Publications by authors named "Hideo Hasegawa"

100 Publications

Strongyloides genotyping: a review of methods and application in public health and population genetics.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Oct 30. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu, Oita, Japan.

Strongyloidiasis represents a major medical and veterinary helminthic disease. Human infection is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni fuelleborni and Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi, with S.stercoralis accounting for the majority of cases. Strongyloides f. fuelleborni likely represents a zoonosis acquired from non-human primates (NHPs), while no animal reservoir for S. f. kellyi infection has been found. Whether S. stercoralis represents a zoonosis acquired from dogs and cats remains unanswered. Over the past two decades various tools have been applied to genotype Strongyloides spp. The most commonly sequenced markers have been the hyper-variable regions I and IV of the 18S rRNA gene and selected portions of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. These markers have been sequenced and compared in Strongyloides from multiple hosts and geographical regions. More recently, a machine learning algorithm multi-locus sequence typing approach has been applied using these markers, while others have applied whole genome sequencing. Genotyping of Strongyloides from dogs, cats, NHPs and humans has identified that S. stercoralis likely originated in dogs and adapted to human hosts. It has also been demonstrated that S. stercoralis is distinct from S. f. fuelleborni and S. f. kellyi. Two distinct genetic clades of S. stercoralis exist, one restricted to dogs and another infecting humans, NHPs, dogs and cats. Genotyping of S. f. fuelleborni has identified two separate clades, one associated with African isolates and another Indochinese peninsular clade. This review summarises the history and development of genotyping tools for Strongyloides spp. It describes the findings of major studies to date in the context of the epidemiology and evolutionary biology of these helminths, with a specific focus on human-infecting species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2021.10.001DOI Listing
October 2021

Arthroscopic Lunate Excision Provides Excellent Outcomes for Low-Demand Patients with Advanced Kienböck's Disease.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Oct 28;3(5):e1387-e1394. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.

Purpose: To examine the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic lunate excisions for advanced Kienböck's disease.

Methods: Fifteen patients (six men and nine women; mean age: 65 years; range: 48-83 years) with advanced Kienböck's disease, who underwent arthroscopic lunate resection between April 2008 and March 2016, were reviewed clinically and radiographically after a follow-up of >2 years (mean: 29 months; range: 24-60 months). Clinical parameters, such as wrist range of motion, grip strength, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, and patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) score were evaluated. Radiographic parameters included radioscaphoid angle, scaphocapitate angle, carpal height ratio, ulnar-triquetrum distance, and the scaphoid-triquetrum distance. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to compare measurement results.

Results: During the final follow-up, patients exhibited significant improvements, such as 42.9° in wrist range of motion ( = .009), 24.5% of the contralateral side in grip strength ( = .001), 26.2 points in DASH score ( = .002), and 37.8 points in PRWE score ( .001), compared with the preoperative values. The radioscaphoid and scaphocapitate angles significantly increased by 4.8° ( = .0027) and 3.7° ( = .0012), respectively. The carpal height ratio, ulnar-triquetrum distance, and scaphoid-triquetrum distance significantly decreased by 0.05 ( .001), 2.6 mm ( .001), and 1.3 mm ( = .0012), respectively.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that arthroscopic lunate excisions provided excellent postoperative pain relief and functional recovery within 2 years of follow-up. Changes in carpal alignment and stress concentration on the radial side of the carpal bones could occur in the long term; however, arthroscopic lunate excision can be a good surgical option for treating low-demand patients with advanced Kienböck's disease.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527252PMC
October 2021

Prediction of protein and oil contents in soybeans using fluorescence excitation emission matrix.

Food Chem 2021 Dec 18;365:130403. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

To investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy in evaluating soybean protein and oil content, excitation emission matrix (EEM) was measured on 34 samples of soybean flours using a front-face measurement, and the accuracy of the protein and oil content prediction was evaluated. The EEM showed four main peaks at excitation/emission (Ex/Em) wavelengths of 230/335, 285/335, 365/475, and 435/495 nm. Furthermore, second derivative synchronous fluorescence (SDSF) spectra were extracted from the EEMs, and partial least square regression and support vector machine models were developed on each of the EEMs and SDSF spectra. The R values reached 0.86 and 0.74 for protein and oil, respectively. From the loading spectra, fluorescence at Ex/Em of 230-285/335 nm and 350/500 nm mainly contribute to the protein and oil content prediction, respectively. Those results revealed the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for a rapid prediction of soybean protein and oil content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130403DOI Listing
December 2021

Treatment of painful median nerve neuroma using pedicled vascularized lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve with adipofascial flap: a cadaveric study and exploration of clinical application.

