Publications by authors named "Hiam Hamade"

8 Publications

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Cultural Barriers to Breast Cancer Screening and Medical Mistrust Among Arab American Women.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 Feb;23(1):95-102

Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Breast cancer is a common cancer among women in the US and cultural barriers and medical mistrust have been associated with breast cancer screening (BCS) rates among minority populations. A heterogeneous sample of Arab women (N = 196) were recruited from across the Detroit metropolitan area and administered a questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed an association between Arab Cultural Specific Barriers (ACSB) to BCS and Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale. The environmental ACSB to BCS was associated with the medical mistrust-suspicion of HC providers (β = 0.363, p = 0.01), lack of HC provider support (β = 0.396, p = 0.001), and Arab inequities (β = 0.250, p = 0.05). Findings suggest that ACSB to BCS are predictive of medical mistrust for Arab American women. This study illuminates the need to emphasize strategies that will target the medical care system and the cultural barriers to BCS that Arab American women face in the health care system.
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February 2021

Assessing Knowledge, Physician Interactions and Patient-Reported Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Arab Americans in Dearborn, Michigan.

J Community Health 2020 10;45(5):900-909

Arab American Health Initiative, Dearborn, MI, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among men and women in the United States (Haggar and Boushey in Clin Colon Rectal Surg 22:191-197, 2009). Screening tests have shown to be successful at early detection of precancerous polyps. Between 2000 and 2010, there was a 72% growth in the population that identifies having an Arabic-speaking ancestry (Arab American Institute in , 2011). Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess this unique community's knowledge regarding CRC. Given that low screening rates can be attributed to lack of knowledge, this study was designed to address CRC knowledge and screening barriers in an Arab American community. Between February 2016 and June 2017, an anonymous survey was conducted in English or Arabic among 131 patients from cancer programs at the Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS) in Dearborn, MI. Program participants were expected to have greater insight and awareness about cancer risk than the general population. Knowledge deficiencies surrounding CRC and the screening process were identified. 70% of participants did not know what a colon polyp is and over 89% were not aware of their individual risk for CRC. 45.8% have never had a CRC screening and leading barriers included screening costs, lack of health insurance, and lack of advice by physicians. The goal of this study was to serve as a tool to healthcare providers by identifying evident gaps in medical knowledge surrounding CRC. In order to help better serve and educate patients, healthcare providers and community organizations are encouraged to fight the stigma and help to reduce misunderstandings.
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October 2020

Knowledge Assessment and Screening Barriers for Breast Cancer in an Arab American Community in Dearborn, Michigan.

J Community Health 2019 10;44(5):988-997

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Office for Health Equity and Inclusion, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Drive, M7330 Medical Science Building 1, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy afflicting women during their lifetime. Screening for breast cancer can reduce mortality through early cancer detection. Lack of knowledge is an important barrier leading to low screening rates. Little research has evaluated breast cancer knowledge and barriers to receiving appropriate screening among Arab Americans. Given that the Arab American population has grown approximately 47% since 2000, this study was designed to assess breast cancer knowledge and screening barriers in an Arab American community. An anonymous survey addressing knowledge assessment and screening for breast cancer was distributed at the Arab Community Center for Economics and Social Services in Dearborn, MI between June 2015 and August 2017. The survey was modified based on a similar study that was conducted Among Adult Saudi women in a primary health care setting. 102 non-BC survivors, 48 BC survivors and 50 men participated in this study. Gaps in knowledge around the role of age and family history, as well as cancer presentation were noted among the participants. Additionally, 51% of non-BC survivors over the age of 40 years have not had a screening mammogram in the past 2 years with leading causes being absence of symptoms, lack of health insurance, and absence of family history. Healthcare providers and community organizations should work towards increasing knowledge levels, reducing misconceptions and improving screening rates for breast cancer among Arab Americans. Increasing community outreach and education and navigating the community's health beliefs and practices can optimize the process of information delivery to community members.
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October 2019

Attitudes towards health research participation: a qualitative study of US Arabs and Chaldeans.

Fam Pract 2019 05;36(3):325-331

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: The Arab Muslim and Chaldean Christian American community is unified by language but culturally diverse. Researchers are challenged to engage the Arab/Chaldean community to meet immigrant health needs. Arabs/Chaldeans are identified as white in clinical data sets making it difficult to identify health behaviours and patterns unique to the community.

Objectives: To explore the views of members of the Arab/Chaldean community, including researchers and the lay public, regarding health research participation and the role of clinicians, researchers and community leaders in the research process.

