Publications by authors named "Herve Rogez"

37 Publications

Global cocoa fermentation microbiome: revealing new taxa and microbial functions by next generation sequencing technologies.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 16;37(7):118. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

This review provides an overview of the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for microbiome analysis of cocoa beans fermentation. The cocoa-producing regions where NGS has been applied include Brazil, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Nicaragua, and Colombia. The data collected were processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and Venn diagrams to perform a multivariate association between microbial diversity and cocoa-producing regions. NGS studies have confirmed the dominance of three major microbial groups revealed by culture-dependent approaches, i.e., lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts. However, a more complex microbial diversity has been revealed, comprising sub-dominant populations, late-growing species, and uncultivable microorganisms. A total of 99 microbial genera and species were for the first time reported in cocoa beans fermentation, such as Brevibacillus sp., Halomonas meridiana, Methylobacterium sp., Novosphingobium sp., and Paenibacillus pabuli. PCA and Venn diagrams showed that species composition is rarely fixed and often experiences fluctuations of varying degrees and at varying frequencies between different cocoa-producing regions. Understanding these differences will provide further directions for exploring the functional and metabolic activity of rare and abundant taxa, as well as their use as starter cultures to obtain high-quality cocoa beans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03079-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Preventing Chagas disease: A new RT-qPCR method for rapid and specific quantification of viable Trypanosoma cruzi for food safety.

Food Res Int 2021 06 17;144:110368. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Centre for Valorisation of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Federal University of Pará, Av. Perimetral da Ciência km 01, 66.095-780 Belém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:

Without standardized methods for rapidly detecting in food matrices viable T. cruzi, foodborne outbreaks remain neglected. In this work, a reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) mRNA-based technique was developed for the rapid and specific detection and quantification of viable Trypanosoma cruzi in açai fruits and juice. The method uses specific primer targeting region on the cyt b gene. The maximum recovery rate of T. cruzi from inoculated açai juice was 82.50%. The limit of detection and quantification in açai juice was 10 parasites/mL for RT-qPCR (mRNA-based) and qPCR (DNA-based). The RT-qPCR efficiency was estimated at 97.27% with an R of 0.994. The RT-qPCR was shown to be able to discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. This method provides a useful tool for rapid assessment of low concentrations of viable T. cruzi in naturally contaminated food samples, and can be applied industrially as a quality and security method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110368DOI Listing
June 2021

Myorelaxation, respiratory depression and electrocardiographic changes caused by the administration of extract of açai ( Mart.) stone in rats.

Toxicol Rep 2021 31;8:829-838. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

UFPA & Centre for Valorization of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Belém, Pará, Brazil.

The biological and pharmacological properties of natural polyphenols of the extract of stone (EEOS) are associated with the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate the sedative and myorelaxant activity of EEOS , this study aimed to present the myorelaxant and sedative effects of EEOS in Wistar rats using spontaneous locomotor activity and motor electrophysiology. A total of 108 animals were used in the following experiments: a) behavioral tests (n = 27); b) electromyographic recordings of skeletal muscle (n = 27); c) respiratory muscle activity recordings (n = 27); d) cardiac muscle activity recordings (n = 27). The behavioral characteristics were measured according to the latency time of onset, the transient loss of posture reflex and maximum muscle relaxation. Electrodes were implanted in the gastrocnemius muscle and in the tenth intercostal space for electromyographic (EMG) signal capture to record muscle contraction, and in the D2 lead for electrocardiogram acquisition. After using the 300 mg/kg dose of EEOS intraperitoneally, a myorelaxant activity exhibited a lower frequency of contractility with an amplitude pattern of low and short duration at gastrocnemius muscle and intercostal muscle, which clearly describes a myorelaxant activity and changes in cardiac activity. The present report is so far the first study to demonstrate the myorelaxant activity of this extract, indicating an alternative route for açai stone valorization and its application in pharmaceutical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044785PMC
March 2021

Isolation and Genetic Identification of Endophytic Lactic Acid Bacteria From the Amazonian Açai Fruits: Probiotics Features of Selected Strains and Their Potential to Inhibit Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:610524. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Centre for Valorization of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil.

