Publications by authors named "Hideki Mori"

259 Publications

Genetic Dissection of Growth and Eco-Physiological Traits Associated with Altitudinal Adaptation in Sakhalin Fir () Based on QTL Mapping.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Jul 22;12(8). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Biometry and Bioinformatics, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

(1) Background: The genetic basis of local adaptation in conifers remains poorly understood because of limited research evidence and the lack of suitable genetic materials. Sakhalin fir () is an ideal organism for elucidating the genetic basis of local adaptation because its altitudinal adaptation has been demonstrated, and suitable materials for its linkage mapping are available. (2) Method: We constructed P336 and P236 linkage maps based on 486 and 516 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, that were derived from double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequences. We measured the growth and eco-physiological traits associated with morphology, phenology, and photosynthesis, which are considered important drivers of altitudinal adaptation. (3) Results: The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for growth traits, phenology, needle morphology, and photosynthetic traits were subsequently detected. Similar to previous studies on conifers, most traits were controlled by multiple QTLs with small or moderate effects. Notably, we detected that one QTL for the crown area might be a type-A response regulator, a nuclear protein responsible for the cytokinin-induced shoot elongation. (4) Conclusion: The QTLs detected in this study include potentially important genomic regions linked to altitudinal adaptation in Sakhalin fir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12081110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392833PMC
July 2021

AENET-LAMMPS and AENET-TINKER: Interfaces for accurate and efficient molecular dynamics simulations with machine learning potentials.

J Chem Phys 2021 Aug;155(7):074801

Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

Machine-learning potentials (MLPs) trained on data from quantum-mechanics based first-principles methods can approach the accuracy of the reference method at a fraction of the computational cost. To facilitate efficient MLP-based molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, an integration of the MLPs with sampling software is needed. Here, we develop two interfaces that link the atomic energy network (ænet) MLP package with the popular sampling packages TINKER and LAMMPS. The three packages, ænet, TINKER, and LAMMPS, are free and open-source software that enable, in combination, accurate simulations of large and complex systems with low computational cost that scales linearly with the number of atoms. Scaling tests show that the parallel efficiency of the ænet-TINKER interface is nearly optimal but is limited to shared-memory systems. The ænet-LAMMPS interface achieves excellent parallel efficiency on highly parallel distributed-memory systems and benefits from the highly optimized neighbor list implemented in LAMMPS. We demonstrate the utility of the two MLP interfaces for two relevant example applications: the investigation of diffusion phenomena in liquid water and the equilibration of nanostructured amorphous battery materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0063880DOI Listing
August 2021

The Role of Gasotransmitters in Gut Peptide Actions.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:720703. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Departement of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Although gasotransmitters nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) receive a bad connotation; in low concentrations these play a major governing role in local and systemic blood flow, stomach acid release, smooth muscles relaxations, anti-inflammatory behavior, protective effect and more. Many of these physiological processes are upstream regulated by gut peptides, for instance gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, motilin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2. The relationship between gasotransmitters and gut hormones is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the role of NO, CO and HS on gut peptide release and functioning, and whether manipulation by gasotransmitter substrates or specific blockers leads to physiological alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.720703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329365PMC
July 2021

The effect of an air purifier on aerosol generation measurements during clinical motility testing.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Aug 2:e14227. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Aerosol spread is key to interpret the risk of viral contamination during clinical procedures such as esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Installing an air purifier seems a legitimate strategy, but this has recently been questioned.

Methods: Patients undergoing an HRM procedure at the Leuven University Hospital were included in this clinical study. All subjects had to wear a surgical mask which was only lowered beneath the nose during the placement and removal of the nasogastric catheter. The number of aerosol particles was measured by a Lasair II Particle Counter to obtain data about different particles sizes: 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0; 5.0; and 10.0 µm. Measurements were done immediately before the placement and the removal of the HRM catheter, and one and 5 min after. A portable air purifier with high-efficiency particle air filters was installed in the hospital room.

