Publications by authors named "Hesham Ali El-Enshasy"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recent Understanding of Soil Acidobacteria and Their Ecological Significance: A Critical Review.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:580024. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia.

Acidobacteria represents an underrepresented soil bacterial phylum whose members are pervasive and copiously distributed across nearly all ecosystems. Acidobacterial sequences are abundant in soils and represent a significant fraction of soil microbial community. Being recalcitrant and difficult-to-cultivate under laboratory conditions, holistic, polyphasic approaches are required to study these refractive bacteria extensively. Acidobacteria possesses an inventory of genes involved in diverse metabolic pathways, as evidenced by their pan-genomic profiles. Because of their preponderance and ubiquity in the soil, speculations have been made regarding their dynamic roles in vital ecological processes ., regulation of biogeochemical cycles, decomposition of biopolymers, exopolysaccharide secretion, and plant growth promotion. These bacteria are expected to have genes that might help in survival and competitive colonization in the rhizosphere, leading to the establishment of beneficial relationships with plants. Exploration of these genetic attributes and more in-depth insights into the belowground mechanics and dynamics would lead to a better understanding of the functions and ecological significance of this enigmatic phylum in the soil-plant environment. This review is an effort to provide a recent update into the diversity of genes in Acidobacteria useful for characterization, understanding ecological roles, and future biotechnological perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.580024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661733PMC
October 2020

Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides from plants: The future of antimicrobial therapy.

Phytother Res 2021 Jan 17;35(1):256-277. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Botany, Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Motihari, India.

There has been a spurt in the spread of microbial resistance to antibiotics due to indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine, agriculture, and animal husbandry. It has been realized that conventional antibiotic therapy would be less effective in the coming decades and more emphasis should be given for the development of novel antiinfective therapies. Cysteine rich peptides (CRPs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that modulate the innate immune system of different life forms such as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, plants, insects, and animals. These are also expressed in several plant tissues in response to invasion by pathogens, and play a crucial role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The present work explores the importance of CRPs as potent antimicrobial agents, which can supplement and/or replace the conventional antibiotics. Different plant parts of diverse plant species showed the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which had significant structural and functional diversity. The plant-derived AMPs exhibited potent activity toward a range of plant and animal pathogens, protozoans, insects, and even against cancer cells. The cysteine-rich AMPs have opened new avenues for the use of plants as biofactories for the production of antimicrobials and can be considered as promising antimicrobial drugs in biotherapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6823DOI Listing
January 2021

Tree bark scrape fungus: A potential source of laccase for application in bioremediation of non-textile dyes.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0229968. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

Although laccase has been recognized as a wonder molecule and green enzyme, the use of low yielding fungal strains, poor production, purification, and low enzyme kinetics have hampered its large-scale application. Thus,this study aims to select high yielding fungal strains and optimize the production, purification, and kinetics of laccase of Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4. The results obtained indicated that Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 produced a significantly large amount of laccase under meso-acidophilic shaking conditions in a medium containing glucose and yeast extract. A 25 μM CuSO4 was observed to enhance the enzyme yield. The enzyme was best purified on a Sephadex G-100 column. The purified enzyme resembled laccase of A. flavus. The kinetics of the purified enzyme revealed high substrate specificity and good velocity of reaction,using ABTS as a substrate. The enzyme was observed to be stable over various pH values and temperatures. The peptide structure of the purified enzyme was found to resemble laccase of A. kawachii IFO 4308. The fungus was observed to decolorize various dyes independent of the requirement of a laccase mediator system.Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 was observed to be a potent natural producer of laccase, and it decolorized the dyes even in the absence of a laccase mediator system. Thus, it can be used for bioremediation of effluent that contains non-textile dyes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229968PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272029PMC
August 2020

Genetic assessment of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1.2) in L. landraces.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2020 Jan 11;26(1):107-117. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

5Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Johor Malaysia.