J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2021 Jun 9:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

The most common procedure for the treatment of painful median nerve neuroma is coverage with vascularized soft tissue following external neurolysis. However, the ideal treatment should include reconnecting the proximal and distal stumps of the damaged nerve to allow the growth of regenerating axons to their proper targets for a functional recovery. We developed a useful technique employing radial artery perforator adipofascial flap including the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN) to repair the median nerve by vascularized nerve grafting and to achieve coverage of the nerve with vascularized soft tissue. In an anatomical study of 10 fresh-frozen cadaver upper extremities, LABCN was constantly bifurcated into two branches at the proximal forearm (mean: 8.2 cm distal to the elbow) and two branches that run in a parallel manner toward the wrist. The mean length of the LABCN branches between the bifurcating point and the wrist was 18.2 cm, which enabled inclusion of adequate length of the LABCN branches into the radial artery perforator adipofascial flap. The diameters of the LABCN branches (mean: 1.7 mm) were considered suitable to bridge the funiculus of the median nerve defect after microsurgical internal neurolysis. In all cadaver upper extremities, the 3-cm median nerve defect at the wrist level could be repaired using the LABCN branches and covered with the radial artery perforator adipofascial flap. On the basis of this anatomical study, the median nerve neuroma was successfully treated with radial artery perforator adipofascial flap including vascularized LABCN branches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2000656X.2021.1933994DOI Listing
June 2021

Parasite community structure in sympatric Bornean primates.

Int J Parasitol 2021 10 14;51(11):925-933. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan; Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Parasites are important components of ecosystems, influencing trophic networks, competitive interactions and biodiversity patterns. Nonetheless, we are not nearly close to disentangling their complex roles in natural systems. Southeast Asia falls within global areas targeted as most likely to source parasites with zoonotic potential, where high rates of land conversion and fragmentation have altered the circulation of wildlife species and their parasites, potentially resulting in altered host-parasite systems. Although the overall biodiversity in the region predicts equally high, or even higher, parasite diversity, we know surprisingly little about wild primate parasites, even though this constitutes the first step towards a more comprehensive understanding of parasite transmission processes. Here, we characterise the gastrointestinal helminth parasite assemblages of a community of Bornean primates living along the Kinabatangan floodplain in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo), including two species endemic to the island. Through parasitological analyses, and by using several measures of parasite infection as proxies for parasite diversity and distribution, we show that (i) most parasite taxonomic groups are not limited to a single host, suggesting a greater flexibility for habitat disturbance, (ii) parasite infracommunities of nocturnal primates differ from their diurnal counterparts, reflecting both phylogenetic and ecological constraints, and (iii) soil-transmitted helminths such as whipworm, threadworm and nodule worm are widespread across the primate community. This study also provides new parasite records for southern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), silvered langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus) and Western tarsiers (Cephalopachus bancanus) in the wild, while adding to the limited records for the other primate species in the community. Given the information gap regarding primate-parasite associations in the region, the information presented here should prove relevant for future studies of parasite biodiversity and infectious disease ecology in Asia and elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2021.03.003DOI Listing
October 2021

Genetic characterization of nodular worm infections in Asian Apes.

Sci Rep 2021 03 31;11(1):7226. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37, Brno, Czech Republic.

Parasitic nematodes of Oesophagostomum spp., commonly known, as 'nodular worms' are emerging as the most widely distributed and prevalent zoonotic nematodes. Oesophagostomum infections are well documented in African non-human primates; however, the taxonomy, distribution and transmission of Oesophagostomum in Asian non-human primates are not adequately studied. To better understand which Oesophagostomum species infect Asian non-human primates and determine their phylogeny we analysed 55 faecal samples from 50 orangutan and 5 gibbon individuals from Borneo and Sumatra. Both microscopy and molecular results revealed that semi-wild animals had higher Oesophagostomum infection prevalence than free ranging animals. Based on sequence genotyping analysis targeting the Internal transcribed spacer 2 of rDNA, we report for the first time the presence of O. aculeatum in Sumatran apes. Population genetic analysis shows that there is significant genetic differentiation between Bornean and Sumatran O. aculeatum populations. Our results clearly reveal that O. aculeatum in free-ranging animals have a higher genetic variation than those in semi-wild animals, demonstrating that O. aculeatum is circulating naturally in wildlife and zoonotic transmission is possible. Further studies should be conducted to better understand the epidemiology and dynamics of Oesophagostomum transmission between humans, non-human primates and other wild species and livestock in Southeast Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86518-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012698PMC
March 2021