Key Results: Thirteen patients underwent a manometry examination. The amount of 0.3 µm-sized particles was unaffected during the whole procedure. The larger particle sizes (1.0; 3.0; 5.0; and 10.0 µm) decreased when the catheter was positioned, but not 0.5 µm. During the HRM measurements itself, these numbers decreased further. Yet, 1 min after catheter removal a significant elevation of particles was seen, which did not recover within 5 min.

Conclusions & Interferences: Based on this study, there is no evidence that filtration systems reduce aerosol particles properly during a clinical investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420584PMC
August 2021

Clinico-epidemiological analysis of 1000 cases of orbital tumors.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 27;65(5):704-723. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

Purpose: To clarify the incidence, demography and clinical features of orbital tumors diagnosed in a single institute in Japan.

Study Design: Retrospective, observational case series.

Methods: Patients with primary orbital tumors including tumor-like lesions diagnosed clinically or histopathologically at Tokyo Medical University Hospital between 1995 and 2019 were analyzed. Incidence of all orbital tumors, demographic profile and clinical features of major benign and malignant tumors were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: Totally 1000 cases of primary orbital tumor were diagnosed clinically or histopathologically during the study period. Benign tumors accounted for 72% and malignant tumors 28%. 55% of benign tumors and 99% of malignant tumors were proven histopathologically. The most common benign orbital tumor was idiopathic orbital inflammation (27%), followed by IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (17%), cavernous venous malformation (13%) and pleomorphic adenoma (9%). The most common malignant tumor was lymphoma (70%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (7%) and solitary fibrous tumor (5%).

Conclusions: Epidemiology of orbital tumors has changed by the improvement of imaging techniques, establishment of novel clinical and histopathological criteria, and changes in population age structure associated with the aging society. Currently, lymphoproliferative diseases including lymphoma and IgG4-related ophthalmic diseases form the major orbital tumors in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-021-00857-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Nuclear IL-33 Plays an Important Role in IL-31‒Mediated Downregulation of FLG, Keratin 1, and Keratin 10 by Regulating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Activation in Human Keratinocytes.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime University, Ehime, Japan.

IL-33, a chromatin-associated multifunctional cytokine, is implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disorder characterized by skin barrier dysfunction. IL-33 accumulates in the nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) in AD lesions. However, it is unclear whether nuclear IL-33 directly contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. IL-31, a pruritogenic cytokine primarily produced by T helper type 2 cells, is elevated in AD lesions and promotes AD development by suppressing KC differentiation and inducing itching. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nuclear IL-33 in IL-31‒mediated suppression of KC differentiation. In monolayer cultures and living skin equivalent, IL-31 increased the expression of full-length IL-33 and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the nuclei of human KCs, which in turn downregulated the expression of differentiation markers. We found that IL-31 and IL-4/IL-13 use very similar mechanisms to inhibit KC differentiation: nuclear IL-33 combines with phosphorylated STAT3 and functions as a STAT3 transcription cofactor, promoting phosphorylated STAT3 binding to the FLG promoter to inhibit its transcription; moreover, the nuclear IL-33/phosphorylated STAT3 complex drives the downregulation of keratin 1 and keratin 10 by reducing the availability of the transcription factor RunX1. Therefore, nuclear IL-33 plays an important role in IL-31‒mediated differentiation suppression by regulating STAT3 activation in human KCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2021.05.033DOI Listing
July 2021

The gastrointestinal tract in hunger and satiety signalling.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 Jul 21;9(6):727-734. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Different peripheral pathways are implicated in the regulation of the food ingestion-digestion cycle.

Methods: Narrative review on gastrointestinal mechanisms involved in satiety and hunger signalling.

Results: Combined mechano- and chemoreceptors, peripherally released peptide hormones and neural pathways provide feedback to the brain to determine sensations of hunger (increase energy intake) or satiation (cessation of energy intake) and regulate the human metabolism. The gastric accommodation reflex, which consists of a transient relaxation of the proximal stomach during food intake, has been identified as a major determinant of meal volume, through activation of tension-sensitive gastric mechanoreceptors. Motilin, whose release is the trigger of gastric Phase 3, has been identified as the major determinant of return of hunger after a meal. In addition, the release of several peptide hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin as well as motilin and ghrelin contributes to gut-brain signalling with relevance to control of hunger and satiety. A number of nutrients, such as bitter tastants, as well as pharmacological agents, such as endocannabinoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 analogues act on these pathways to influence hunger, satiation and food intake.

