rearranged SASCs and morphological mimics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.11.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Breast metastasis from pelvic high-grade serous adenocarcinoma: a report of two cases.

Surg Case Rep 2020 Dec 9;6(1):317. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Background: Metastatic tumors to the breast reportedly account for 0.5% to 2.0% of all malignant breast diseases. Such metastatic tumors must be differentiated from primary breast cancer. Additionally, few reports have described metastases of gynecological cancers to the breast. We herein report two cases of metastasis of pelvic high-grade serous adenocarcinoma to the breast.

Case Presentation: The first patient was a 57-year-old woman with a transverse colon obstruction. Colostomy was performed, but the cause of the obstruction was unknown. We found scattered white nodules disseminated throughout the abdominal cavity and intestinal surface. Follow-up contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced nodule outside the right mammary gland. Core needle biopsy (CNB) of the right breast mass was conducted, and immunohistochemical staining of the mass suggested a high-grade serous carcinoma of female genital tract origin. We diagnosed the patient's condition as breast and lymph node metastasis of a high-grade serous carcinoma of the female genital tract. After chemotherapy for stage IVB peritoneal cancer, tumor reduction surgery was performed. The second patient was a 71-year-old woman with a medical history of low anterior resection for rectal cancer at age 49, partial right thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer at age 53, and left lower lung metastasis at age 57. Periodic follow-up CT showed peritoneal dissemination, cancerous peritonitis, and pericardial effusion, and the patient was considered to have a cancer of unknown primary origin. Contrast-enhanced CT showed an enhanced nodule in the left mammary gland with many enhanced nodules and peritoneal thickening in the abdominal cavity. CNB of the left breast mass was conducted, and immunohistochemical staining of the mass suggested a high-grade serous carcinoma of female genital tract origin. After chemotherapy for stage IVB peritoneal cancer, tumor reduction surgery was performed.

Conclusions: We experienced two rare cases of intramammary metastasis of high-grade serous carcinoma of female genital tract origin. CNB was useful for confirming the histological diagnosis of these cancers that had originated from other organs. A correct diagnosis of such breast tumors is important to ensure quick and appropriate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-020-01090-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726059PMC
December 2020

Comprehensive molecular profiling broadens treatment options for breast cancer patients.

Cancer Med 2021 01 4;10(2):529-539. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Precision oncology with next generation sequencing (NGS) using tumor tissue with or without blood has begun in Japan. Tumor molecular profiling tests are available, including the OncoGuide™ NCC Oncopanel System and FoundationOne CDx (F1CDx). Our purpose was to identify potentially actionable genetic alterations in breast cancer with this comprehensive tumor profiling test. We enrolled 115 patients with pathologically diagnosed advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Comprehensive tumor genomic profiling, microsatellite instability, and tumor mutational burden (TMB) were determined using F1CDx. Testing was successful in 109/115 cases (94.8%). Clinically actionable alterations were identified in 76% of advanced breast cancer patients. The most frequent short variants were in TP53 (48.6%), PIK3CA (38.5%), GATA3 (11.0%), PTEN (11.0%), and BRCA1 (10.1%), and structural variants were in ERBB2 (24.8%), MYC (21.1%), RAD21 (21.1%), CCND1 (11.9%), FGF19 (10.1%), and PTEN (10.1%). Regarding human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 status, 106/109 samples (97.2%) were concordant between F1CDx and HER2 testing with immunohistochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, ERBB2 amplification was newly detected in four samples and ERBB2 mutations were detected in five HER2-negative breast cancer samples. Oncogenic BRCA mutations were found in three samples with F1CDx among 27 germline testing-negative samples. The mean TMB in all samples was 6.28 mut/Mb and tended to be higher in luminal B and triple-negative breast cancer (mean = 8.1 and 5.9 mut/Mb, respectively) compared with other subtypes. In conclusion, we established a system for precision oncology and obtained preliminary data with NGS as the first step. The information in this clinical sequencing panel will help guide the development of new treatments for breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877356PMC
January 2021

The forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) expression and antitumor effect of FOXM1 inhibition in malignant rhabdoid tumor.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 May 21;147(5):1499-1518. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Anatomic Pathology Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Purpose: Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare, highly aggressive sarcoma with an uncertain cell of origin. Despite the existing standard of intensive multimodal therapy, the prognosis of patients with MRT is very poor. Novel antitumor agents are needed for MRT patients. Forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FOXM1) is overexpressed and is correlated with the pathogenesis in several human malignancies. In this study, we identified the clinicopathological and prognostic values of the expression of FOXM1 and its roles in the progression of MRT.