Notes on Morphology and Life History of Probstmayria gombensis (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae), Parasitic in Eastern Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Bulindi, Uganda.

J Parasitol 2021 03;107(2):155-162

Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan.

Probstmayria gombensis File, 1976 (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae) individuals discharged in the feces of eastern chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Bulindi, Uganda, were examined morphologically. Adults and fourth-stage larvae, all females, found in the feces, and the third-stage larvae excised from the uterus of the gravid females were described. By close observation of the molting worms, it was considered that the uterine third-stage larvae attain molting phase, and then are laid to become fourth-stage larvae. Nutrients required for larval development in the uterus seem to be supplied by the mother after the eggshell is formed. After some growth in the host intestine, the fourth-stage larvae undergo the final molt to the adult stage. The genital primordium was very small in the early fourth-stage larvae but rapidly developed with embryonation in the pre-molt and molting phases. Such precocity suggests parthenogenetic reproduction without insemination by males. This style may enhance rapid autoinfection in the host intestine under the condition of male worm scarcity. Several ellipsoidal pseudocoelomocytes with granules of unknown function were found ventral to the intestine of the adults, fourth-stage larvae, and third-stage larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/20-88DOI Listing
March 2021

The Role of the Acromioclavicular Ligament in Acromioclavicular Joint Stability: A Cadaveric Biomechanical Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Feb 10;9(2):2325967120982947. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.

Background: Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is evaluated using the radiologically based Rockwood classification. The relationship between ligamentous injury and radiological assessment is still controversial.

Purpose/hypothesis: To investigate how the AC ligament and trapezoid ligament biomechanically contribute to the stability of the AC joint using cadaveric specimens. The hypothesis was that isolated sectioning of the AC ligament would result in increased instability in the superior direction and that displacement >50% of the AC joint would occur.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Six shoulders from 6 fresh-frozen cadavers were used in this study. Both the scapula and sternum were solidly fixed on a customized wooden jig with an external fixator. We simulated distal clavicular dislocation with sequential sectioning of the AC and coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Sectioning stages were defined as follows: stage 0, the AC ligament, CC ligament, and AC joint capsule were left intact; stage 1, the anteroinferior bundle of the AC ligament, joint capsule, and disk were sectioned; stage 2, the superoposterior bundle of the AC ligament was sectioned; and stage 3, the trapezoid ligament was sectioned. The distal clavicle was loaded with 70 N in the superior and posterior directions, and the magnitudes of displacement were measured.

Results: The amounts of superior displacement averaged 3.7 mm (stage 0), 3.8 mm (stage 1), 8.3 mm (stage 2), and 9.5 mm (stage 3). Superior displacement >50% of the AC joint was observed in stage 2 (4/6; 67%) and stage 3 (6/6; 100%). The magnitudes of posterior displacement were 3.7 mm (stage 0), 3.7 mm (stage 1), 5.6 mm (stage 2), and 9.8 mm (stage 3). Posterior displacement >50% of the AC joint was observed in stage 3 (1/6; 17%).

Conclusion: We found that the AC ligaments contribute significantly to AC joint stability, and superior displacement >50% of the AC joint can occur with AC ligament tears alone.

Clinical Relevance: The AC ligament plays an important role not only in horizontal stability but also in vertical stability of the AC joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120982947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878954PMC
February 2021

Soft-tissue reconstruction after soft-tissue sarcoma resection: the clinical outcomes of 24 patients.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8521, Japan.

Purpose: Pedicle or free-flap reconstruction is important in surgical sarcoma management. Free flaps are indicated only when pedicle flaps are considered inadequate; however, they are associated with a higher risk of flap failure, longer surgical times, and technical difficulty. To determine the skin defect size that can be covered by a pedicle flap, we investigated the clinical outcomes and complications of reconstruction using pedicle flaps vs. free flaps after sarcoma resection.