The açai palm () is native to the Amazon basin, a humid tropical forest. High levels of total mesophilic bacteria with high diversity have been consistently reported in açai fruits. As local consumers have few digestive problems, the results of the present study reveal the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) recovered from açai fruits with characteristics that suggest they are possible candidates for probiotics and antagonistic potential against pathogens for the first time. Açai fruits were sampled from five different locations in the Eastern Amazonia floodplains. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from fruits and tested for some probiotic characteristics following FAO/WHO guidelines. Approximately 65% of the isolates showed no catalase or oxidase activity, Gram-positive staining or cocci and bacilli cell morphology. Furthermore, 48% of the isolates demonstrated preliminary characteristics that suggest safety for use, as they presented no coagulase enzyme activity or gamma-hemolysis. These strains were identified as belonging to the genera and , and 32 strains also presented resistance to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. In addition, 28 isolates showed a survival rate, expressed as log cycle reduction, higher than 0.9 under gastric conditions (pH 2). All strains tested positive in bile salts deconjugation tests and showed a survival rate higher than 0.8 in the presence of this salt. Regarding antimicrobial activity against pathogens, all strains were able to inhibit Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) and 97% were capable of inhibiting (ATCC 25922). Concerning the results of antagonistic assays, three isolates (B125, B135, and Z183 strains) were selected for antagonistic tests using açai juice contaminated with these two pathogens. All tested LAB strains were able to inhibit pathogen growth in açai juice. In summary, açai fruits are a potential source of LAB isolates to be investigated as probiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.610524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819895PMC
January 2021

Secure and Sustainable Sourcing of Plant Tissues for the Exhaustive Exploration of Their Chemodiversity.

Molecules 2020 Dec 18;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Centre for Valorization of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Espaço Inovação, Av. Perimetral da Ciência, Belém, Pará 66095-630, Brazil.

The main challenge of plant chemical diversity exploration is how to develop tools to study exhaustively plant tissues. Their sustainable sourcing is a limitation as bioguided strategies and dereplication need quite large amounts of plant material. We examine if alternative solutions could overcome these difficulties by obtaining a secure, sustainable, and scalable source of tissues able to biosynthesize an array of metabolites. As this approach would be as independent of the botanical origin as possible, we chose eight plant species from different families. We applied a four steps culture establishment procedure, monitoring targeted compounds through mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also characterized the capacities of leaf explants in culture to produce diverse secondary metabolites. In vitro cultures were successfully established for six species with leaf explants still producing a diversity of compounds after the culture establishment procedure. Furthermore, explants from leaves of axenic plantlets were also analyzed. The detection of marker compounds was confirmed after six days in culture for all tested species. Our results show that the first stage of this approach aiming at easing exploration of plant chemodiversity was completed, and leaf tissues could offer an interesting alternative providing a constant source of natural compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766005PMC
December 2020

Co-culturing fructophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeast enhanced sugar metabolism and aroma formation during cocoa beans fermentation.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Feb 8;339:109015. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), 81531-970 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Glucose and fructose are the main fermentable sugars in cocoa pulp. During fermentation, glucose is consumed within 48-72 h and fructose only after 120 h, mainly associated with the preferential use of glucose by microorganisms. In the first stage of this study, the complete genome sequence of a lactic acid bacterium with high fructose consumption capacity (Lactobacillus plantarum LPBF35) was reported. The notable genomic features of L. plantarum LPBF35 were the presence of alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene and improved PTS system, confirming its classification as a "facultatively" fructophilic bacterium. Subsequently, this bacterium was introduced into cocoa fermentation process in single and mixed cultures with Pediococcus acidilactici LPBF66 or Pichia fermentans YC5.2. Community composition by Illumina-based amplicon sequencing and viable counts indicated suppression of wild microflora in all treatments. At the beginning of the fermentation processes, cocoa pulp consisted of approximately 73.09 mg/g glucose and 73.64 mg/g fructose. The L. plantarum LPBF35 + P. fermentans YC5.2 process showed the lowest levels of residual sugars after 72 h of fermentation (7.89 and 4.23 mg/g, for fructose and glucose, respectively), followed by L. plantarum LPBF35 + Ped. acidilactici LPBF66 (8.85 and 6.42 mg/g, for fructose and glucose, respectively), single L. plantarum LPBF35 treatment (4.15 and 10.15 mg/g, for fructose and glucose, respectively), and spontaneous process (22.25 and 14.60 mg/g, for fructose and glucose, respectively). The positive interaction between L. plantarum LPBF35 and P. fermentans YC5.2 resulted in an improved formation of primary (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) and secondary (2-methyl-1-butanol, isoamyl acetate, and ethyl acetate) metabolites during fermentation. The primary metabolites accumulated significantly in cocoa beans fermented by P. fermentans YC5.2 + L. plantarum LPBF35, causing important reactions of color development and key flavor molecules formation. The results of this study suggest that fructophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeast is a microbial consortium that could improve sugar metabolism and aroma formation during cocoa beans fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.109015DOI Listing
February 2021

Genipap (Genipa americana L.) juice intake biomarkers after medium-term consumption.

