Publications by authors named "Hidemi Ito"

261 Publications

Circulating immune- and inflammation-related biomarkers and early-stage noncardia gastric cancer risk.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA Division of Cancer Information and Control Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: In Helicobacter pylori-driven gastric cancer, mucosal colonization induces chronic inflammation that may variably progress to cancer. Prospective studies of circulating inflammation-related proteins have suggested weak associations with gastric cancer risk. To assess potential utility as a screening tool in clinical settings, we examined circulating levels of a wide range of key inflammation molecules for associations with early-stage gastric cancer.

Methods: We used pretreatment EDTA plasma from 239 individuals with early-stage noncardia gastric cancer (203 stage I and 36 stage II) and 256 age-frequency-matched H. pylori-seropositive cancer-free controls within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Levels of 92 biomarkers were measured by proximity extension assays using Olink's Proseek Immuno-oncology Panel. Odds ratios (ORs) for association with gastric cancer risk were calculated for quantiles (two to four categories) of each biomarker from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered as significant. The false discovery rate (FDR) was used to correct for multiple comparisons.

Results: Of 83 evaluable biomarkers, lower levels of TNFRSF12A (per quartile OR, 0.82; nominal P-trend = 0.02) and ADGRG1 (per quartile OR, 0.84; nominal P-trend = 0.03) were associated with early-stage gastric cancer but were not statistically significant after FDR correction.

Conclusion: Our study did not identify any inflammation-related biomarkers that may be useful for early disease detection. To date, this is the first assessment of circulating inflammation-related proteins in early-stage gastric cancer. Given the complex inflammation processes preceding malignant transformation, further investigation of other biomarkers is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000706DOI Listing
July 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations of circulating mediators of inflammation, cell regulation and immune response with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histologic subtype of esophageal cancer globally. The development of squamous cell carcinoma has important inflammatory influences and effects. We, therefore, examined circulating levels of inflammation- and immune-related proteins for associations with ESCC.

Methods: We used pre-treatment EDTA plasma from 80 ESCC patients (44% clinical stages I and II) and 80 cancer-free control individuals within the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Levels of 184 biomarkers were measured by high-throughput multiplexed proximity extension assays using Olink's Proseek Cell Regulation and Immuno-Oncology Panels. ESCC odds ratios (OR) per quantile (based on two to four categories) of each biomarker were calculated by unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Correlations among continuous biomarker levels were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation. All statistical tests were two-sided with p values < 0.05 considered as significant. Given the exploratory nature of the study, we did not adjust for multiple comparisons.

Results: Seven proteins were undetectable in nearly all samples. Of the remaining 177 evaluable biomarkers, levels of cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40, per quartile OR 1.64; p trend = 0.018), syntaxin 16 (STX16, per quartile OR 1.63; p trend = 0.008), heme oxygenase 1 (per quartile OR 1.59; p trend = 0.014), and γ-secretase activating protein (GSAP, per quartile OR 1.47; p trend = 0.036) were significantly associated with ESCC. Amongst these significant markers, levels of CD40, STX16, and GSPA were moderately correlated (Rho coefficients 0.46-0.55; p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our case-control study expands the range of inflammation and immune molecules associated with ESCC. These novel findings warrant replication and functional characterization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03687-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Gene-Environment Interactions Relevant to Estrogen and Risk of Breast Cancer: Can Gene-Environment Interactions Be Detected Only among Candidate SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies?

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.2 × 10). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.1 × 10). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156547PMC
May 2021

Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric cancer incidence in the Japanese population: a systematic evidence review.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul;51(7):1158-1170

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In Japan, there are ongoing efforts to shift the gastric cancer prevention and control policy priorities from barium-based screening to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-oriented primary prevention. A comprehensive summary of the evidence regarding the effects of H. pylori eradication on the risk of gastric cancer could inform policy decisions.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies evaluating the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric cancer in otherwise healthy individuals (primary prevention) and early gastric cancer patients (tertiary prevention).

Results: In total, 19 studies were included. Three moderate-quality observational cohort studies showed that H. pylori eradication may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic Japanese people. There is moderate certainty regarding the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in patients with gastrointestinal diseases, such as peptic ulcers. A meta-analysis of 10 observational studies with otherwise healthy individuals (mainly peptic ulcer patients) yielded an overall odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.25-0.46). Regarding tertiary prevention, the overall odds ratio for developing metachronous gastric cancer was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35-0.51) in the eradication group in a meta-analysis of nine studies involving early gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic resection.