Methods: We retrospectively studied the medical records of 24 patients with soft-tissue sarcomas who underwent reconstruction using a pedicle (n = 20) or free flap (n = 4) following wide tumour resection.

Results: All skin defects of the knee, lower leg, and ankle were reconstructed using a pedicle flap. Skin defects of the knee, lower leg, and ankle were covered by up to 525 cm, 325 cm, and 234 cm, respectively. The amount of blood loss was significantly greater in the free-flap group than in the pedicle flap group (p = 0.011). Surgical time was significantly shorter in the pedicle flap group than in the free-flap group (p = 0.006). Total necrosis was observed in one (25%) patient in the free-flap group; no case of total necrosis was observed in the pedicle flap group.

Conclusion: Less blood loss, shorter surgical time, and lower risk of total flap necrosis are notable advantages of pedicle flaps over free flaps. Most skin defects, even large ones, of the lower extremities following sarcoma resection can be covered using a single pedicle flap or multiple pedicle flaps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-02901-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Increased Vancomycin Clearance in Patients with Solid Malignancies.

Biol Pharm Bull 2020 Jul 14;43(7):1081-1087. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University.

Vancomycin (VAN) is an anti-microbial agent used to treat a number of bacterial infections, which has a high incidence of nephrotoxicity. We examined the pharmacokinetics of VAN retrospectively based on trough concentrations at large scale and identified pharmacokinetic differences between Japanese patients having solid malignancy and non-malignancy patients. Data were analyzed from 162 solid malignancy patients and 261 non-malignancy patients, including the patient's background, VAN dose, and pharmacokinetics of VAN. We failed to detect differences in values for VAN clearance or shorter elimination half-lives between these two groups. In contrast, multiple regression analysis under adjusting for confounding factors by propensity score, showed that VAN clearance significantly increased in relation to solid malignancies in each stage. We conclude that VAN clearance in solid malignancy patients is increased and that the blood concentration of VAN becomes lower than expected. These results suggest that early monitoring of VAN levels in solid malignancy patients might be essential for maintaining desired effects without side-effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b20-00083DOI Listing
July 2020

First description of male worms of Enterobius (Colobenterobius) serratus (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), the pinworm parasite of proboscis monkeys.

Zootaxa 2020 Jan 14;4722(3):zootaxa.4722.3.6. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, 879-5593 Japan..

Males of Enterobius (Colobenterobius) serratus Hasegawa et al., 2003 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) are described for the first time based on six individuals collected from the feces of proboscis monkeys, Nasalis larvatus, in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The males show identical cephalic morphology to females, being readily distinguishable from their congeners by the serrated inner margins of the lips. The bicolored esophageal corpus, long thin spicule and developed spicular pouch with paired muscular bands are also remarkable characteristics, presumably shared by other Asian members of the subgenus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4722.3.6DOI Listing
January 2020

Vascularized pedicled bone graft from the distal radius supplied by the anterior interosseous artery for treatment of ulnar shaft nonunion: An anatomical study of cadavers and a case report.

Microsurgery 2020 May 12;40(4):479-485. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Background: A vascularized distal radius graft can be a reliable solution for the treatment of refractory ulnar nonunion. The aim of this study is to establish the anatomical basis of a vascularized bone graft pedicled by the anterior interosseous artery and report its clinical application, using cadaveric studies and a case report.

Methods: Fourteen fresh frozen cadaveric upper limbs were used. The branches of the anterior interosseous artery (the 2, 3 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery and the fourth extensor compartment artery) were measured at the bifurcation site. The anatomical relationship between the anterior interosseous artery and motor branches of the posterior interosseous nerve was investigated. An anterior interosseous artery pedicled bone flap was used in a 48-year-old woman with refractory ulnar nonunion.

Results: There were two variations depending on whether the 2,3 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery branched off distally or proximally from the terminal motor branch of the posterior interosseous nerve. The proximal border of the graft was located at an average of 10.5 cm (range, 6.5-12.5 cm) from the distal end of the ulnar head in the distal type (57%) and 17.5 cm (range, 9.5-21.5 cm) in the proximal type (43%). In the clinical application, successfully consolidation was achieved 4 months post-surgery. The patient had not developed any postoperative complications until the 2-year postoperative follow-up.