Food Res Int 2020 11 4;137:109375. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Avenue Agropolis, TA50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France; Qualisud, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ d'Avignon, Univ de La Réunion, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Genipap (Genipa americana L.) is an exotic fruit largely consumed and well known, in Amazonian pharmacopeia, to treat anemia, measles and uterine cancer. It is also used as a diuretic, digestive, healing, laxative and antiseptic. The aim of this study was to apply an untargeted metabolomics strategy to determine biomarkers of food intake after short-term consumption of genipap juice. Sixteen healthy adult men were administered jenipap juice (250 mL) twice a day for three weeks. Before and after the three weeks of consumption. the subjects drank a control drink, and they consumed a standard diet. Urine was collected after 0-6 h, 6-12 h and 12-24 h. An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to analyze the urine samples. Principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to highlight experimental differences between groups. The value of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve validated the identified biomarkers. Thirty-one statistically affected urinary metabolites were putatively identified and were mainly related to iridoids family, medium-chain fatty acids, and polyphenols. Also a group of urinary markers including dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid were established as biomarkers of genipap consumption. Our findings have established a comprehensive panel of changes in the urinary metabolome and provided information to monitor endogenous alterations that are linked to genipap juice intake. These data should be used in further studies to understand the health implications of genipap juice consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109375DOI Listing
November 2020

Exploring the contribution of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria to cocoa beans fermentation: Isolation, selection and evaluation.

Food Res Int 2020 10 27;136:109478. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), 81531-970 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a recently discovered group whose main characteristic is to prefer D-fructose over D-glucose. In this study, laboratory cocoa beans fermentation was analyzed by Illumina-based amplicon sequencing, indicating the presence of potential FLAB of the genera Fructobacillus and Lactobacillus. Eighty efficient fructose-fermenting isolates, obtained from fermenting cocoa pulp beans mass, were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Pediococcus acidilactici (n = 52), Lactobacillus plantarum (n = 10), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n = 10), Bacillus subtilis (n = 4), and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (n = 4). The growth characteristics of all the 10 L. plantarum strains classified them as "facultatively" fructophilic bacteria, i.e., they grew on glucose without an external electron acceptor but the growth on fructose was faster. Among them, L. plantarum LPBF 35 was characterized by producing a range of aroma-impacting compounds (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, nonanal, and octanoic acid), being introduced into a cocoa fermentation process. Although the process started with approximately equal amounts of glucose and fructose, a concomitant, but faster utilization of fructose, was observed in cocoa fermentation conducted with L. plantarum LPBF 35 (with no residual fructose observed) when compared to control fermentation using a glucophilic strain (8.77 mg/g residual fructose) and a spontaneous process (8.38 mg/g residual fructose). L. plantarum LPBF 35 also showed an ideal profile of organic acid metabolism (citric acid consumption and lactic acid production) associated with cocoa fermentation. These results proved new insights on cocoa microbial activity and brings new perspectives on the use of lactic acid bacteria as starter culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109478DOI Listing
October 2020

Piceatannol Increases Antioxidant Defense and Reduces Cell Death in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblast under Oxidative Stress.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 Dec 23;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Functional and Structural Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém-Pará 66075-110, Brazil.