Methods: A qualitative study of Arab and Chaldean adults and researchers conducted in a US community with a large Arab/Chaldean population. Five semi-structured focus group discussions were triangulated with five in-depth semi-structured interviews with Arab or Chaldean primary care researchers. Responses were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, and findings confirmed with community representatives.

Results: Three themes were identified: (i) research expectations: risks and benefits; (ii) health care environment: clinicians as recruiters and (iii) research participations: risks and benefits. Themes captured concerns with social relationships, reputation or trust and the cost and benefit of research participation. In the Arab/Chaldean community, institutional and political fears and distrust are amplified. Respect for physicians, teachers and faith leaders connected with or recruiting for studies enhances likelihood of research participation.

Conclusion: Clinical researchers should address the cultural and immigration histories of Arab/Chaldean research participants. Studies that maximize trust will minimize participation bias and lay the groundwork for improved health. Institutional, sociocultural and personal factors require a pre-study phase to engage and educate participants.
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May 2019

Individual, provider, and system risk factors for breast and cervical cancer screening among underserved Black, Latina, and Arab women.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2014 Jan 27;23(1):57-64. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

1 Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University , East Lansing, Michigan.

Background: Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening persist. An exploratory study was conducted to better understand co-occurring risk factors in underserved groups that could inform interventions to improve screening adherence. The objective of this study was to examine associations between breast and cervical cancer screening adherence and co-occurring risk factors in three racial/ethnic groups of underserved women.

Methods: Black, Latina, and Arab women (N=514), ages 21 to 70 years, were enrolled into the Kin Keeper(SM) randomized controlled trial in communities around Detroit, Michigan. We used participant baseline assessments (e.g., demographic characteristics, health literacy) to explore screening risks using an additive approach and multivariate logistic analyses.

Results: For black women, having more health literacy risks were associated with reduced odds of a clinical breast exam (CBE), mammogram, and Papanicolaou (Pap) test; more competing priorities were associated with reduced odds of a Pap test; lack of doctor mammogram recommendation was significantly associated with decreased odds of CBE. For Latina women, lack of doctor recommendations were significantly associated with decreased odds of CBE, mammogram, and Pap test. For Arab women, lack of doctor recommendations were significantly associated with decreased odds of CBE, mammogram, and Pap test; more competing priorities were significantly associated with reduced odds of CBE and Pap test. All results were significant at p<0.05.

Conclusions: Characteristics associated with breast and cervical screening adherence differs among Black, Latina, and Arab underserved women. Interventions to improve screening should be tailored for racial/ethnic groups with particular attention to competing survival priorities, health literacy risks factors, and provider recommendations.
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January 2014

Assessing the fidelity of the Kin KeeperSM prevention intervention in African American, Latina and Arab women.

Health Educ Res 2014 Feb 11;29(1):158-65. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Institute for Health Care Studies, Michigan State University, College of Human Medicine, East Lansing, MI 48824 and Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS), Dearborn, MI 48126, USA.

Background: We evaluated a randomized controlled treatment, utilizing Community Health Workers (CHW) to deliver breast and cervical cancer education intervention to African American, Latina, and Arab women in Detroit and Dearborn, Michigan. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) examine fidelity and consistency of treatment delivery and (2) assess qualitative elements of the intervention.

Methods: We surveyed 305 women who received the intervention and 16 CHWs Survey included questions regarding the treatment integrity, treatment received, and training provided. Surveys included both quantitative and questions.

Results: The intervention group (n = 305) was made up of 48% Black, 11% Latina, and 41% Arab women. Almost all (≥ 90%) women agreed that they received the treatment in the way that it was intended. Sixteen CHWs responded affirmatively as well.

Conclusions: Both participants and CHWs indicated that the program was mutually rewarding, indicating that there was "cross fertilization and cross benefit" of working with each other. These benefits served to endorse and confirm that CHWs are a very important mechanism in increasing health literacy in the community and referring underserved individuals to health providers. Second, with strong treatment fidelity the Kin Keeper(SM) program and has the potential to be replicated for a number of diseases in a variety of venues especially for those facing health disparities.
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February 2014

Differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina women.

Prev Chronic Dis 2011 Jan 15;8(1):A20. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, 626 East Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1316, USA.

Introduction: We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women.

Methods: Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations.

Results: Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P < .001).

Conclusion: Racial/ethnic differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening highlight the need for tailored information on breast cancer screening for African American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
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January 2011