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal mechanisms such as gastric accommodation and motilin release are key determinants of satiety and hunger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ueg2.12097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280794PMC
July 2021

Lichen planus pemphigoides with antibodies against the BP180 C-terminal domain induced by pembrolizumab in a melanoma patient.

J Dermatol 2021 Sep 5;48(9):e449-e451. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.16006DOI Listing
September 2021

Factors Influencing Somatic Embryo Maturation in Sugi (Japanese Cedar, (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 8050, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

This paper presents the results of several experiments identifying basal salts (BS) contained in maturation medium, polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, additional supplementation with potassium chloride (KCl), amino acid (AA) concentration, and proliferation culture medium (PCM) as the main culture factors affecting somatic embryo maturation in sugi (Japanese cedar, Cupressaceae). Highly efficient embryo maturation was achieved when embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) were cultured on media supplemented with a combination of PEG, ABA, and AAs. More than 1000 embryos per gram of fresh weight (FW) can be produced on EM maturation medium supplemented with 175 g L PEG, 100 µM ABA, 2 g L glutamine, 1 g L asparagine, and 0.5 g L arginine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10050874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145757PMC
April 2021

Nuclear IL-33 Plays an Important Role in the Suppression of FLG, LOR, Keratin 1, and Keratin 10 by IL-4 and IL-13 in Human Keratinocytes.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.

IL-33 is a chromatin-associated multifunctional cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disorder characterized by skin barrier dysfunction. The previous reports show that IL-33 is highly detected in the nucleus of epidermal keratinocytes in AD lesions compared with that in unaffected or normal skin. However, it is unclear whether intracellular IL-33 directly contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. T helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 that are elevated in AD lesions suppress keratinocyte differentiation to impair skin barrier function. We investigated whether intracellular IL-33 is involved in IL-4 and IL-13 function. In monolayer culture and living skin equivalent analyses, IL-4 and IL-13 increased the expression of full-length IL-33 in the nucleus of keratinocytes by activating the MAPK/extracellular signal‒regulated kinase kinase/extracellular signal‒regulated kinase signaling pathway, which is necessary for the inhibition of differentiation markers FLG, LOR, keratin 1, and keratin 10. The nuclear IL-33 functions as a transcription cofactor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, increasing the binding of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 to FLG promoter, thereby inhibiting its transcription, and it inhibits the expression of transcription factor RUNX1 by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, thereby downregulating LOR, keratin 1, and keratin 10. Thus, the elevated nuclear IL-33 in the epidermis of AD lesions may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD by inhibiting keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Somatic Embryogenesis Initiation in Sugi (Japanese Cedar, D. Don): Responses from Male-Fertile, Male-Sterile, and Polycross-Pollinated-Derived Seed Explants.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 8050, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

This study aimed to obtain information from several embryogenic cell (EC) genotypes analyzing the factors that affect somatic embryogenesis (SE) initiation in sugi ( Cupressaceae) to apply them in the improvement of protocols for efficient induction of embryogenic cell lines (ECLs). The results of several years of experiments including studies on the influence of initial explant, seed collection time, and explant genotype as the main factors affecting SE initiation from male-fertile, male-sterile, and polycross-pollinated-derived seeds are described. Initiation frequencies depending on the plant genotype varied from 1.35 to 57.06%. The best induction efficiency was achieved when seeds were collected on mid-July using the entire megagametophyte as initial explants. The extrusion of ECs started approximately after 2 weeks of culture, and the establishment of ECLs was observed mostly 4 weeks after extrusion on media with or without plant growth regulators (PGRs). Subsequently, induced ECLs were maintained and proliferated on media with PGRs by 2-3-week-interval subculture routines. Although, the initial explant, collection time, and culture condition played important roles in ECL induction, the genotype of the plant material of sugi was the most influential factor in SE initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922571PMC
February 2021

Magnesium Oxide in Constipation.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 28;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan.