Piceatannol is a resveratrol metabolite that is considered a potent antioxidant and cytoprotector because of its high capacity to chelate/sequester reactive oxygen species. In pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, the imbalance of reactive oxygen species is closely related to the disorder in the cells and may cause changes in cellular metabolism and mitochondrial activity, which is implicated in oxidative stress status or even in cell death. In this way, this study aimed to evaluate piceatannol as cytoprotector in culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts through in vitro analyses of cell viability and oxidative stress parameters after oxidative stress induced as an injury simulator. Fibroblasts were seeded and divided into the following study groups: control, vehicle, control piceatannol, HO exposure, and HO exposure combined with the maintenance in piceatannol ranging from 0.1 to 20 μM. The parameters analyzed following exposure were cell viability by trypan blue exclusion test, general metabolism status by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, mitochondrial activity through the ATP production, total antioxidant capacity, and reduced gluthatione. Piceatannol was shown to be cytoprotective due the maintenance of cell viability between 1 and 10 μM even in the presence of HO. In a concentration of 0.1 μM piceatannol decreased significantly cell viability but increased cellular metabolism and antioxidant capacity of the fibroblasts. On the other hand, the fibroblasts treated with piceatannol at 1 μM presented low metabolism and antioxidant capacity. However, piceatannol did not protect cells from mitochondrial damage as measured by ATP production. In summary, piceatannol is a potent antioxidant in low concentrations with cytoprotective capacity, but it does not prevent all damage caused by hydrogen peroxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023480PMC
December 2019

Towards Therapeutic Alternatives for Mercury Neurotoxicity in the Amazon: Unraveling the Pre-Clinical Effects of the Superfruit Açaí (, Mart.) as Juice for Human Consumption.

Nutrients 2019 Oct 26;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Federal University of Pará, Belém-PA 66075-110, Brazil.

Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is a serious problem of public health, especially in the Amazon. Exposure in riverine populations is responsible for neurobehavioral abnormalities. It was hypothesized that consumption of Amazonian fruits could protect by reducing mercury accumulation. This work analyzed the effects of commercial samples of (EO) for human consumption (10 μL/g) against MeHg i.p. exposure (2.5 mg/Kg), using neurobehavioral (open field, rotarod and pole tests), biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels), aging-related (telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mRNA expression) and toxicokinetic (MeHg content) parameters in mice. Both the pole and rotarod tests were the most sensitive tests accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels in brains. MeHg reduced TERT mRNA about 50% demonstrating a strong pro-aging effect. The EO intake, similar to that of human populations, prevented all alterations, without changing the mercury content, but avoiding neurotoxicity and premature aging of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Contrary to the hypothesis found in the literature on the possible chelating properties of Amazonian fruits consumption, the effect of EO would be essentially pharmacodynamics, and possible mechanisms are discussed. Our data already support the regular consumption of EO as an excellent option for exposed Amazonian populations to have additional protection against MeHg intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11112585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893510PMC
October 2019

Reliable Methods for Analyses of Volatile Compounds of Copaifera Oleoresins Combining Headspace and Gas Chromatography.

Chem Biodivers 2020 Jan 4;17(1):e1900440. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café s/n, Monte Alegre CEP, 14.040-903, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.

Two analytical methods were developed in this study for direct and fast chemical investigation of authentic Copaifera oleoresins (COR) and commercial products. Polydimethylsiloxane microfiber coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) showed the best results for oleoresin qualitative analysis, setting the following extraction conditions: equilibrium time of 15 min, extraction time of 30 min, extraction temperature at 60 °C and constant stirring of 400 rpm. Sesquiterpenes α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene and trans-α-bergamotene were found in all investigated samples. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) measured the content of the four sesquiterpenes in all samples. Qualitative and quantitative results showed important differences between COR of distinct species and commercial products. Data regarding the volatile composition of C. oblongifolia and C. trapezifolia oleoresins were first presented in this study and two new analytical methods were reported for direct and fast qualitative and quantitative analysis of COR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201900440DOI Listing
January 2020

Obtainment of an enriched fraction of : identification using UPLC-DAD-MS/MS and photochemopreventive screening.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2020 27;50(1):28-36. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

is a fruit tree native from Central and South America. Different species of have demonstrated high polyphenolic content and high antioxidant capacity. The oxidative stress significantly contributes to the development of several chronicle diseases, particularly age-related diseases. Therefore, photochemoprevention is an emerging interest in the use of naturally occurring antioxidants for their therapeutic use. A partial purification of the extract was carried out onto macroporous resin and the main components of leaf extract and fraction were identified using UPLC-DAD-MS/MS as epicatechin, apigenin C-di-hexoside, myricetin--hexose-deoxyhexose, myricetin--deoxyhexose and vicenin-2, which was identified for the first time in . Both extract and fraction presented high antioxidant capacity, the fraction exhibiting higher polyphenol and flavonoid contents and higher content of vicenin-2, suggesting that the fractioning process effectively resulted in the partial purification of the extract. The cytotoxicity and photostability were assessed in L929 fibroblast cells to evaluate whether extract and fraction were suitable for topical application. The UVA and UVB irradiated extract and fraction did not decrease the antioxidant capacity and cell viability of L929 fibroblasts, demonstrating the photostability of the samples. The fractioning process successfully purified and enriched extract, and both the extract and fraction are potential candidates to be safely incorporated in topical photochemopreventive formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2019.1658118DOI Listing
February 2020

Antidepressant and Antiaging Effects of Açaí ( Mart.) in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019 24;2019:3614960. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil.