Methods: We investigated the FOXM1 expression levels and their clinical significance in 23 MRT specimens using immunohistochemistry and performed clinicopathologic and prognostic analyses. We also demonstrated correlations between the downregulation of FOXM1 and oncological characteristics using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and FOXM1 inhibitor in MRT cell lines.

Results: Histopathological analyses revealed that primary renal MRTs showed significantly low FOXM1 protein expression levels (p = 0.032); however, there were no significant differences in other clinicopathological characteristics or the survival rate. FOXM1 siRNA and FOXM1 inhibitor (thiostrepton) successfully downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of FOXM1 in vitro and the downregulation of FOXM1 inhibited cell proliferation, drug resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, migration, invasion, and caused the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of MRT cell lines. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that FOXM1 regulated FANCD2 and NBS1, which are key genes for DNA damage repair.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that FOXM1 may serve as a promising therapeutic target for MRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-020-03438-wDOI Listing
May 2021

PD‑L1 and IDO‑1 expression in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: The associations with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, dMMR and HLA class I.

Oncol Rep 2021 01 5;45(1):379-389. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812‑8582, Japan.

The prognosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is generally unfavorable. Recently, clinical trials such as SARC028 demonstrated the utility of cancer immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of PD‑L1 and IDO‑1 as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. A total of 52 primary UPS cases were retrieved and two UPS cell lines were utilized for supplementary analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of anti‑PD‑L1 (28‑8), IDO‑1, CD8, CD4, CD3, HLA class I, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2 was carried out. Immunohistochemically, 19 of 52 (36.5%) cases showed PD‑L1 expression at least focally (≥1%) and 5 of 52 (9.62%) showed strong PD‑L1 expression (≥50%). Overall, 25 of 52 (48.1%) cases expressed IDO‑1 (≥1%). Two tumors were evaluated as having deficient mismatch repair and six tumors as having the loss of HLA class I. PD‑L1 expression (≥1%) was significantly related to the infiltration of CD8‑ and CD3‑positive lymphocytes, but strong PD‑L1 expression (≥50%) did not present a significant relationship with tumor‑infiltrating lymphocytes. IDO‑1 expression was also associated with CD8‑, CD4‑, and CD3‑positive lymphocytes. In vitro, both PD‑L1 and IDO‑1 were induced by IFN‑γ stimulation. In survival analysis, strong PD‑L1 expression (≥50%) was a significant poor prognostic factor, while IDO‑1 expression (≥1%) was a favorable one. In conclusion, UPS was shown to frequently express PD‑L1 and IDO‑1. It was suggested that PD‑L1 expression (≥50%) and IDO‑1 expression are poor and favorable prognostic factors of UPS patients, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7837DOI Listing
January 2021

Frequent MN1 Gene Mutations in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

Anticancer Res 2020 Nov;40(11):6221-6228

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Background/aim: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft-tissue tumor, and its diagnosis is usually made histopathologically. The effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has not been established. We elucidated prognostic factors, diagnostic markers, and therapeutic targets.

Materials And Methods: Cases of MPNST were studied using next-generation sequencing. A total of 24 tumor samples, 11 from von Recklinghausen's disease-associated MPNST (vRH-MPNST), 11 from sporadic non-vRH MPNST, and two neurofibroma (NF) cases were retrieved, on which next-generation sequencing and survival analysis were performed.

Results: We identified NF1 gene mutations, including three mutations in two NFs, and 10 mutations in eight MPNSTs (five vRH-MPNSTs and three sporadic MPNSTs). Meningioma 1 (MN1) gene alteration was detected in six cases of vRH-MPNST. It is considered that MN1 gene alteration is related to the tumorigenesis of vRH-MPNST.

Conclusion: MN1 gene mutation was detected in more than half of our cases, it may have potential for use as a therapeutic target in vRH-MPNST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14642DOI Listing
November 2020

Benign mesenteric lipomatous tumor in a child: a case report and literature review.

Surg Case Rep 2020 Sep 30;6(1):243. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka, 830-0011, Japan.