Magnesium oxide has been widely used as a laxative for many years in East Asia, yet its prescription has largely been based on empirical knowledge. In recent years, several new laxatives have been developed, which has led to a resurgence in interest and increased scientific evidence surrounding the use of magnesium oxide, which is convenient to administer, of low cost, and safe. Despite these advantages, emerging clinical evidence indicates that the use of magnesium oxide should take account of the most appropriate dose, the serum concentration, drug-drug interactions, and the potential for side effects, especially in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence base for the clinical use of magnesium oxide for treating constipation and provide a pragmatic guide to its advantages and disadvantages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911806PMC
January 2021

Nylon mesh-based 3D scaffolds for the adherent culture of neural stem/progenitor cells.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Apr 16;131(4):442-452. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570, Japan. Electronic address:

We developed novel scaffolds for the adherent culture of neural stem/progenitor cells on the woven mesh. Nylon mesh (NM) is an inert material for cell adhesion. We prepared polyacrylic acid-grafted nylon mesh (PAA-NM) by graft polymerization method using gamma-irradiation. Matrigel was covalently immobilized to the carboxyl groups in PAA-NM by chemical conjugation using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to prepare the Matrigel-immobilized PAA-grafted nylon mesh (M-PAA-NM). Cell adhesion property of mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) between the NM, PAA-NM, and M-PAA-NM was different from each other. The neurosphere-like clusters of NSPCs were weakly bound to NM and PAA-NM without spreading. The NSPCs were firmly adhered to, spread, and covered the surface of M-PAA-NM. We evaluated the state of differentiation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immnocytochemistry. A neuronal marker β III tubulin, a glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and a mature glial marker S100β were expressed at a low level in the cultured cells while immature NSPCs marker Nestin and Sox2 were slightly lower without significant statistical difference. We concluded that the M-PAA-NM is a good substrate for adherent culture of NSPCs without triggering their cell differentiation, and also provides the maintenance of their growth with fewer passages in comparison with the conventional suspension culture of NSPCs in neurospheres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.12.003DOI Listing
April 2021

High-quality Fluorescence Imaging of the Human Acrosyringium Using a Transparency: Enhancing Technique and an Improved, Fluorescent Solvatochromic Pyrene Probe.

Acta Histochem Cytochem 2020 Dec 21;53(6):131-138. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.

Two-photon, excitation fluorescent microscopy featuring autofluorescence or immunofluorescence, combined with optical clearance using a transparency-enhancing technique, allows deep imaging of three-dimensional (3D) skin structures. However, it remains difficult to obtain high-quality images of individual cells or 3D structures. We combined a new dye with a transparency-enhancing technology and performed high-quality structural analysis of human epidermal structures, especially the acrosyringium. Human fingertip skin samples were collected, formalin-fixed, embedded in both frozen and paraffin blocks, sliced, stained with propidium iodide, optically cleared using a transparency-enhancing technique, and stained with a new fluorescent, solvatochromic pyrene probe. Microscopy revealed fine skin features and detailed epidermal structures including the stratum corneum (horny layer), keratinocytes, eccrine sweat glands, and peripheral nerves. Three-dimensional reconstruction of an entire acrosyringium was possible in one sample. This new fluorescence microscopy technique yields high-quality epidermal images and will aid in histopathological analyses of skin disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1267/ahc.20-00020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785460PMC
December 2020

Aerosol generation and droplet spread during nasogastric intubation in the COVID-19 era.

Gut 2021 10 31;70(10):2017-2019. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of Chronic Diseases and Metabolism (ChroMeta), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323836DOI Listing
October 2021

Predictors of prolonged mechanical ventilation identified at an emergency visit for elderly people: A retrospective cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(49):e23472

Department of General Internal Medicine.