Conclusion: H. pylori eradication is effective in preventing gastric cancer in the Japanese population, regardless of symptoms. Well-designed, large cohort studies are warranted to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of H. pylori eradication in the context of reducing the gastric cancer burden through population-based screening and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab055DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of reproductive factors on breast cancer incidence: Pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan.

Cancer Med 2021 03 1;10(6):2153-2163. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957169PMC
March 2021

Assessing the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and kidney function employing mendelian randomization in a Japanese community based J-MICC Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Background: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches.

Methods: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IV and IV, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IV and IV explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively.

Results: Using the IV, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IV, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IV: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IV: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036).

Conclusions: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200540DOI Listing
February 2021

Body mass index and colorectal cancer risk: A Mendelian randomization study.

Cancer Sci 2021 Apr 25;112(4):1579-1588. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019210PMC
April 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Apr 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021

Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in Japan: A pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jun 10;148(11):2736-2747. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33478DOI Listing
June 2021

A genome-wide association study in Japanese identified one variant associated with a preference for a Japanese dietary pattern.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 06 6;75(6):937-945. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Background/objectives: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern.

Subjects/methods: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region.

Results: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity.

Conclusion: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00823-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Association between Socioeconomic Status and Digestive Tract Cancers: A Case-Control Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 4;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan.

Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with cancer risk, little research on this association has been done in Japan. To evaluate the association between SES and digestive tract cancer risk, we conducted a case-control study for head and neck, esophageal, stomach, and colorectal cancers in 3188 cases and the same number of age- and sex-matched controls within the framework of the Hospital-based Epidemiological Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center III (HERPACC III). We employed the education level and areal deprivation index (ADI) as SES indicators. The association was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by conditional logistic models adjusted for potential confounders. Even after allowance for known cancer risk factors, the education level showed linear inverse associations with head and neck, stomach, and colorectal cancers. Compared to those educated to junior high school, those with higher education showed statistically significantly lower risks of cancer (0.43 (95% CI: 0.27-0.68) for head and neck, 0.52 (0.38-0.69) for stomach, and 0.52 (0.38-0.71) for colorectum). Consistent with these results for the educational level, the ADI in quintiles showed positive associations with head and neck, esophageal, and stomach cancers (-trend: = 0.035 for head and neck, = 0.02 for esophagus, and = 0.013 for stomach). Interestingly, the positive association between ADI and stomach cancer risk disappeared in the additional adjustment for infection and/or atrophic gastritis status. In conclusion, a lower SES was associated with an increased risk of digestive cancers in Japan and should be considered in cancer prevention policies for the target population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694284PMC
November 2020

Fine Mapping of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Region and Association of the HLA-B*52:01 Allele With Cervical Cancer in Japanese Women.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2023248. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Statistical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Importance: Understanding the genetic contribution of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region to the risk of cervical cancer (CC) will help understand how immune responses to infection with human papillomaviruses are associated with CC.

Objective: To determine whether the HLA-B*52:01 allele is associated with CC in Japanese women.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a multicenter genetic association study. Genotype and phenotype data were obtained from BioBank Japan Project. Additional patients with CC were enrolled from the Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute. An MHC fine-mapping study was conducted on CC risk in the Japanese population by applying a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation method to the large-scale CC genome-wide association study data of using the Japanese population-specific HLA reference panel. Participants included 540 women in BioBank Japan Project with CC or 39 829 women without gynecologic diseases, malignant neoplasms, and MHC-related diseases as controls. An additional 168 patients with CC were recruited from Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute. Histopathological subtypes and clinical stages were not considered. Participants with low genotype call rate, closely related participants, and outliers in the principal component analysis were excluded. Data analysis was performed from August 2018 to January 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Loci within the MHC region associated with CC risk, and the direction and size of association.

Results: A total of 704 CC cases and 39 556 controls were analyzed. All participants were Japanese women with a median (range) age of 67 (18 to 100) years. One of the class I HLA alleles of HLA-B*52:01 was significantly associated with CC risk (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.38-1.86; P = 7.4 × 10-10). Allele frequency spectra of HLA-B*52:01 are heterogeneous among worldwide populations with high frequency in Japanese populations (0.109 in controls), suggesting its population-specific risk associated with CC. The conditional analysis suggested that HLA-B*52:01 could explain most of the MHC risk associated with CC because no other HLA alleles remained significant after conditioning on the HLA-B*52:01. The HLA amino acid residue-based analysis suggested that HLA-B p.Tyr171His located in the peptide-binding groove was associated with the most significant CC risk (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.30-1.66; P = 1.2 × 10-9).