Background: Lipomatous tumors are the most common type of soft-tissue tumors. Benign lipomatous tumors are lipomas and lipoblastoma. We herein report a case of benign mesenteric lipomatous tumor and the largest collection of known benign mesenteric lipomatous tumors in children in the literature.

Case Presentation: A 3-year-old girl presented with repeated dull abdominal pain and left abdominal mass swelling. On a physical examination, the child had a soft, moderately distended left abdomen that was not tender when palpated. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large fatty mass within the mesentery, measuring approximately 8 × 6 cm. The mass extended from the right upper quadrant to the lower pole of the kidneys. Laparotomy with resection of the mesenteric tumor was performed under general anesthesia. A well-capsuled tumor was a soft, yellow mass and found loosely attached to the mesenterium of the ileum. A histopathological examination demonstrated the lobular proliferation of mature adipocytes. Atypical lipoblasts were not seen. These features are compatible with benign lipomatous tumor, such as lipoma or lipoblastoma with maturation.

Conclusion: In conclusion, benign mesenteric lipomatous tumors tend to be large in size over 10 cm in longitudinal length. However, resection is well tolerated in the vast majority of cases with benign post-operative courses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-020-01020-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527397PMC
September 2020

Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical utility of NTRK-, ALK-, and ROS1-rearranged papillary thyroid carcinomas and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.

Hum Pathol 2020 12 25;106:82-92. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kyushu University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

NTRK1/3, ALK, and ROS1 translocations have been reported in a minor subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). We aimed to elucidate the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of these gene rearrangements and the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). We screened nonradiation-exposed cases of 307 PTCs and 16 ATCs by IHC for pan-Trk, ALK, and ROS1, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the PTC group, IHC for pan-Trk, ALK, and ROS1 was positive in 18 cases (5.9%), 1 case (0.3%), and 12 cases (3.9%), respectively. Among the pan-Trk IHC-positive cases (n = 18), 2 cases (11.1%; 0.7% of all PTCs) had NTRK1 or NTRK3 gene rearrangement with conventional PTC histology. The ALK IHC-positive case (n = 1) was the follicular variant of PTC with consistent ALK gene rearrangement. ROS1 gene rearrangement was not detectable in the ROS1 IHC-positive PTCs (0/12) by FISH. Most (approximately 70%) of the pan-Trk or ROS1 IHC-positive/FISH-negative cases had BRAF gene mutation with conventional PTC morphology. In the ATC group, neither ALK nor ROS1 IHC was positive, whereas pan-Trk IHC was positive in 1 case (6.3%) in which NTRK1 gene rearrangement was confirmed by FISH. These results suggest that NTRK, ALK, and ROS1 rearrangements are rare molecular events in nonradiation-exposed Japanese patients with PTC and ATC. Although IHC is not an entirely specific surrogate for these abnormalities and does not serve as a stand-alone companion diagnosis, the combined use of IHC and molecular testing may be helpful for determining promising therapeutic strategies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.09.004DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound with artificial intelligence for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

J Gastroenterol 2020 Dec 11;55(12):1119-1126. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Background: Although endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is reported to be suitable for determining the layer from which subepithelial lesions (SELs) originate, it is difficult to distinguish gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) from non-GIST using only EUS images. If artificial intelligence (AI) can be used for the diagnosis of SELs, it should provide several benefits, including objectivity, simplicity, and quickness. In this pilot study, we propose an AI diagnostic system for SELs and evaluate its efficacy.

Methods: Thirty sets each of EUS images with SELs ≥ 20 mm or < 20 mm were prepared for diagnosis by an EUS diagnostic system with AI (EUS-AI) and three EUS experts. The EUS-AI and EUS experts diagnosed the SELs using solely the EUS images. The concordance rates of the EUS-AI and EUS experts' diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings of the SELs.

Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for SELs < 20 mm were 86.3, 86.3, and 62.5%, respectively for the EUS-AI, and 73.3, 68.2, and 87.5%, respectively, for the EUS experts. In contrast, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for SELs ≥ 20 mm were 90.0, 91.7, and 83.3%, respectively, for the EUS-AI, and 53.3, 50.0, and 83.3%, respectively, for the EUS experts. The area under the curve for the diagnostic yield of the EUS-AI for SELs ≥ 20 mm (0.965) was significantly higher than that (0.684) of the EUS experts (P = 0.007).