The aim of this study was to determine the factors that are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation in elderly patients.Retrospective cohort studySingle tertiary hospital in JapanWe retrospectively identified 228 patients aged 75 years or older who were admitted to a single tertiary care center in Japan between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2017 because of endogenous diseases and underwent mechanical ventilation.The primary outcome was extubation difficulty, which was defined as the need for mechanical ventilation for more than 14 days after intubation, reintubation within 72 hours after extubation, tracheotomy or extubation, or death within 14 days after intubation.A multivariate analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-1.38; P = .80), gender (OR = 0.56; 95%CI = 0.27-1.17; P = .13), body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.05; 95%CI = 0.98-1.14; P = .16), smoking history (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.29-1.41; P = .27), Activities of daily living (ADL) (OR = 0.95; 95%CI = 0.49-1.83; P = .87), and modified acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR = 1.02; 95%CI = 0.95-1.09; P = .61) were not statistically significantly different. However, there were statistically significant differences in extubation difficulty between patients with diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.3; 95%CI = 1.01-5.12; P = .04) and those with cardiovascular disease diagnosis on admission (OR = 0.31; 95%CI = 0.1-0.97; P = .04).Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease diagnosis on admission were factors that were associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation in the elderly. The results of this study may help to support shared decision making with patients or surrogate decision makers at the start of intensive care in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717806PMC
December 2020

Single-capsule bismuth quadruple therapy: preferable at the moment, but what should be next?

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 02 12;9(1):7-8. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Diseases (TARGID), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620975357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262618PMC
February 2021

Exploration of the characteristics of chronotypes in upper gastrointestinal tract diseases: a multicenter study in Japan.

Chronobiol Int 2021 04 15;38(4):534-542. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Japan.

Characteristics of the chronotypes of patients with gastrointestinal disease are unknown. We evaluated chronotypes of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ). A total of 2027 subjects from 29 institutions in Japan who had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy were asked to answer the MCTQ. The subjects' chronotypes were divided into three groups (early, intermediate, and late chronotype) using the sleep-corrected mid-point of sleep on free days (MSF) values. According to their endoscopic diagnosis and abdominal symptoms, the subjects were divided into the reflux esophagitis (RE) group, gastroduodenal ulcer (GDU) group, upper gastrointestinal carcinoma (CA) group, functional dyspepsia (FD) group, non-FD group, and control group. In total, 1128 subjects were eligible for the analysis. The MSF (average ± standard deviation, clock hours, h) of each disease group was as follows: control group: 02.51 ± 1.22, non-FD group: 02.69 ± 1.14, FD group: 02.91 ± 1.19, RE group: 02.58 ± 1.05, GDU group: 02.47 ± 1.31, and CA group: 02.11 ± 1.08 h. Compared to the control group, the rate of late chronotype of the FD group significantly increased to 33.3%, whereas that of early chronotype of the CA group significantly increased to 38.3% ( = .0177 and 0.0036, respectively). In both the FD and CA groups, chronotype was the independent factor related to the diseases. The adjusted odds ratio of late chronotype to early chronotype was 3.01 [95% CI, 1.23-7.35] in the FD group and 0.44 [95% CI, 0.23-0.85] in the CA group. In conclusion, late chronotype was common in patients with FD, and early chronotype was common in patients with upper gastrointestinal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2020.1830791DOI Listing
April 2021

Statements for conducting high-resolution manometry during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2020 Sep 22;67(2):114-115. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

To ensure the safety of medical personnel is important during the new coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Although high-resolution manometry (HRM) is an essential device for diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders, it contains risks of droplet infection, contact infection and aerosol-borne infection. Screening tests such as PCR, serology test to detect COVID-19 antibodies, and CT scan should be considered as well as body temperature check and anamnestic risk assessment. Moreover, the provision of protective equipment such as a mask with face shield (or goggles + mask), gloves, cap or hairnet, and a long-sleeved gown would be necessary to reduce the risk of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.20-97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533864PMC
September 2020

The Impact of COVID-19 on Gastrointestinal Motility Testing in Asia and Europe.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 1;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan.

Background: The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has high infection and mortality rates, and has become a pandemic. The infection and mortality rates are lower in Asian countries than in European countries. This study aimed to conduct a survey on the effects of COVID-19 on the capacity to perform gastrointestinal motility tests in Asian countries compared with European countries.