Conclusions: The anterior interosseous artery-pedicled, vascularized distal radius bone graft would be a reliable alternative solution for the treatment of an ulnar nonunion located within the distal one-third of the ulna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/micr.30566DOI Listing
May 2020

Augmented Renal Clearance of Vancomycin in Hematologic Malignancy Patients.

Biol Pharm Bull 2019 Dec 18;42(12):2089-2094. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University.

The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin (VAN) was retrospectively examined based on trough concentrations at large scale to identify pharmacokinetic differences between Japanese hematologic malignancy and non-malignancy patients. Data from 261 hematologic malignancy patients and 261 non-malignancy patients, including the patient's background, VAN dose, and pharmacokinetics of VAN estimated by an empirical Bayesian method, were collected and analyzed. Our results showed significantly higher values for VAN clearance and shorter elimination half-lives in patients with hematologic malignancies than non-malignancy patients. In addition, multiple regression analysis under adjusting for confounding factors by propensity score, showed that VAN clearance significantly increased in relation to hematologic malignancies. In conclusion, since in hematologic cancer patients VAN clearance is increased, the blood concentration of VAN becomes lower than expected and this may contribute to the survival of resistant bacteria when VAN is administered at low doses. These results suggest that early monitoring of VAN levels in hematologic cancer patients might be recommended to maintain desired effects without side-effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b19-00652DOI Listing
December 2019

Human case of Onchocerca dewittei japonica infection in Fukushima, Northeastern Honshu, Japan.

Parasitol Int 2019 Oct 17;72:101943. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre (TIDREC), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

A 73-year-old man living in Kawamata-machi, Fukushima Prefecture, Northeastern Honshu, Japan, visited a hospital with complaints of a subcutaneous swelling that had developed on the back of his left hand. The nodule was surgically removed from the vagina fibrosa tendinis of his left forefinger. Based on the histopathological characteristics, the causative agent of this nodule was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). The species identification was confirmed by cox1 gene sequencing of the worm tissues from paraffin-embedded sections of the nodule. Although 11 cases of zoonotic onchocercosis have previously been recorded in Kyushu and Western Honshu, Japan, the present findings represent the first human case of infection with O. dewittei japonica in Northeastern Honshu, Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2019.101943DOI Listing
October 2019

n. gen. and n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Dictyocaulidae), a Peculiar Bursate Nematode Collected from an Alien Frog, , in Nago, Okinawa Island, Japan.

Authors:
Hideo Hasegawa

J Parasitol 2019 06;105(3):409-413

Department of Biomedicine and Department of Infectious Disease Control, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan.

A peculiar bursate nematode, n. gen. and n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Dictyocaulidae: Mertensinematinae), was described from an alien frog, (Anura: Rhacophoridae), collected on Okinawa Island, Japan. It is related to and , the only hitherto known genera of Mertensinematinae, but is readily distinguished from them by having only 2 pairs of lateral rays and simple distal ends of the dorsal ray branches.
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June 2019

Sinistral, Dextral, and Mixed Coiling Patterns Observed in Heligmonellid Nematodes (Trichostrongyloidea).

J Parasitol 2019 02;105(1):41-44

2   Zoology Division (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense), RC. Biology-LIPI, Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor, Km. 46. Cibinong, West Java 16911, Indonesia.

Coiling patterns of heligmonellid nematodes were examined for 520, 208, and 33 individuals of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Orientostrongylus tenorai, and Sabanema sp., respectively, collected from murine rodents of Indonesia. Besides typical sinistral coiling, complete dextral coiling was found in 3.3% of N. brasiliensis and 12.1% of Sabanema sp. Mixed coiling with partial sinistral and dextral patterns was also observed in 38.8% of N. brasiliensis, 60.7% of Sabanema sp., and 3.4% of O. tenorai. In dextral coils, the left ventral area with large ridges was located inside as in sinistral coils, keeping the ability to cling to intestinal villi. The cuticular dilatation at left to left dorsal area was located caudally in sinistral coils but rostrally in dextral coils. Presence of mixed coiling indicates that the coiling patterns can change. As the transition of coiling pattern accompanies a change in direction of coil axis, it is surmised that the dextral coiling may be chosen when a worm leaves a villus to move to another villus.
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February 2019

A pinworm's tale: The evolutionary history of .

