Publications by authors named "Herwig Brunner"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.

GMS Krankenhhyg Interdiszip 2008 Mar 11;3(1):Doc11. Epub 2008 Mar 11.

Fraunhofer Institute of Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Department Cell Systems, Stuttgart, Germany.

The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2831516PMC
March 2008

Candida albicans Sun41p, a putative glycosidase, is involved in morphogenesis, cell wall biogenesis, and biofilm formation.

Eukaryot Cell 2007 Nov 28;6(11):2056-65. Epub 2007 Sep 28.

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstrasse 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

The SUN gene family has been defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and comprises a fungus-specific family of proteins which show high similarity in their C-terminal domains. Genes of this family are involved in different cellular processes, like DNA replication, aging, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cytokinesis. In Candida albicans the SUN family comprises two genes, SUN41 and SIM1. We demonstrate that C. albicans mutants lacking SUN41 show similar defects as found for S. cerevisiae, including defects in cytokinesis. In addition, the SUN41 mutant showed a higher sensitivity towards the cell wall-disturbing agent Congo red, whereas no difference was observed in the presence of calcofluor white. Compared to the wild type, SUN41 deletion strains exhibited a defect in biofilm formation, a reduced adherence on a Caco-2 cell monolayer, and were unable to form hyphae on solid medium under the conditions tested. Interestingly, Sun41p was found to be secreted in the medium of cells growing as blastospores as well as those forming hyphae. Our results support a function of SUN41p as a glycosidase involved in cytokinesis, cell wall biogenesis, adhesion to host tissue, and biofilm formation, indicating an important role in the host-pathogen interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.00285-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2168408PMC
November 2007

Engineered liver-like tissue on a capillarized matrix for applied research.

Tissue Eng 2007 Nov;13(11):2699-707

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Stuttgart, Germany.

Liver tissue that is functional and viable for several weeks in vitro represents an auspicious test system for basic and applied research. In this study, a coculture system for hepatocytes (HCs) and microvascular endothelial cells (mECs) was generated applying tissue-engineering techniques, establishing the basis for a new bioartificial liver in vitro model. Porcine mECs were seeded on a decellularized porcine jejunal segment with preserved vascular structures. Porcine HCs were seeded onto this vascularized scaffold, and the resulting coculture was maintained for 3 weeks in vitro. Tissue morphology and differentiation was monitored using histology and immunohistochemistry. Tissue metabolism was monitored using daily assessment of urea and lactate production. HC monolayer cultures served as controls. The 2-stage seeding procedure resulted in a 3-dimensional coculture system harboring HC cell clusters in multiple cell layers lining the generated mEC-seeded capillary structures. It was viable for 3 weeks, and HCs maintained their morphology and differentiation. Biochemical testing revealed stable metabolic activity of the tissue culture. In contrast, HCs cultured in monolayer showed morphological dedifferentiation and an unfavorable metabolic state. Our mEC-HC coculture represents a new approach toward a functional bioartificial liver-like tissue applicable as a test system for basic and applied research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.2006.0388DOI Listing
November 2007

Biotechnology patenting policy in the European Union--as exemplified by the development in Germany.

Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2007 ;107:13-39

Fraunhofer nstitue for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Stuttgart, Germany.

Patenting of biotechnological inventions is an important concomitant side effect of progress in this field, but also a matter of dispute in the public. In this paper, the significance of and the prerequisites for patenting are reviewed, and the principal requirements for biotechnology patents in the signatory states of the European Patent Convention (EPC) are summarized. This is followed by a report on the historical development of biotech-patent legislation in Europe and in Germany as one contracting state to EPC and member state of the European Union. Characteristic features of the patenting policy in Europe and Germany are illustrated by critical examples of biotechnology patents or patent applications. Some examples illustrate the influence of the European Union's national states' case laws after these had crystallized into the EU Biotechnology Directive (1998), which later was adopted by the European Patent Organization into its Implementing Regulations (2001) and was implemented into national patent acts. Some frequent objections against patenting in modern biotechnology are considered. More and better information about prerequisites, consequences, and opportunities of patenting in biotechnology, if conveyed to science and technology scholars as multipliers, may help to rationalize public discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/10_2007_049DOI Listing
August 2007

An in vitro assay to study the transcriptional response during adherence of Candida albicans to different human epithelia.