Methods: We used the questionnaire previously established by our team for researchers in European countries. The correlation between the decreased rate of gastrointestinal motility and function tests, and the infection/mortality rates of COVID-19 and stringency of a government's interventions in each country was analysed and protective measures were assessed.

Results: In total, 58 gastroenterologists/motility experts in Asian countries responded to this survey. The infection/mortality rates of COVID-19 and Stringency Index had a significant impact on the testing capacity of oesophageal manometry and catheter-based pH monitoring. In European countries, most facilities used filtering facepiece 2/3 (FFP2/3) masks during oesophageal motility studies. Meanwhile, in Asian countries, most facilities used surgical masks.

Conclusion: The total infection and mortality rates of COVID-19 can affect the rate of gastrointestinal motility testing and the type of protective equipment that must be used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600249PMC
October 2020

Endosonographic finding of the simultaneous depiction of bile and pancreatic ducts can predict difficult biliary cannulation on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235757. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Prevention and Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan.

Thus far, no curved linear array endoscopic ultrasound (CLAEUS) findings were established as predictors of difficult selective bile duct cannulation (SBDC). This study aimed to identify CLAEUS findings to predict endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cases with difficult SBDC. This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted between July 2014 and June 2017. This study included all consecutive patients who underwent CLAEUS prior to naïve ERCP. A CLAEUS finding of the simultaneous depiction of bile and pancreatic ducts at the second portion of the duodenum (D2) (simultaneous depiction) was selected as a possible predictor of difficult SBDC, and the κ values in the evaluation of inter- and intra-observer variabilities for "simultaneous depiction" were 0.65 and 0.77, respectively, with substantial correlation. Among the 986 patients who underwent ERCP, 80 patients were relevant for evaluation. Logistic regression analysis revealed strong association between "simultaneous depiction" and difficult SBDC (odds ratio 15.4, 95% confidence interval 4.2-56.0; p<0.001). Among patients who underwent CLAEUS prior to naïve ERCP, a strong correlation was observed between "simultaneous depiction" and the risk of difficult SBDC. An endoscopist can prepare for difficult SBDC by "simultaneous depiction." The finding enables pertinent planning when performing ERCP, such as setting time limits and selecting alternative devices, techniques, and skilled endoscopists, for difficult SBDC with minimal complications including post-ERCP pancreatitis. However, a future prospective study is necessary to establish the procedure algorithm for suspected difficult SBDC cases based on CLAEUS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235757PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347092PMC
September 2020

A survey on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on motility and functional investigations in Europe and considerations for recommencing activities in the early recovery phase.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 07;32(7):e13926

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, declared by WHO on March 13, 2020, had a major global impact on the healthcare system and services. In the acute phase, the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the aerodigestive tract limited activities in the gastroenterology clinic and procedures to emergencies only. Motility and function testing was interrupted and as we enter the recovery phase, restarting these procedures requires a safety-focused approach with adequate infection prevention for patients and healthcare professionals.

Methods: We summarized knowledge on the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the aerodigestive tract and the risk of spread with motility and functional testing. We surveyed 39 European centers documenting how the pandemic affected activities and which measures they are considering for restarting these measurements. We propose recommendations based on current knowledge as applied in our center.

Results: Positioning of catheters for gastrointestinal motility tests carries a concern for aerosol-borne infection of healthcare workers. The risk is low with breath tests. The surveyed centers stopped almost all motility and function tests from the second half of March. The speed of restarting and the safety measures taken varied highly.

Conclusions And Inferences: Based on these findings, we provided recommendations and practical relevant information for motility and function test procedures in the COVID-19 pandemic era, to guarantee a high-quality patient care with adequate infection prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300498PMC
July 2020

Association between contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and contrast enhanced computed tomography followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Aug 19;129:109074. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Clinical Research and Quality Management, Center of Clinical Research and Quality Management, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine if endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed within 72 h after contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) increases contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) risk in patients with abdominal complaints.