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2019 Apr 2;8:25-32. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan.

is the only pinworm species known to infect strepsirrhine primates outside Africa, and the only pinworm species yet described in slow lorises. Here, we provided a detailed morphological comparison of female and male worms, and a first description of fourth-stage larvae collected from free-living slow lorises () in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we also reconstructed the species' phylogenetic relationship with other pinworms infecting primates. Both morphological and molecular results indicated a distinct association between and its host. However, while taxonomy identified this species as a member of the clade and grouped pinworms infecting lemurs and slow lorises together, phylogenetic reconstruction split them, placing within the clade. Our results suggest that may represent a different taxon altogether, and that it is more closely related to pinworm species infecting Old World primates outside Madagascar. (Foitová et al., 2008) n. comb. is also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2018.11.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299129PMC
April 2019

Description of Enterobius (Colobenterobius) emodensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) collected from Central Himalayan langur, Semnopithecus schistaceus, in Uttarakhand, India.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 5;4514(1):65-76. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Biomedicine / Department of Infectious Disease Control, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan..

A new pinworm species, Enterobius (Colobenterobius) emodensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the Central Himalayan langur, Semnopithecus schistaceus, in Mandal Valley, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand, India, based on mature and immature adults and fourth-stage larvae. This species closely resembles Enterobius (Colobenterobius) zakiri parasitic in Tarai langur, Semnopithecus hector, recorded from Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, India, but is readily distinguished by having a shorter esophagus and a shorter spicule. It is surmised that this pinworm has co-speciated with the host langur. The new species is also characterized in that the posterior 1/3 of the esophageal corpus is much darker. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of partial Cox1 gene of mtDNA suggested a basal position of diversification of Colobenterobius from the Enterobius lineage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.5DOI Listing
November 2018

A case of small bowel obstruction due to infection with Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae).

Parasitol Int 2019 Feb 2;68(1):14-16. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Infectious Disease Control, Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan.

A case of small bowel obstruction caused by Bolbosoma sp. infection is reported. A 27-year-old woman admitted with abdominal pain was diagnosed as small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopic surgery revealed induration in jejunum at ca. 120 cm distal to the ligament of Treiz, attributed to a band connecting the serosa to the ascending mesocolon. Resected band contained an acanthocephalan accompanying foreign body reaction with abscess formation. The parasite belonged to the genus Bolbosoma, of which identification was made by DNA sequence analysis. This is the eighth case of Bolbosoma infection in humans, and the first one causing an ileus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2018.09.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Redescription of Subulura (Murisubulura) andersoni (Cobbold, 1876) (Nematoda: Subuluridae) from Bunomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) of Sulawesi, Indonesia, with special reference to S. (M.) suzukii and other related species in the adjacent areas.

J Vet Med Sci 2018 Nov 15;80(10):1639-1645. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.

Subulura (Murisubulura) andersoni (Cobbold, 1876) (Nematoda: Subuluridae) is redescribed in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy based on materials collected from Bunomys chrysocomus and Bunomys andrewsi (Rodentia: Muridae) of Sulawesi, Indonesia, to provide basic reference data for identification. Comparison was made among congeners from adjacent areas, especially Subulura (Murisubulura) suzukii Yagi and Kamiya, 1981 of Japan. Because morphological differences distinguishing S. (M.) andersoni from S. (M.) suzukii and S. (M.) sipiroki were only the thickness of female tail and length of male tail, respectively, further study using DNA sequence analysis is necessary to prove their distinctness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.18-0163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207507PMC
November 2018

Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and distal radioulnar joint in triangular fibrocartilage complex tears.

J Orthop Sci 2018 Nov 5;23(6):953-958. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Background: We compared the incidence of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) abnormalities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between patients with triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears and subjects without ulnar wrist pain. Additionally, we aimed to identify potential predictors of these MRI lesions.

Methods: The TFCC group comprised 70 consecutive patients with TFCC tears. The control group comprised 70 age- and sex-matched subjects without ulnar wrist pain. We evaluated the presence or absence of fluid collection in the DRUJ and ECU peritendinous area and longitudinal ECU tendon splitting. Dimensions of the fluid collection area around the ECU tendon were measured to evaluate the severity. The incidences of these abnormal MRI findings were compared between the two groups. We analyzed the correlation between the presence of ECU tendon and DRUJ lesions and variables including age, magnitude of ulnar variance, and type of TFCC tear.