FEMS Yeast Res 2006 Nov;6(7):1085-93

Fraunhofer, Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Stuttgart, Germany.

Adhesion to mammalian epithelia is one of the prerequisites that are essential to accomplish pathogenesis of Candida albicans in the mammalian host. In this context C. albicans is able to adhere to a plethora of different cell types providing different microenvironments for colonization. To study the response of C. albicans adhering to different surfaces on the transcriptional level we have established an in vitro adhesion assay exploiting confluent monolayers of the human colorectal carcinoma cell line Caco-2 or epidermoid vulvo-vaginal A-431 cells. Candida albicans very efficiently adheres to these epithelia growing as hyphae. Using whole-genome DNA microarrays comprising probes for almost 7000 predicted ORFs we found that transcriptional profiles of C. albicans adhering to Caco-2 or to A-431 cells, although very similar, still significantly differ from those of Candida cells adhering to plastic surfaces. Differences became even more obvious when comparing C. albicans cells either growing in an adherent manner or in suspension culture. Correspondingly, we found for several cell surface genes, including PRA1, PGA23, PGA7 and HWP1, an adhesion-dependent induction of transcription. Obviously, C. albicans is able to respond specifically to very subtle differences in the environment during adhesion to various growth substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2006.00130.xDOI Listing
November 2006

Identification of novel enzymes with different hydrolytic activities by metagenome expression cloning.

J Biotechnol 2007 Jan 12;127(4):575-92. Epub 2006 Aug 12.

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Institute for Interfacial Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Nobelstrasse 12, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Metagenome cloning has become a powerful tool to exploit the biocatalytic potential of microbial communities for the discovery of novel biocatalysts. In a novel variant of direct expression cloning, metagenomic DNA was isolated from compost by a modified direct lysis method, purified by size exclusion chromatography and cloned into an expression vector allowing bidirectional transcription. Transformation of Escherichia coli DH5alpha resulted in a metagenomic expression library with an average insert size of 3.2 kb. To estimate the functional diversity of the constructed library, it was screened by different approaches based on functional heterologous expression. A large number of active clones were identified, including lipolytic enzymes, amylases, phosphatases and dioxygenases. Molecular analysis of one important class of industrial biocatalysts, the lipolytic enzymes, confirmed the novelty and dissimilarity of all recovered genes, which exhibited only limited similarity to known enzymes. Equally, the novelty of another three genes encoding phosphatase or dioxygenase activity, respectively, was shown. These results demonstrate the suitability of this direct cloning approach, which comprised a dual-orientation expression vector and a simple one-step DNA purification method, for the efficient discovery of numerous active novel clones. By this means it provides an efficient way for the rapid generation of large libraries of hitherto unknown enzyme candidates which could be screened for different specific target reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.07.036DOI Listing
January 2007

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-functionalized nanostructured particles for the stimulation of membrane TNF-specific cell responses.

Bioconjug Chem 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):1459-67

Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Most members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family occur in both a membrane-bound and a soluble form, which can possess differential bioactivities. The aim of this work was the construction of a synthetic-biological hybrid system consisting of chemically nanostructured core-shell particles with a diameter of 100 nm, 1 microm, or 10 microm and the cytokine TNF to obtain a tool that mimics the bioactivity of naturally occurring membrane-bound TNF. Synthetic core-shell nanoparticles consisting of an inorganic silica core and an ultrathin organic shell bearing a maleimide group at the shell surface which allowed for a covalent and site-directed coupling of CysHisTNF mutants were prepared. The TNF mutants were modified at the N-terminus by PCR cloning by introducing a His-Tag for purification and a free cysteine group for reaction with the particle-attached maleimide group. The resulting nanostructured hybrid particles initiated strong TNF receptor type 2 specific responses, otherwise only seen for the membrane-bound form of TNF, but not the soluble cytokine, thus clearly demonstrating new and membrane TNF-like properties of the bioconjugated soluble TNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bc0501810DOI Listing
January 2006

The moonlighting protein Tsa1p is implicated in oxidative stress response and in cell wall biogenesis in Candida albicans.