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study contribute to understanding of the genetic background of CC. The results suggest that immune responses mediated by class I HLA molecules are associated with susceptibility to CC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.23248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596586PMC
October 2020

Association between plasma levels of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B, and dietary folate intake and hypertension in a cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2020 10 28;10(1):18499. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75267-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595187PMC
October 2020

Breast Cancer Polygenic Risk Score and Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 11 5;107(5):837-848. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Pathology, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10 percentile and 20.5% at the 90 percentile of PRS. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675034PMC
November 2020

Study profile of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study.

J Epidemiol 2020 Sep 19. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of International Island and Community Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.

Background: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants.

Methods: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples.

Results: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women.

Conclusions: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200147DOI Listing
September 2020

A genome-wide association study on fish consumption in a Japanese population-the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 03 7;75(3):480-488. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Background/objective: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population.

Methods: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis.

Results: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal.

Conclusion: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00702-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Smoking and colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies in Japan.

Int J Cancer 2021 02 25;148(3):654-664. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33248DOI Listing
February 2021

European polygenic risk score for prediction of breast cancer shows similar performance in Asian women.

Nat Commun 2020 07 31;11(1):3833. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117597, Singapore, Singapore.

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17680-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395776PMC
July 2020

Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies GP2 gene risk variants for pancreatic cancer.

Nat Commun 2020 06 24;11(1):3175. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. To identify risk loci, we perform a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies comprising 2,039 pancreatic cancer patients and 32,592 controls in the Japanese population. Here, we identify 3 (13q12.2, 13q22.1, and 16p12.3) genome-wide significant loci (P < 5.0 × 10), of which 16p12.3 has not been reported in the Western population. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 16p12.3 is rs78193826 (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, P = 4.28 × 10), an Asian-specific, nonsynonymous glycoprotein 2 (GP2) gene variant. Associations between selected GP2 gene variants and pancreatic cancer are replicated in 10,822 additional cases and controls of East Asian origin. Functional analyses using cell lines provide supporting evidence of the effect of rs78193826 on KRAS activity. These findings suggest that GP2 gene variants are probably associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16711-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314803PMC
June 2020

Cumulative cigarette tar exposure and lung cancer risk among Japanese smokers.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 Sep;50(9):1009-1017

Department of Island and Community Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Objective: Tar concentration in cigarette brands is chronologically decreasing in the USA and Japan. However, studies investigating lung cancer risk with cumulative tar exposure in Western and Asian countries are insufficient. To investigate the risk of lung cancer with cumulative cigarette tar exposure, we conducted a case-control study among Japanese current smokers.

Methods: This study used data from the US-Japan lung cancer joint study in 1993-1998. A total of 282 subjects with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 162 hospital and 227 community controls were included in the study, and two control groups were combined. The information regarding tar concentration was obtained from the published documents and additional estimation using the equation of regression. Cumulative tar concentration was calculated by multiplying the annual value of brand-specific tar concentration by years of smoking. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer with cumulative tar exposure were estimated using a logistic model.

Results: The odds ratios for lung cancer with both lower (1-59.8 × 105 mg) and higher (>59.8 × 105 mg) total cumulative tar exposure were statistically significant (3.81, 2.23-6.50 and 11.64, 6.56-20.67, respectively) with increasing trend (P < 0.001). The stratification analysis showed higher odds ratios in subjects with higher cumulative tar exposure regardless of inhalation, duration of smoking filtered cigarettes and histological type.

Conclusions: This study showed that cumulative tar exposure is a dose-dependent indicator for lung cancer risk, and low-tar exposure was still associated with increased cancer risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa083DOI Listing
September 2020

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Quantifying the association of low-intensity and late initiation of tobacco smoking with total and cause-specific mortality in Asia.

Tob Control 2021 05 16;30(3):328-335. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Epidemiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Background: Little is known about the health harms associated with low-intensity smoking in Asians who, on average, smoke fewer cigarettes and start smoking at a later age than their Western counterparts.

Methods: In this pooled analysis of 738 013 Asians from 16 prospective cohorts, we quantified the associations of low-intensity (<5 cigarettes/day) and late initiation (≥35 years) of smoking with mortality outcomes. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression. Cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

Findings: During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, 92 068 deaths were ascertained. Compared with never smokers, current smokers who consumed <5 cigarettes/day or started smoking after age 35 years had a 16%-41% increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease mortality and a >twofold risk of lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, current smokers who started smoking after age 35 and smoked <5 cigarettes/day had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (HRs (95% CIs)=1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)), CVD (1.27 (1.08 to 1.49)) and respiratory disease (1.54 (1.17 to 2.01)) mortality. Even smokers who smoked <5 cigarettes/day but quit smoking before the age of 45 years had a 16% elevated risk of all-cause mortality; however, the risk declined further with increasing duration of abstinence.