Results: Significant differences were found between the two groups in the incidence of fluid collection of the DRUJ and ECU peritendinous area, and longitudinal ECU tendon splitting. Among the 70 patients with TFCC tears, age and the magnitude of ulnar variance were significantly correlated with the severity of fluid collection around the ECU tendon. The magnitude of ulnar variance in patients with DRUJ fluid collection was significantly larger than that in patients without fluid collection. There was a significant correlation between the presence of disc tears and DRUJ fluid collection.

Conclusion: We found a higher incidence of accompanying abnormal MRI findings of the ECU tendon and DRUJ in patients with TFCC tears than in the control group. The presence of disc tears, the magnitude of ulnar variance, and age may be risk factors for these MRI lesions associated with TFCC tears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2018.05.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Rat-Bite Fever in Human with Streptobacillus notomytis Infection, Japan.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 08;24(7):1377-1379

We report a case of rat-bite fever in a 94-year-old woman with Streptobacillus notomytis infection. We established an epidemiologic link between exposure to rats and human infection by performing nested PCRs that detected S. notomytis in the intraoral swab specimens obtained from rats captured in the patient's house.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2407.171580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038742PMC
August 2018

Metabarcoding analysis of strongylid nematode diversity in two sympatric primate species.

Sci Rep 2018 04 12;8(1):5933. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic.

Strongylid nematodes in large terrestrial herbivores such as great apes, equids, elephants, and humans tend to occur in complex communities. However, identification of all species within strongylid communities using traditional methods based on coproscopy or single nematode amplification and sequencing is virtually impossible. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies provide opportunities to generate large amounts of sequence data and enable analyses of samples containing a mixture of DNA from multiple species/genotypes. We designed and tested an HTS approach for strain-level identification of gastrointestinal strongylids using ITS-2 metabarcoding at the MiSeq Illumina platform in samples from two free-ranging non-human primate species inhabiting the same environment, but differing significantly in their host traits and ecology. Although we observed overlapping of particular haplotypes, overall the studied primate species differed in their strongylid nematode community composition. Using HTS, we revealed hidden diversity in the strongylid nematode communities in non-human primates, more than one haplotype was found in more than 90% of samples and coinfections of more than one putative species occurred in 80% of samples. In conclusion, the HTS approach on strongylid nematodes, preferably using fecal samples, represents a time and cost-efficient way of studying strongylid communities and provides a resolution superior to traditional approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24126-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897349PMC
April 2018

Gastrointestinal protists and helminths of habituated agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

Am J Primatol 2018 02 19;80(2). Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology and Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

Infectious diseases including those caused by parasites can be a major threat to the conservation of endangered species. There is thus a great need for studies describing parasite infections of these species in the wild. Here we present data on parasite diversity in an agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) group in Bai Hokou, Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic. We coproscopically analyzed 140 mangabey fecal samples by concentration techniques (flotation and sedimentation). Agile mangabeys hosted a broad diversity of protistan parasites/commensals, namely amoebas (Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba buetschlli), a Buxtonella-like ciliate and several parasitic helminths: strongylid and spirurid nematodes, Primasubulura sp., Enterobius sp., and Trichuris sp. Importantly, some of the detected parasite taxa might be of potential zoonotic importance, such as Entamoeba spp. and the helminths Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., and strongylid nematodes. Detailed morphological examination of ciliate cysts found in mangabeys and comparison with cysts of Balantioides coli from domestic pigs showed no distinguishing structures, although significant differences in cyst size were recorded. Scanning or transmission electron microscopy combined with molecular taxonomy methods are needed to properly identify these ciliates. Further studies using molecular epidemiology are warranted to better understand cross-species transmission and the zoonotic potential of parasites in sympatric non-human primates and humans cohabiting DSPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22736DOI Listing
February 2018

Correction to: Do habituation, host traits and seasonality have an impact on protist and helminth infections of wild western lowland gorillas?

Parasitol Res 2018 01;117(1):345

Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 370 05, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Affiliation of Klára J. Petrželková was incorrectly assigned as 2, 9, 10 in the original version of this article when in fact it should have been 3, 9, 10. Correct affiliations are presented here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5708-3DOI Listing
January 2018

Do habituation, host traits and seasonality have an impact on protist and helminth infections of wild western lowland gorillas?