Mol Microbiol 2005 Sep;57(5):1318-41

Fraunhofer IGB, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogens in humans. The cell wall is the first contact site between host and pathogen and thus is critical for colonization and infection of the host. We have identified Tsa1p, a protein that is differentially localized to the cell wall of C. albicans in hyphal cells but remains in the cytosol and nucleus in yeast-form cells. This is different from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the homologous protein solely has been found in the cytoplasm. We report here that TSA1 confers resistance towards oxidative stress as well as is involved in the correct composition of hyphal cell walls. However, no significant change of the cell wall composition was observed in a TSA1 deletion strain in yeast-form cells, which is in good agreement with the observation that Tsa1p is absent from the yeast-form cell wall. This indicates that Tsa1p of C. albicans might represent a moonlighting protein with specific functions correlating to its respective localization. Furthermore, the translocation of Tsa1p to the hyphal cell wall of C. albicans depends on Efg1p, suggesting a contribution of the cAMP/PKA pathway to the localization of this protein. In a strain deleted for TUP1 that filaments constitutively Tsa1p can be found in the cell wall under all conditions tested, confirming the result that Tsa1p localization to the cell wall is correlated to the morphology of C. albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04771.xDOI Listing
September 2005

Microstructured layers of spherical biofunctional core-shell nanoparticles provide enlarged reactive surfaces for protein microarrays.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2005 Nov 11;383(5):738-46. Epub 2005 Aug 11.

Laboratory for Biomimetic Surfaces, Fraunhofer-Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology & Institute for Interfacial Engineering, University Stuttgart, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Nanostructured core-shell particles with tailor-made affinity surfaces were used to generate microstructured affinity surfaces by microspotting the particles to form densely packed amorphous nanoparticle layers. These layers provided a large reactive surface for the specific binding of protein ligands from aqueous solution. Biofunctional core-shell particles were synthesized for this purpose that consisted of a silica core with a diameter of 100 nm and an organic shell a few nm thick. The nanoparticle core was prepared by sol-gel chemistry and the shell formed in suspension by organosilane chemistry. The shell provided amino groups or carbonyl groups at its outer surface for subsequent covalent immobilization of streptavidin, rabbit IgG antibodies or goat IgG antibodies. AlexaFluor 647-conjugated and biotinylated cytochrome C and CyDye-labeled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-goat IgG were probed as model analytes. The core-shell nanoparticles were spotted using a pin-ring micro-arrayer onto microscope glass slides that were coated with a polycation monolayer by dip-coating prior to nanoparticle deposition. Amorphous particle layers of well-defined thicknesses in the range of 100 nm to 2 microm were obtained by printing aqueous particle suspensions containing 5-500 mg/mL (0.5-50 wt%) of silica particles. The specific affinity of the plotted nanoparticulate capture surface was demonstrated by binding Cy3-labeled donkey anti-rabbit IgG and Cy5-labeled mouse anti-goat IgG to immobilized rabbit IgG and goat IgG particles. The signal intensity per spot increased for any given analyte concentration when the amount of particles per spot was augmented. This was attributed to the increasing integration of receptor molecules per surface footprint, which shifted the binding equilibrium towards the formation of the receptor-ligand complex. Additionally, the locally-increased supply of receptor molecules at the nanoparticulate microchip surface resulted in a wide dynamic range of 4 fM-20 nM (covering six orders of magnitude).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-005-3396-9DOI Listing
November 2005

Reduction of the aortic inflammatory response in spontaneous atherosclerosis by blockade of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF).

Atherosclerosis 2006 Jan;184(1):28-38

Fraunhofer Institute, Stuttgart, Germany.

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response of the arterial wall to "injury", which is prominently driven by cytokines. The inflammatory mediator macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a unique cytokine that was recently associated with atherogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether MIF has a role in spontaneous atherosclerosis by studying apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice treated with neutralizing anti-MIF monoclonal antibody and comparison with isotype IgG-treated controls. After 14 weeks, the aortas and heart valves were analyzed for inflammatory status, macrophage content and plaque areas. MIF expression in the aortic wall was elevated upon spontaneous atherogenesis, with foam cells representing a major source. Of note, MIF blockade led to a marked reduction in intimal Mac-1-positive macrophages. Similarly, treatment with anti-MIF antibody led to a reduction of a variety of inflammatory mediators typically associated with atherosclerosis including the circulating levels of fibrinogen, MIF and IL-6. Importantly, the local aortic expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2, TNF, IL-12, and CD40L was reduced by MIF blockade, as were the levels of the phospho-c-Jun and C/EBPbeta transcription factors. The observed strong reduction of inflammatory parameters by anti-MIF treatment was associated with a small, yet non-significant, reduction in aortic plaque area. Thus, although MIF's role is not directly linked to plaque volume expansion, in this mouse model of spontaneous atherogenesis, MIF plays an important role in intimal inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.03.028DOI Listing
January 2006