Method: This single-center retrospective cohort study included consecutive adult patients with abdominal complaints who underwent CECT between October 1, 2016, and June 30, 2019 at an emergency department (ED). CIN was diagnosed based on serum creatinine (SCr) level >0.5 mg/dL within 72 h after CECT or that increased >25 % compared to pre-CECT level. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for CIN, including age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, medication, pre-CECT SCr level >1.5 mg/dL, and ERCP performed within 72 h after CECT. For persistent CIN, SCr level was obtained after 3 months at the earliest and compared to data obtained within 72 h after ERCP and CECT.

Results: Of 1457 patients with CECT, 90 (6.2 %) underwent ERCP within 72 h after CECT and 93 (6.4 %) developed CIN. Multivariate analysis revealed that ERCP performed within 72 h after CECT (odds ratio, 3.31; 95 % confidence interval, 1.74, 6.29; p < 0.001) and pre-CECT SCr level >1.5 mg/dL (odds ratio, 9.86; 95 % confidence interval, 5.08, 19.2; p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for CIN. Of 93 patients with CIN, 10 (11 %) had persistent CIN. No specific factors were correlated with persistent CIN in the 3-month time frame.

Conclusion: ERCP performed within 72 h after CECT and pre-CECT SCr level >1.5 mg/dL are associated with CIN development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109074DOI Listing
August 2020

UV irradiation of Type I collagen gels changed the morphology of the interconnected brain capillary endothelial cells on them.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Jul 30;112:110907. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570, Japan. Electronic address:

We cultured mouse brain capillary endothelial cell line bEnd.3 on the UV-irradiated Type I collagen gel. Morphology of bEnd.3 cells on the Type I collagen gel was drastically changed if the gel was crosslinked by UV irradiation. The interconnecting network of bEnd.3 cells which have cord-like morphology on the soft collagen gels was converted to the monolayer of the flat cells, tightly-bound each other covering the gel surface, in a confluent state. The collagen gels were mechanically stiffened by UV irradiation for 15 min with UV light at 254 nm showing approximately two times higher value of Young's modulus E (1.51 ± 0.58 kPa) than the control gel (3.17 ± 1.17 kPa). AFM images of the collagen fibrils were not severely changed after irradiation. Collagen subunit proteins were crosslinked and degraded simultaneously under UV irradiation proved by results of SDS-PAGE and separation by centrifugation. Expression of Integrin gene was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the integrin α2 gene, tight junction protein 1 gene, and claudin 5 gene were down-regulated in cells on the UV irradiated collagen gel in comparison with the unirradiated one while expression of the integrin β1 gene and Integrin α1 gene did not significantly change. Thick actin filaments were more clearly observed in the cells on the UV-irradiated collagen gel than the unirradiated one by fluorescent microscopy. We conclude that UV irradiation made the collagen gel stiffened and changed the physiological state of bEnd.3 cells including their adhesion, extension, and proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.110907DOI Listing
July 2020

Update on quinolone-containing rescue therapies for infection.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Apr;26(15):1733-1744

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan.

Third generation of quinolones, such as levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, -containing regimens are often used in second-line or rescue treatment of infection. However, the increasing antibiotic resistance to quinolones affects the efficacies of quinolones-containing therapies in recent years. Therefore, there is a need to enhance the effectiveness of quinolones-containing therapies. Sitafloxacin, a fourth-generation quinolone, and vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, are now available as more effective treatment options. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current evidence of quinolone-containing therapies in rescue treatments, and to discuss the importance of drug sensitivity tests or analysis of mutation before treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i15.1733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183861PMC
April 2020

A new method measurement for finger range of motion using a smartphone.

J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2020 Aug 24;54(4):207-214. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan.