Conclusions: Our study showed that smokers who smoked a small number of cigarettes or started smoking later in life also experienced significantly elevated all-cause and major cause-specific mortality but benefited from cessation. There is no safe way to smoke-not smoking is always the best choice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055412DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel sensitive detection method for DNA methylation in circulating free DNA of pancreatic cancer.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(6):e0233782. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Cancer Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Despite recent advances in clinical treatment, pancreatic cancer remains a highly lethal malignancy. In order to improve the survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer, the development of non-invasive diagnostic methods using effective biomarkers is urgently needed. Here, we developed a highly sensitive method to detect DNA methylation in cell-free (cf)DNA samples based on the enrichment of methyl-CpG binding (MBD) protein coupled with a digital PCR method (MBD-ddPCR). Five DNA methylation markers for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer were identified through DNA methylation microarray analysis in 37 pancreatic cancers. The sensitivity and specificity of the five markers were validated in another independent cohort of pancreatic cancers (100% and 100%, respectively; n = 46) as well as in The Cancer Genome Atlas data set (96% and 90%, respectively; n = 137). MBD-ddPCR analysis revealed that DNA methylation in at least one of the five markers was detected in 23 (49%) samples of cfDNA from 47 patients with pancreatic cancer. Further, a combination of DNA methylation markers and the KRAS mutation status improved the diagnostic capability of this method (sensitivity and specificity, 68% and 86%, respectively). Genome-wide MBD-sequencing analysis in cancer tissues and corresponding cfDNA revealed that more than 80% of methylated regions were overlapping; DNA methylation profiles of cancerous tissues and cfDNA significantly correlated with each other (R = 0.97). Our data indicate that newly developed MBD-ddPCR is a sensitive method to detect cfDNA methylation and that using five marker genes plus KRAS mutations may be useful for the detection of pancreatic cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233782PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286528PMC
August 2020

Large-scale genome-wide association study in a Japanese population identifies novel susceptibility loci across different diseases.

Nat Genet 2020 07 8;52(7):669-679. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The overwhelming majority of participants in current genetic studies are of European ancestry. To elucidate disease biology in the East Asian population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 212,453 Japanese individuals across 42 diseases. We detected 320 independent signals in 276 loci for 27 diseases, with 25 novel loci (P < 9.58 × 10). East Asian-specific missense variants were identified as candidate causal variants for three novel loci, and we successfully replicated two of them by analyzing independent Japanese cohorts; p.R220W of ATG16L2 (associated with coronary artery disease) and p.V326A of POT1 (associated with lung cancer). We further investigated enrichment of heritability within 2,868 annotations of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy, and identified 378 significant enrichments across nine diseases (false discovery rate < 0.05) (for example, NKX3-1 for prostate cancer). This large-scale GWAS in a Japanese population provides insights into the etiology of complex diseases and highlights the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0640-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968075PMC
July 2020

Changing trend in mortality rate of multiple myeloma after introduction of novel agents: A population-based study.

Int J Cancer 2020 12 6;147(11):3102-3109. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Previously, the main treatment for multiple myeloma (MM) was cytotoxic chemotherapies, including autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), but survival benefit in the elderly was limited. More recently, clinical trials and practical experience with novel agents with superior efficacy have shown improved survival, including in the elderly. However, this improvement cannot be simply interpreted as a decline in mortality rate that is an important public health measure of progress against cancer. Here, we assessed the trends in mortality rates of MM in parallel with incidence rates in Japan and the U.S. We used national mortality data and population-based cancer registry data in both countries from 1995 to 2015, during which 74 972 patients in Japan and 229 290 patients in the U.S. died of MM. Trends in mortality and incidence rates were characterized using joinpoint regression analysis. Despite upward trends in incidence, mortality rates showed a significant decrement after 2005 in Japan, with an annual percent change [APC (95% confidence interval)] of -2.5% (-2.9% to -2.1%), and after 2002 in the U.S., with an APC of -2.0% (-2.6% to -1.5%). In both countries, the change in mortality trend coincided with the introduction of the novel agents. Moreover, improvements in mortality were particularly large in patients aged 70 to 79 years, who cannot receive ASCT. Our results indicate that the benefits of novel agents for MM are appreciable at the population level and may encourage further development of novel agents for malignancies that can be widely applied to the patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33135DOI Listing
December 2020

Differential Effect of Polymorphisms on Body Mass Index Across the Life Course of Japanese: The Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 7;31(3):172-179. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Background: Obesity is a reported risk factor for various health problems. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous independent loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, most of these have been focused on Europeans, and little evidence is available on the genetic effects across the life course of other ethnicities.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of 282 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with three BMI-related traits, current BMI, BMI at 20 years old (BMI at 20), and change in BMI (BMI change), among 11,586 Japanese individuals enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression models.