Controlled surface functionalization of silica nanospheres by covalent conjugation reactions and preparation of high density streptavidin nanoparticles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2004 May;4(5):504-11

Laboratory for Biomimetic Surfaces, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering & Biotechnology, Germany.

Silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 100 nm were covalently modified at their surface by adjustable amounts of amine and carboxyl functional groups. Bioconjugation studies of two proteins, streptavidin and streptactin, with the functional nanoparticles resulted in optimum binding of the proteins to a long-chain carboxyl-terminated linker. The surface functionalization of the nanoparticles was monitored by a variety of independent methods, including zeta-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle charge detection titrations (PCD) and elemental analysis. At the surface of the nanoparticles, a functional surface group density of 1.8 amino groups per nm2 was realized. The amine functions were quantitatively transferred to carboxyl groups coupled with a linker elongation. Streptavidin was immobilized by covalent binding to the carboxyl linkers and resulted in a protein density at the surface of the nanoparticles that was three times higher than the highest binding densities at nanoparticles published to date. The binding capacity of the streptavidin-covered nanoparticles for ligand biotin was quantified by titration with biotin-4-fluorescein to 2.5 biotin binding sites per 100 nm2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2004.079DOI Listing
May 2004

Investigations on DNA intercalation and surface binding by SYBR Green I, its structure determination and methodological implications.

Nucleic Acids Res 2004 Jul 12;32(12):e103. Epub 2004 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Institute for Interfacial Engineering, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

The detection of double-stranded (ds) DNA by SYBR Green I (SG) is important in many molecular biology methods including gel electrophoresis, dsDNA quantification in solution and real-time PCR. Biophysical studies at defined dye/base pair ratios (dbprs) were used to determine the structure-property relationships that affect methods applying SG. These studies revealed the occurrence of intercalation, followed by surface binding at dbprs above approximately 0.15. Only the latter led to a significant increase in fluorescence. Studies with poly(dA)* poly(dT) and poly(dG)* poly(dC) homopolymers showed sequence-specific binding of SG. Also, salts had a marked impact on SG fluorescence. We also noted binding of SG to single-stranded (ss) DNA, although SG/ssDNA fluorescence was at least approximately 11-fold lower than with dsDNA. To perform these studies, we determined the structure of SG by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis to be [2-[N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-propylamino]-4-[2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-phenyl-quinolinium]. For comparison, the structure of PicoGreen (PG) was also determined and is [2-[N-bis-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-amino]-4-[2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-phenyl-quinolinium]+. These structure-property relationships help in the design of methods that use SG, in particular dsDNA quantification in solution and real-time PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gnh101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC484200PMC
July 2004

Affinity parameters of amino acid derivative binding to molecularly imprinted nanospheres consisting of poly[(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)].

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2004 Aug;808(1):43-50

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering & Biotechnology and Institute for Interfacial Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

The binding of L-Boc-phenylalanine anilide (BFA) and L-Boc-phenylalanine (phe) to molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly[(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)] has been investigated by adsorption experiments and mathematical modeling. The experimental isotherms have been mathematically adapted following the models of Freundlich, Langmuir, Langmuir-Freundlich, Bi-Langmuir, and extended Langmuir. The extended Langmuir model differentiated between specific and nonspecific binding of the ligand to the receptor nanoparticles and rendered excellent fitting of the experimental data. It delivered a thermodynamic and kinetic parameter set on the experimental association curves of L-BFA by L-BFA-imprinted nanospheres in suspension experiments with the equilibrium constant KD= 4.09 +/- 0.69 micromol L(-1) and the kinetic association rate constant Ka= 5.60 mL micromol(-1) min(-1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.03.068DOI Listing
August 2004

RBR1, a novel pH-regulated cell wall gene of Candida albicans, is repressed by RIM101 and activated by NRG1.