The protractor-based goniometer is the standard instrument used to measure finger range of motion (ROM). However, the method is often complicated to apply and places a burden on the investigator. Here, we developed a new method for finger ROM measurement using a smartphone. This study was performed to determine the reliability and convenience of this new method. The ROM in 1007 finger joints was measured by both the standard and new method and the data were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The smartphone ICC score was high (0.927), and the average measurement time per joint was 49% lower with the smartphone compared to the goniometer. The results indicated that the smartphone-based measurement method had the same reliability as the conventional goniometer, in addition to an excellent measurement time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2000656X.2020.1755296DOI Listing
August 2020

Prevalence patterns of alcohol consumption and factors associated with problematic drinking on remote islands of Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

J Rural Med 2020 Apr 1;15(2):50-56. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Hizen Psychiatric Center, Japan.

This study aims to investigate the drinking behavior on the remote islands of Okinawa Prefecture. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with residents of Okinawa Prefecture's small, isolated islands. Between October 1 and December 3, 2014, island residents over 20 years of age who visited island clinics for an annual health checkup or influenza vaccination were recruited. An anonymous entry survey was administered to those who provided their consent. The survey included information on age, sex, presence or absence of drinking, age at drinking initiation, smoking status, comorbidities, and family and social background. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol consumption. Participant characteristics were analyzed descriptively, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess relationships between the high-risk drinking group (AUDIT score ≥10 points) and other measured variables (age, sex, age at drinking initiation, smoking, residence, and employment status). Compared to the results of a national survey in 2013, there was a significantly higher prevalence of male island residents who drank ≥40 g of alcohol per day and female island residents who drank ≥20 g/day, levels which are considered risk factors for lifestyle diseases. Among both male and female island residents, there were significantly higher proportions of those with AUDIT scores ≥8 points, referred to as high-risk drinkers, and those with AUDIT scores ≥20, individuals considered to have probable alcohol dependence, as compared to the results of the national survey. In a logistic regression analysis, factors related to high-risk drinking included younger age, male sex, smoking history, inoccupation, and underage drinking initiation. This is the first report on drinking behavior among inhabitants of Okinawa's remote islands. The degree of alcohol consumption is serious and must be recognized as a regional health problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2185/jrm.2019-006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110096PMC
April 2020

The Role of GI Peptides in Functional Dyspepsia and Gastroparesis: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2020 18;11:172. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastroparesis (GP) are common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The pathophysiology of these conditions is likely to be heterogenous, and factors such as altered motility, sensitivity and response to nutrition have been identified as putative underlying mechanisms. Motility, sensitivity as well as responses to nutrition can be influenced or mediated by peptide hormones and serotonin released from the gastrointestinal mucosa. This review summarizes the role of GI peptides in functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. In most studies, the levels of somatostatin, ghrelin, and motilin did not differ between healthy volunteers and FD or GP patients, but higher symptom burden was often correlated with higher peptide levels. Ghrelin and motilin receptor agonists showed promising results in improvement of the gastric emptying, but the link with improvement of symptoms is less predictable. Serotonin agonists have a potential to improve symptoms in both FD and idiopathic gastroparesis. Drugs acting on the GLP-1 and on the PYY receptors deserve further investigation. There is a need for systematic large scale studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093580PMC
March 2020

Japanese clinical practice guidelines for vascular anomalies 2017.

Jpn J Radiol 2020 Apr;38(4):287-342

Division of Radiology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

The objective was to prepare guidelines to perform the current optimum treatment by organizing effective and efficient treatments of hemangiomas and vascular malformations, confirming the safety, and systematizing treatment, employing evidence-based medicine (EBM) techniques and aimed at improvement of the outcomes. Clinical questions (CQs) were decided based on the important clinical issues. For document retrieval, key words for literature searches were set for each CQ and literature published from 1980 to the end of September 2014 was searched in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (JCRM). The strengths of evidence and recommendations acquired by systematic reviews were determined following the Medical Information Network Distribution System (MINDS) technique. A total of 33 CQs were used to compile recommendations and the subjects included efficacy of resection, sclerotherapy/embolization, drug therapy, laser therapy, radiotherapy, and other conservative treatment, differences in appropriate treatment due to the location of lesions and among symptoms, appropriate timing of treatment and tests, and pathological diagnosis deciding the diagnosis. Thus, the Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Anomalies 2017 have been prepared as the evidence-based guidelines for the management of vascular anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-019-00885-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150662PMC
April 2020
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