Depression is a mental disorder that affects 300 million people of all ages worldwide, but fewer than half of those with the condition receive adequate treatment. In addition, the high pharmacological refractoriness (affecting 30%-50% of patients) and toxicity of some classical antidepressants support the pursuit of new therapies. People with this condition show depressed mood, loss of pleasure, high levels of oxidative stress, and accelerated biological aging (decreased telomere length and expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance). Because of the close relationship between depression and oxidative stress, nutraceuticals with antioxidant properties are excellent candidates for therapy. This study represents the first investigation of the possible antidepressant and antiaging effects of commercial samples of clarified açaí () juice (EO). This fruit is rich in antioxidants and widely consumed. In this study, mice were treated with saline or EO (10 L/g, oral) for 4 days and then with saline or lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce depressive-like behavior. Only four doses of EO were enough to abolish the despair-like and anhedonia behaviors and alterations observed in electromyographic measurements. The antidepression effect of EO was similar to that of imipramine and associated with antioxidant and antiaging effects (preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing TERT mRNA expression, respectively) in three major brain regions involved in depression (hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex). Additionally, EO significantly protected hippocampal cells, preventing neuronal loss associated with the depressive-like state and nitrite level increases (an indirect marker of nitric oxide production). Moreover, EO alone significantly increased TERT mRNA expression, revealing for the first time a potent antiaging action in the brain that suggests neuroprotection against long-term age-related consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3614960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681600PMC
January 2020

Biotechnological approaches for cocoa waste management: A review.

Waste Manag 2019 May 24;90:72-83. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology Department, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Cocoa beans provide raw materials for global food industries valued in excess of $47 billion in world exportations. Through on-farm processing, about 80% of cocoa fruit is discarded as residual biomass, including cocoa pod husks, cocoa bean shells and cocoa sweatings. Farmers routinely discard these residues/by-products during the initial cocoa bean processing steps, occupying vast areas and raising social and environmental concerns. Alternatively, this residual biomass is used as cocoa tree fertilizer. However, its disposal is performed without proper treatment, resulting in putrid odors and plant diseases. Recently, some studies have reported the use of cocoa by-products in the production of high-value-adding molecules with potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this aspect, biotechnological approaches have been shown to be a viable alternative for the transformation of this residual biomass into fine products. This article reviews the biotechnological approaches implemented for the management and exploitation of cocoa by-product. Related topics on cocoa production and residual biomass generation, sustainability and valorization of cocoa chain are addressed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.04.030DOI Listing
May 2019

Prevention methods of foodborne Chagas disease: Disinfection, heat treatment and quality control by RT-PCR.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Jul 26;301:34-40. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Centre for Valorisation of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Universidade Federal do Pará, Av. Perimetral da Ciência km 01, 66.095-780, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:

The most important mode of transmission causing outbreaks of Chagas disease in the Amazon region is the oral route due to the ingestion of contaminated food. Herein, prevention methods for foodborne diseases caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, namely, sanitization, thermal treatment were investigated and the use of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) amplification for the mRNA-based detection of viable T. cruzi in açai, was developed. Three T. cruzi strains (T. cruzi I, T. cruzi III and Y) were used in the present study. The Amazonian strains T. cruzi I (425) and T. cruzi III (370) showed higher resistance to sodium hypochlorite treatment and heat treatment than the reference strain Y. The blanching of fruits (70 ± 1 °C for 10 s) and pasteurization of juice (82.5 °C for 1 min) efficiently eliminated T. cruzi in food matrices. Additionally, a method that uses RT-PCR amplification of mRNA was developed for the detection of viable T. cruzi in açai, which could play a role in examining food samples, ensuring consumer health, and reducing this foodborne disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.04.009DOI Listing
July 2019

Main Human Urinary Metabolites after Genipap ( L.) Juice Intake.

Nutrients 2018 Aug 24;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Federal University of Pará & Centre for Valorization of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia Guamá, Avenida Perimetral da Ciência, km 01, Guamá 66075-750, Brazil.