Mango () is one of the most important tropical fruits in the world. Twenty-two genotypes of native mangoes from different regions of southern Iran (Hormozgan and Kerman) were collected and analyzed for the ribosomal genes. GC content was found to be 55.5%. Fu and Li's D* test statistic (0.437), Fu and Li's F* test statistic (0.500) and Tajima's D (1.801) were positive and nonsignificant. A total of 769 positions were identified (319 with insertion or deletion including 250 polymorphic and 69 monomorphic loci; 450 loci without any insertion or deletion including 35 Singletons and 22 haplotypes). Nucleotide diversity of 0.309 and a high genetic differentiation including Chi square of 79.8; value of 0.3605 and value of 76 was observed among mango genotypes studied. The numerical value of the ratio dN/dS (0.45) indicated a pure selection in the examined gene and the absence of any key changes. Cluster analysis differentiated the mango used in this research ( L.) into two genotypes but could not differentiate their geographical locations. The results of this study indicated that a high genetic distance exists between HajiGholam (Manojan) and Arbabi (Rodan) genotypes and showed higher genetic diversity in mango of Rodan region. Results of present study suggested that for successful breeding, the genotypes of Rodan region mango especially Arbabi mango can be used as a gene donor and ITS can be a suitable tool for genetic evaluations of inter and intra species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-019-00732-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036387PMC
January 2020

Production, purification and evaluation of biodegradation potential of PHB depolymerase of Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS7.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(1):e0220095. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Institute of Bioproducts Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

There are numerous reports on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerases produced by various microorganisms isolated from various habitats, however, reports on PHB depolymerase production by an isolate from plastic rich sites scares. Although PHB has attracted commercial significance, the inefficient production and recovery methods, inefficient purification of PHB depolymerase and lack of ample knowledge on PHB degradation by PHB depolymerase have hampered its large scale commercialization. Therefore, to ensure the biodegradability of biopolymers, it becomes imperative to study the purification of the biodegrading enzyme system. We report the production, purification, and characterization of extracellular PHB depolymerase from Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS7 isolated from a dumping yard rich in plastic waste. The isolate produced extracellular PHB depolymerase in the mineral salt medium (MSM) at 30°C during 4 days of incubation under shaking. The enzyme was purified by three methods namely ammonium salt precipitation, column chromatography, and solvent purification. Among these purification methods, the enzyme was best purified by column chromatography on the Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B column giving optimum yield (0.7993 Umg-1mL-1). The molecular weight of purified PHB depolymerase was 40 kDa. Studies on the assessment of biodegradation of PHB in liquid culture medium and under natural soil conditions confirmed PHB biodegradation potential of Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS7. The results obtained in Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) study and Gas Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the biodegradation of PHB in liquid medium by Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS7. Changes in surface morphology of PHB film in soil burial as observed in Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the biodegradation of PHB under natural soil environment. The isolate was capable of degrading PHB and it resulted in 87.74% biodegradation. A higher rate of degradation under the natural soil condition is the result of the activity of soil microbes that complemented the biodegradation of PHB by Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS7.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220095PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946144PMC
March 2020

Effect of temperature and pH on the probiotication of Punica granatum juice using Lactobacillus species.

J Food Biochem 2019 04 11;43(4):e12805. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

This study was focused on the effects of fermentation temperature and pH on the quality of Punica granatum juice probioticated with Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The whole fruit juice of P. granatum which is rich with phytonutrients appeared to be a good probiotic carrier. The probiotication was carried out for 24 hr at 30, 35, and 37°C and pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.5 under microaerophilic conditions. The results found that P. granatum juice cultivated with L. casei had a better growth profile with a higher biomass density at 37°C around pH 3.5-4.0. Probiotication could maintain the scavenging activity of P. granatum juice cultivated with L. casei. The scavenging activity achieved up to 90% inhibition at the concentration of 5 mg/ml. The whole fruit-squeezed P. granatum juice was suitable for the growth of Lactobacillus species even without supplementation during cultivation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings of this study presented the potential of P. granatum juice (whole fruit) to be used as a good probiotic carrier, particularly for Lactobacillus species without supplementation. High nutritious P. granatum juice catered the need of probiotic bacteria during fermentation. Probiotication could maintain the antioxidant capacity of the juice in term of its radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant capacity was mainly attributed to the metabolites such as phenolic acids (romarinic acid and caftaric acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin and kaempferol rutinoside). With the optimized temperature (37°C) and pH (4.00), probiotic bacteria could growth well up to a cell viability of 2.46 × 10  cfu/ml. This offers P. granatum to be developed into functional food to cater to the needs of the consumers who are lactose intolerant to dairy products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12805DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of Agitation Speed and Kinetic Studies on Probiotication of Pomegranate Juice with .