Conclusion: EUS-AI had a good diagnostic yield for SELs ≥ 20 mm. EUS-AI has potential as a good option for the diagnosis of SELs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-020-01725-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Plasmablastic lymphoma occurring in the vicinity of enterocutaneous fistula in Crohn's disease.

J Dermatol 2020 Dec 4;47(12):e442-e443. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15600DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinicopathologic Significance of EGFR Mutation and HPV Infection in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 01;45(1):108-118

Departments of Anatomic Pathology.

Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is sometimes associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and inverted sinonasal papilloma or oncocytic sinonasal papilloma. Frequent mutations of EGFR and KRAS are reported in inverted sinonasal papilloma-related sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (ISP-SCC) and oncocytic sinonasal papilloma-related SNSCC, respectively. Here, we attempted to determine the prevalence and the prognostic significances of these alterations in SNSCC. We retrospectively collected 146 SNSCCs, including 14 ISP-SCCs, and comprehensively analyzed the HR-HPV infection by human papillomavirus (HPV)-RNA in situ hybridization, EGFR gene copy number gain (CNG) by chromogenic in situ hybridization, and gene mutations in EGFR and KRAS by Sanger sequencing. HR-HPV was detected in 11 cases (7.5%), whereas all 14 ISP-SCCs were negative. EGFR mutations were present in 21 (14.7%) of 143 SNSCCs, including 13/14 (92.9%) ISP-SCCs and 8/129 (6.2%) non-ISP-SCCs (P<0.0001). The majority of EGFR mutations were exon 20 insertions, with the remainder composed of deletions and single-nucleotide substitutions in exons 19 and 20. All of 142 SNSCCs harbored no KRAS mutation. EGFR CNG was detected in 41 (28.1%) of 146 SNSCCs; all of them were HPV negative and 3 had EGFR mutations. Collectively, EGFR mutation, EGFR CNG, and HR-HPV were essentially mutually exclusive, and each subgroup had distinct clinicopathologic features. The HPV-negative/EGFR-mutant group, the HPV-negative/EGFR CNG-positive group, and the triple-negative group had significantly worse prognoses than the HPV-positive group (P=0.0265, 0.0264, and 0.0394, respectively). In conclusion, EGFR mutation may play a pathogenetically important role in some populations of SNSCCs, especially ISP-SCCs. The molecular subclassification of SNSCCs may contribute to prognostic prediction and molecular-targeted precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001566DOI Listing
January 2021

Prognostic impact of CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma: A multiinstitutional retrospective study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Nov 14;111(11):4195-4204. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is rare, but the most common primary malignancy of the salivary gland and not infrequent in young individuals. CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions are frequently detected in MEC and are useful as a diagnostic biomarker. However, there has been debate as to whether the fusions have prognostic significance. In this study, we retrospectively collected 153 salivary gland MEC cases from 11 tertiary hospitals in Japan. As inclusion criteria, the MEC patients in this study had curative surgery as the initial treatment, received no preoperative treatment, and had no distant metastasis at the time of the initial surgery. The MEC diagnosis was validated by a central pathology review by five expert salivary gland pathologists. The CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions were detected using FISH and RT-PCR. In 153 MEC cases, 90 (58.8%) were positive for CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions. During the follow-up period, 28 (18.3%) patients showed tumor recurrence and 12 (7.8%) patients died. The presence of the fusions was associated with favorable tumor features. Of note, none of the fusion-positive patients died during the follow-up period. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of the fusions was a prognostic indicator of a better overall survival in the total and advanced-stage MEC cohorts, but not in the early-stage MEC cohort. In conclusion, CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusions are an excellent biomarker for favorable overall survival of patients with salivary gland MEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648036PMC
November 2020

The impact of clinicopathological factors on clinical outcomes in patients with salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: a multi-institutional analysis in Japan.

Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Oct 1;25(10):1774-1785. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-Kawasumi, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601, Japan.

Background: Owing to the low incidence of adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), reliable survival estimates and prognostic factors remained unclarified.

Methods: In this multi-institutional retrospective analysis, we collected 192 AdCC cases, and investigated the impact of clinicopathological factors on clinical outcomes of the patients. All AdCC cases were of salivary gland origin and were surgically treated with curative intent. Diagnoses of AdCC were validated by a central pathology review by expert pathologists.

Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 92.5 and 50.0%, respectively. Treatment failure occurred in 89 patients (46%) with the distant failures in 65 (34%). Multivariate analysis indicated that pN2 and a pathologically positive surgical margin were independent prognostic factors for both OS and DFS. Histological grade III was an independent prognostic factor for OS. A primary site in the submandibular gland, pT3/4, pN1, and histological grade II were independent prognostic factors for DFS. Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) improved the locoregional control (LRC) rate. Prophylactic neck dissection was not associated with a better OS or better LRC among patients with cN0. Facial nerve dissection did not improve clinical outcomes in parotid AdCC cases without facial nerve palsy.

Conclusions: A higher TN classification, a pathologically positive surgical margin, and a higher histological grade were associated with a lower OS. PORT improved LRC rates but neck dissection failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients with cN0. As the distant metastasis was frequent, effective systemic therapy is imperative to improve the survival of AdCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-020-01731-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Characterization of parotid gland tumors: added value of permeability MR imaging to DWI and DCE-MRI.

Eur Radiol 2020 Dec 1;30(12):6402-6412. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Objectives: To determine added value of permeability MRI in parotid tumor characterization to T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), semi-quantitative analysis of time-intensity curve (TIC), and intra-voxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI).

Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the informed consent was waived. Sixty-one parotid tumors in 61 patients were examined using T2WI, IVIM-DWI, and permeability MRI. TIC patterns were categorized as persistent, washout, or plateau. Signal intensity ratio of lesion-to-muscle on T2WI, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), D and f values from IVIM-DWI, and K, k, V, and V values from permeability MRI were measured. Multiple comparisons were applied to determine whether any differences among 4 histopathologic types (pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumors, other benign tumors, and malignant tumors) existed. Diagnostic accuracy was compared before and after modification diagnosis referring to permeability MRI. In a validation study, 60 parotid tumors in 60 patients were examined.

Results: ADC and D values of malignant tumors were significantly lower than those of benign tumors other than Warthin's tumors, but higher than those of Warthin's tumors. k and V values of Warthin's tumors were significantly higher than those of malignant tumors. Multivariate analyses showed that TIC pattern, D, and k values were suitable parameters. McNemar's test showed a significant increase of sensitivity (11/12, 92%) and specificity (46/49, 94%) with adding k. The validation study yielded high sensitivity (14/16, 88%) and specificity (41/44, 93%).

Conclusion: Permeability MRI offers added value to IVIM-MRI and semi-quantitative TIC analysis of DCE-MRI in characterization of parotid tumors KEY POINTS: • Permeability MR imaging offers added value in the characterization of parotid gland tumors in combination with semi-quantitative TIC analysis and IVIM analyses with D parameter. • The combination of TIC pattern, D, and k might facilitate accurate characterization of parotid gland tumor, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgery for benign tumors or delayed treatment for malignant tumors. • A combination of permeability and diffusion MR imaging can be used to guide the selection of an appropriate biopsy site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07004-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Genetic landscape of external auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Sci 2020 Aug 11;111(8):3010-3019. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

External auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma (EACSCC) is an extremely rare and aggressive malignancy. Due to its rarity, the molecular and genetic characteristics of EACSCC have not yet been elucidated. To reveal the genetic alterations of EACSCC, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 11 primary tumors, 1 relapsed tumor and 10 noncancerous tissues from 10 patients with EACSCC, including 1 with a rare case of synchronous bilateral EACSCC of both ears. WES of the primary tumor samples showed that the most frequently mutated gene is TP53 (63.6%). In addition, recurrent mutations in CDKN2A, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, FAT1 and FAT3 were detected in multiple samples. The mutational signature analysis of primary tumors indicated that the mutational processes associated with the activation of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) deaminases are the most common in EACSCC, suggesting its similarity to SCC from other primary sites. Analysis of arm-level copy number alterations detected notable amplification of chromosomes 3q, 5p and 8q as well as deletion of 3p across multiple samples. Focal chromosomal aberrations included amplifications of 5p15.33 (ZDHHC11B) and 7p14.1 (TARP) as well as deletion of 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/B). The protein expression levels of ZDHHC11B and TARP in EACSCC tissues were validated by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, WES of the primary and relapsed tumors from a case of synchronous bilateral EACSCC showed the intrapatient genetic heterogeneity of EACSCC. In summary, this study provides the first evidence for genetic alterations of EACSCC. Our findings suggest that EACSCC mostly resembles other SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419060PMC
August 2020
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