Results: We found a significant association (P < 0.05/282 = 1.77 × 10) between BMI and 11 polymorphisms in or near FTO, BDNF, TMEM18, HS6ST3, and BORCS7. The trend was similar between current BMI and BMI change, but differed from that of the BMI at 20. Among the significant variants, those on FTO were associated with all BMI traits, whereas those on TMEM18 and HS6SR3 were only associated with BMI at 20. The association of FTO loci with BMI remained, even after additional adjustment for dietary energy intake.

Conclusions: Previously reported BMI-associated loci discovered in Europeans were also identified in the Japanese population. Additionally, our results suggest that the effects of each loci on BMI may vary across the life course and that this variation may be caused by the differential effects of individual genes on BMI via different pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20190296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878711PMC
March 2021

Identification of novel breast cancer susceptibility loci in meta-analyses conducted among Asian and European descendants.

Nat Commun 2020 03 5;11(1):1217. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Departments of Health Research and Policy, School of Medicine, Stanford University, California, CA, USA.

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15046-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057957PMC
March 2020

The establishment of the Household Air Pollution Consortium (HAPCO).

Atmosphere (Basel) 2019 Jul 23;10(7). Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute; Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Household air pollution (HAP) is of public health concern with ~3 billion people worldwide (including >15 million in the US) exposed. HAP from coal use is a human lung carcinogen, yet the epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity of HAP from biomass use, primarily wood, is not conclusive. To robustly assess biomass's carcinogenic potential, prospective studies of individuals experiencing a variety of HAP exposures are needed. We have built a global consortium of 13 prospective cohorts (HAPCO: Household Air Pollution Consortium) that have site- and disease-specific mortality and solid fuel use data, for a combined sample size of 587,257 participants and 57,483 deaths. HAPCO provides a novel opportunity to assess the association of HAP with lung cancer death while controlling for important confounders such as tobacco and outdoor air pollution exposures. HAPCO is also uniquely positioned to determine the risks associated with cancers other than lung as well as non-malignant respiratory and cardiometabolic outcomes, for which prospective epidemiologic research is limited. HAPCO will facilitate research to address public health concerns associated with HAP-attributed exposures by enabling investigators to evaluate sex-specific and smoking status-specific effects under various exposure scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7021252PMC
July 2019

Across-Site Differences in the Mechanism of Alcohol-Induced Digestive Tract Carcinogenesis: An Evaluation by Mediation Analysis.

Cancer Res 2020 04 31;80(7):1601-1610. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

A genetic variant on ( rs671, Glu504Lys) contributes to carcinogenesis after alcohol consumption. Somewhat conversely, the Lys allele also confers a protective effect against alcohol-induced carcinogenesis by decreasing alcohol consumption due to acetaldehyde-related adverse effects. Here, we applied a mediation analysis to five case-control studies for head and neck, esophageal, stomach, small intestine, and colorectal cancers, with 4,099 cases and 6,065 controls, and explored the potentially heterogeneous impact of alcohol drinking on digestive tract carcinogenesis by decomposing the total effect of the Lys allele on digestive tract cancer risk into the two opposing effects of the carcinogenic effect (direct effect) and the protective effect (indirect effect mediated by drinking behavior). Alcohol was associated with an increased risk of most digestive tract cancers, but significant direct effects were observed only for upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk, and varied substantially by site, with ORs (95% confidence interval) of 1.83 (1.43-2.36) for head and neck cancer, 21.15 (9.11-49.12) for esophageal cancer, and 1.65 (1.38-1.96) for stomach cancer. In contrast, a significant protective indirect effect was observed on risk for all cancers, except small intestine cancer. These findings suggest that alcohol is a major risk factor for digestive tract cancers, but its impact as a surrogate for acetaldehyde exposure appears heterogeneous by site. Meanwhile, the behavior-related effect of the Lys allele results in a decreased risk of most digestive tract cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support that genetic alcohol avoidance is a factor against alcohol-induced cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2685DOI Listing
April 2020