Molecules 2019 Jun 26;24(13). Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

The issues of lactose intolerance and vegetarianism have encouraged the introduction of non-dairy fermented food into the market. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of agitation speed on the bioactive compounds and functional characteristics of probioticated pomegranate juice. Pomegranate juice was fermented with at different agitation speeds ranging from 0 (microaerophilic) to 150 rpm at 37 °C. The functional properties of probioticated pomegranate juice were evaluated in terms of growth (biomass), lactic acid production, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and key metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The growth kinetics of fermentation was monitored at the optimal condition using one factor at a time method. High cell growth (3.58 × 10 cfu/mL or 7.9 gL) was observed for probioticated pomegranate juice agitated at 0 rpm. The findings of this study reveal the potential of pomegranate juice as a medium for cultivation without nutrient supplementation. The improvement of antioxidant activity in the probioticated juice could be due to the increment of quercetin-3-glucoside. Therefore, grew well in pomegranate juice with a high cell viability and antioxidant activity at a non-agitated condition. Probioticated pomegranate juice is a potentially functional drink.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651325PMC
June 2019

Purification and kinetics of the PHB depolymerase of Microbacterium paraoxydans RZS6 isolated from a dumping yard.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(6):e0212324. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase is known to decompose PHB, biodegradable polymers and therefore has great commercial significance in the bioplastic sector. However, reports on PHB depolymerases from isolates obtained from plastic-contaminated sites that reflect the potential of the source organism is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the production of extracellular PHB depolymerase from Microbacterium paraoxydans RZS6 isolated from the plastic-contaminated site in the municipal area of Shahada, Maharashtra, India, for the first time. The isolate was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (GC-FAME), and BIOLOG method. Ithydrolyzed PHB on minimal salt medium (MSM) containing PHB as the only source of carbon. The isolate produced PHB depolymerase at 45°C during 48 h of incubation. The enzyme was purified most efficiently using octyl-sepharose CL-4B column, with the highest purification yield of 6.675 Umg-1mL-1. The activity of the enzyme was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions but inhibited by Fe2+ (1 mM) ions and mercaptoethanol (1000 rpm). the nzyme kinetic analysis revealed that the enzyme was a metalloenzyme; requiring Mg2+ ions, that showed optimum enzyme activity at 30°C (mesophilic) and under neutrophilic (pH 7) conditions. Scale-up from the shake-flask level to a laboratory-scale bioreactor further enhanced the enzyme yield by 0.809 UmL-1. The molecular weight of the enzyme (40 kDa), as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, closely resembled the PHB depolymerase of Aureobacterium saperdae. Our findings highlighted the applicability of M. paraoxydans as a producer of extracellular PHB depolymerase having potential of degrading PHB under diverse conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212324PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581247PMC
February 2020

Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2016 Jul 10;23(4):495-502. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81130 UTM, Skudai, Malaysia; City of Scientific Research and Technology Application, New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt.

Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4890193PMC
July 2016

A new chitinase-producer strain Streptomyces glauciniger WICC-A03: isolation and identification as a biocontrol agent for plants phytopathogenic fungi.

Nat Prod Res 2014 31;28(24):2273-7. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

a Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Product Department , Pharmaceutical Industry Division, National Research Centre , El-Bohouth St., Dokki, P.O.12311, Cairo , Egypt.

This study discusses the isolation and identification of a new Streptomycetes highly active chitinase producer. Fifteen strains were isolated from Malaysian soil samples. The isolate WICC-A03 was found to be the most active chitinase producer. Its antifungal activity was evaluated against many phytopathogens. The identification of WICC-A03 using phenotypic and genotypic methods strongly indicated that strain WICC-A03 belonged to the genus Streptomyces and displayed similarity (91%) with Streptomyces glauciniger. Thus, it was given the suggested name S. glauciniger WICC-A03 with accession number: JX139754. WICC-A03 produces extracellular chitinase in a medium containing 1.5% colloidal chitin in submerged culture on 144 h. The produced enzyme was partially characterised and its molecular weight of 50 kDa was determined by using SDS-PAGE. This study indicates that WICC-A03 is a potential chitinase producer for biocontrol of plant pathogens. Further experiments are being carried out to optimise medium composition and cultivation conditions under lab and bioreactor scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.939083DOI Listing
February 2015