Parasitol Res 2017 Dec 7;116(12):3401-3410. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, R205A Level 2, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

Increased anthropogenic activity can result in parasite exchanges and/or general changes in parasite communities, imposing a health risk to great apes. We studied protist and helminth parasites of wild western lowland gorilla groups in different levels of habituation, alongside humans inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. Faeces were collected yearly during November and December from 2007 to 2010 and monthly from November 2010 to October 2011. Protist and helminth infections were compared among gorilla groups habituated, under habituation and unhabituated, and the effect of host traits and seasonality was evaluated. Zoonotic potential of parasites found in humans was assessed. No significant differences in clinically important parasites among the groups in different stages of habituation were found, except for Entamoeba spp. However, humans were infected with four taxa which may overlap with taxa found in gorillas. Females were less infected with spirurids, and adults had higher intensities of infection of Mammomonogamus sp. We found seasonal differences in the prevalence of several parasite taxa, but most importantly, the intensity of infection of unidentified strongylids was higher in the dry season. This study highlights that habituation may not necessarily pose a greater risk of protist and helminth infections in gorilla groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5667-8DOI Listing
December 2017

Gastrointestinal parasite infections and self-medication in wild chimpanzees surviving in degraded forest fragments within an agricultural landscape mosaic in Uganda.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(7):e0180431. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan.

Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode). DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II) and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella). To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.). Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than Bulindi. Nevertheless, several disease-causing taxa infecting these chimpanzees are potentially transmissible between apes and humans (e.g. rhabditoid and strongyle nematodes), underscoring the importance of identifying and reducing risks of pathogen exchange in shared landscapes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180431PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5503243PMC
September 2017

Two new species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) collected from endemic murines of Indonesia.

Zootaxa 2017 Apr 12;4254(1):127-135. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Department of Infectious Disease Control, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama, Yufu , Oita 879-5593, Japan..

Two new species of the genus Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) parasitic in the old endemic murids of Indonesia are described: T. musseri sp. nov. from Echiothrix centrosa (Murinae: Rattini) in Sulawesi and T. mallomyos sp. nov. from Mallomys rothschildi (Murinae: Hydromyini) in Papua Indonesia. Both species are characterized by having a gradually tapered and sharply pointed distal end of the spicule, being readily distinguished from most of the congeners known from murid rodents. Trichuris musseri is readily distinguished from T. mallomyos by having a much smaller body and large number of nuclei per subdivision of stichosome. The resemblance in spicule morphology between the two new species is of special interest because both hosts belong to different tribes and have different habitats and habits. It remains to be elucidated whether the resemblance is merely homoplasy or actually reflects close phylogenetic relationship of the parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4254.1.9DOI Listing
April 2017

Molecular features of hookworm larvae (Necator spp.) raised by coproculture from Ugandan chimpanzees and Gabonese gorillas and humans.

Parasitol Int 2017 Apr 10;66(2):12-15. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Section of Social Systems Evolution, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, 41-2, Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan.

Species composition of Necator hookworms was surveyed in (i) Ugandan chimpanzees living around farms and villages at Bulindi, (ii) Gabonese gorillas under habituation in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (MDNP), and (iii) Gabonese villagers living adjacent to MDNP. Internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of mtDNA were analyzed from larvae obtained by coproculture. Three ITS types (I, II and III) and three Cox1 haplotype groups (A, B and C) were demonstrated. ITS type I and Cox1 haplotype group A, representing Necator americanus, were demonstrated in the hookworm larvae from Gabonese gorillas and humans, but not from Ugandan chimpanzees. Type II and haplotype groups B and C, presumably representing N. gorillae, were found in larvae from Ugandan chimpanzees and Gabonese gorillas and humans. These features were overall similar with those found previously in the Central African Republic. Meanwhile, type III was proven in a larva from a Gabonese gorilla as the first demonstration from a non-human primate. Cox1 haplotypes obtained from Ugandan chimpanzees formed a subgroup within group B, presumably reflecting dispersal and diversification processes of the apes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.11.003DOI Listing
April 2017

Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

Parasitol Int 2016 Oct 11;65(5 Pt A):367-70. Epub 2016 May 11.

Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic; Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic; Liberec Zoo, Lidove sady 425/1, 460 01 Liberec, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.05.004DOI Listing
October 2016
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