Eukaryot Cell 2004 Jun;3(3):776-84

Fraunhofer IGB, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

The transcription factor Rim101p of Candida albicans has been shown to play a major role in pH-dependent gene regulation. Rim101p is involved in cell wall biosynthesis, since it regulates PHR1 and PHR2, two almost functionally redundant cell wall glycosidases important for adaptation to either neutral or acidic habitats within the human host. To identify additional cell wall components regulated by Rim101p, we performed transcriptional profiling with a cell wall-specific DNA microarray. We showed that Rim101p contributes to the activation of known hypha-specific genes such as HWP1 and RBT1 but is also required for repression of the previously uncharacterized potential cell wall genes RBR1, RBR2, and RBR3. Further characterization of RBR1 revealed that it encodes a small glycosylphosphatidyl inositol protein that is expressed under acidic conditions predominantly at low temperature. Deletion of the gene resulted in a filamentation defect at low pH. Most interestingly, NRG1, a transcriptional repressor of hyphal growth in C. albicans, was required for RBR1 expression. The apparently activating effect of NRG1 observed in this study has not been described before. In addition, we showed that expression of NRG1 is not only temperature but also pH dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.3.3.776-784.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC420143PMC
June 2004

Development of an MHC-class I peptide selection assay combining nanoparticle technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

J Immunol Methods 2003 Dec;283(1-2):205-13

Section for Transplantation Immunology and Immunohematology, University of Tuebingen, Germany.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-bound peptides are central for recognition of infected/transformed cells by T cells, and have formed the basis for many immunotherapy strategies. Epitopes from a given protein sequence (e.g. from viral proteins or oncoproteins) can be predicted by algorithms, as individual HLA receptors bind peptides through defined binding motifs. Peptides with the highest predicted binding score are then normally tested for their binding ability in binding assays. However, with the assays already established, only one peptide can be tested for binding per assay. This is certainly not a reflection of the in vivo situation, where several peptides generated via the major histocompatability complex (MHC)-class I processing pathway compete for HLA-receptor binding. Here, we describe the development of a method that can mimic the competition between multiple peptides for binding to a single HLA receptor molecule. We used silica nanoparticles with immobilised HLA-A2 complexes to screen HLA-A2 binder-peptides out of a known peptide mixture. The washed beads were analysed for selectively bound peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The advantage of the system is that the bound peptides can be unambiguously identified without any prior modification (e.g. radioactive or fluorescence labelling), even from complex peptide mixtures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2003.09.006DOI Listing
December 2003

Mechanisms underlying the impact of humic acids on DNA quantification by SYBR Green I and consequences for the analysis of soils and aquatic sediments.

Nucleic Acids Res 2003 Apr;31(7):e39

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Chair for Interfacial Engineering, University of Stuttgart and Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstrasse 12, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

DNA quantification of soils and sediments is useful for the investigation of microbial communities and for the acquisition of their genomes that are exploited for the production of natural products. However, in such samples DNA quantification is impaired by humic acids (HA). Due to its lack of specificity and sensitivity, UV spectrophotometry cannot be applied. Consequently, fluorimetric assays applying Hoechst (H) 33258 or PicoGreen (PG) are used. Here, we investigated the SYBR Green I (SG) assay, which was also affected by HA, but was found to be 25- and 1.7-fold more sensitive compared to the H 33258 and PG assays, respectively. Spectrophotometric, fluorimetric and quenching studies as well as gel mobility shift assays suggested that the effect of HA on the SG assay was based on an inner filter effect, collisional quenching and binding of SG to HA. As to the latter finding, the standard 6250-fold dilution of the SG reagent was optimised to a 2000-fold dilution. Although the sensitivity of the optimised SG assay was reduced by a factor of 1.3, the interfering effect of HA could be reduced up to 22-fold. A significant reduction of HA interferences by lowering the pH of the assay was not observed. Finally, the performance of the modified SG assay and the corresponding evaluation methods were verified by the determination of DNA recoveries and concentrations of standards and environmental samples in comparison to the PG assay.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC152824PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gng039DOI Listing
April 2003