Genipap ( L.) is a native fruit from Amazonia that contains bioactive compounds with a wide range of bioactivities. However, the response to genipap juice ingestion in the human exposome has never been studied. To identify biomarkers of genipap exposure, the untargeted metabolomics approach in human urine was applied. Urine samples from 16 healthy male volunteers, before and after drinking genipap juice, were analyzed by liquid chromatography⁻high-resolution mass spectrometry. XCMS package was used for data processing in the R environment and -tests were applied on log-transformed and Pareto-scaled data to select the significant metabolites. The principal component analysis (PCA) score plots showed a clear distinction between experimental groups. Thirty-three metabolites were putatively annotated and the most discriminant were mainly related to the metabolic pathways of iridoids and phenolic derivatives. For the first time, the bioavailability of genipap iridoids after human consumption is reported. Dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, (1R,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-succinylcyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate, hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, genipic acid, 12-demethylated-8-hydroxygenipinic acid, 3(7)-dehydrogenipinic acid, genipic acid glucuronide, nonate, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate may be considered biomarkers of genipap consumption. Human exposure to genipap reveals the production of derivative forms of bioactive compounds such as genipic and genipinic acid. These findings suggest that genipap consumption triggers effects on metabolic signatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165415PMC
August 2018

The value of the Brazilian açai fruit as a therapeutic nutritional strategy for chronic kidney disease patients.

Int Urol Nephrol 2018 Dec 18;50(12):2207-2220. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Cardiovascular Science Graduate Program, Federal University Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, Brazil.

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit from the Amazon region in Brazil contains bioactive compounds such as α-tocopherol, anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glycoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside), and other flavonoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, the prebiotic activity of anthocyanins in modulating the composition of gut microbiota has emerged as an additional mechanism by which anthocyanins exert health-promoting effects. Açai consumption may be a nutritional therapeutic strategy for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients since these patients present with oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysbiosis. However, the ability of açai to modulate these conditions has not been studied in CKD, and this review presents recent information about açai and its possible therapeutic effects in CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-1912-zDOI Listing
December 2018

Selective effects of Euterpe oleracea (açai) on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania infantum.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Jan 28;97:1613-1621. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Federal University of Pará, Institute of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Structural Biology, Belém, Pará, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology in Structural Biology and Bioimaging, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi) are protozoa that cause American cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. These diseases show a high incidence in developing countries such as Brazil. The treatments used for leishmaniasis are still limited due to their high cost and toxicity. Currently, some natural products are considered an important alternative source of new leishmanicidal agents. Euterpe oleracea Martius, a palm producing black fruits, is frequently consumed in the Amazon region, as a juice, known as açai, with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant properties. Interestingly, the biological activity of clarified açai juice (EO) on L. (L.) amazonensis and L. infantum (=L. chagasi) is unknown. Therefore, the mechanism of anti-leishmanial action of EO has been evaluated on L. (L.) amazonensis and L. infantum (=L. chagasi). EO reduced the number of promastigotes and caused morphological alterations, increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced cell death phenotypes probably seems by apoptosis in the promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis (IC = 1:40) and L. infantum (=L. chagasi) (IC= 1:38). EO also presented activity against Leishmania amastigotes. Treatment with EO for 72 h strongly reduced IL-17 cytokine levels at all tested concentrations and decreased the number of intracellular amastigotes in macrophages infected with L. (L.) amazonensis (IC= 1:30) and L. infantum (=L. chagasi) (IC= 1:38). Additionally, no cytotoxic effect was observed in murine macrophages treated with EO (72 h - CC > 1:1). Our results demonstrated that EO has leishmanicidal activity against two different species that cause American visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis without cytotoxic effects for the host cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.11.089DOI Listing
January 2018

Dynamics and diversity of the bacterial community during the spontaneous decay of açai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Nov 30;49 Suppl 1:25-33. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Universidade Federal do Pará, Centro de Valorização de Compostos Bioativos da Amazônia (CVACBA), Belém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:

The biodiversity and evolution of the microbial community in açai fruits (AF) between three geographical origins and two spontaneous decay conditions were examined by applying culture-independent methods. Culture-independent methods based on 16S rRNA from fifteen samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the most abundant phyla. At the genus level, Massilia (taxon with more than 50% of the sequences remaining constant during the 30h of decay), Pantoea, Naxibacter, Enterobacter, Raoultella and Klebsiella were identified, forming the carposphere bacterial microbiota of AF. AF is fibre-rich and Massilia bacteria could find a large quantity of substrate for its growth through cellulase production. Beta diversity showed that the quality parameters of AF (pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and lipids) and elemental analysis (C, N, H and C/N ratio) were unable to drive microbial patterns in AF. This research offers new insight into the indigenous bacterial community composition on AF as a function of spontaneous postharvest decay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2018.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328721PMC
November 2018

Clarified Açaí () Juice as an Anticonvulsant Agent Mechanistic Study of GABAergic Targets.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 20;2018:2678089. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil.

Seizures affect about 50 million people around the world. Approximately 30% of seizures are refractory to the current pharmacological arsenal, so, the pursuit of new therapeutic alternatives is essential. Clarified (EO) juice showed anticonvulsant properties similar to diazepam in an model with pentylenetetrazol, a GABA receptor blocker. This study investigated the effects of EO on the main GABAergic targets for anticonvulsant drugs, analyzing the effect on the GABA receptor's benzodiazepine and picrotoxinin binding sites and the GABA uptake. Primary cultures of cortical neurons and astrocytes were treated with EO (0-25%) for up to 90 min. [H]Flunitrazepam and [H]TBOB binding, [H]GABA uptake, cell viability, and morphology were assayed. Nonlethal concentrations of EO increased agonist binding and decreased antagonist binding in cortical neurons. Low concentrations significantly inhibited GABA uptake, especially in astrocytes, suggesting an accumulation of endogenous GABA in the synaptic cleft. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that EO can improve GABAergic neurotransmission via interactions with GABA receptor and modulation of GABA uptake. Understanding these molecular mechanisms will help in the treatment of seizures and epilepsy, especially in developing countries where geographic isolation and low purchasing power are the main barriers to access to adequate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2678089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5883935PMC
October 2018

Assessment of genotoxic activity of oleoresins and leaves extracts of six Copaifera species for prediction of potential human risks.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jul 3;221:119-125. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

University of Franca, Avenida Dr. Armando Salles de Oliveira 201, 14404-600 Franca, São Paulo, Brazil.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Copaifera species are used in folk medicine for a wide variety of pharmacological properties. This paper reports the cytotoxic and genotoxic analyses of oleoresins and leaves extracts of Copaifera species: C. duckei, C. multijuga, C. paupera, C. pubiflora, C. reticulata and C. trapezifolia.

Materials And Methods: In vitro assays were performed using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). The clonogenic efficiency and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays were employed for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment, respectively. The mouse bone marrow micronucleus test was used for in vivo studies.

Results: The cytotoxicity results using the clonogenic efficiency assay showed IC values ranging from 9.8 to 99.2 µg/mL for oleoresins and 66.4-721.5 for leaves extracts. However, no cytotoxic effect was observed in the in vivo studies. Additionally, the treatments with oleoresins and leaves extracts did not significantly increase the frequency of micronuclei in both in vitro and in vivo mammalian cells. The UPLC-MS/MS and CG/MS analyses of Copaifera oleoresins allowed the identification of 10 acid diterpenes and 11 major volatile sesquiterpenes. Leaves are rich in phenolic compounds including two flavonoid heterosides and 16 galloylquinic acid derivatives.

Conclusions: The oleoresins and leaves extracts of studied Copaifera species were not cytotoxic in vivo, as well as not genotoxic in both in vitro and vivo assays, under the experimental conditions used. Therefore, the obtained results should be sufficient to demonstrate the absence of significant genotoxic risk of these Copaifera products for human use in the evaluated concentrations range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.002DOI Listing
July 2018

Photochemoprotective effect of a fraction of a partially purified extract of Byrsonima crassifolia leaves against UVB-induced oxidative stress in fibroblasts and hairless mice.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Jan 28;178:53-60. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation increases the risk of various skin disorders, leading to inflammation and oxidative stress and thereby increasing the risk of skin photoaging and carcinogenesis. The use of photochemoprotectors such as natural products with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties represents a strategy for preventing UVB-induced skin damage. We investigated the photochemoprotective effect of a fraction of a partially purified extract of Byrsonima crassifolia leaves (BCF) on fibroblasts and hairless mice exposed to UVB radiation. The mixture of phenolic compounds in BCF prevented the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in fibroblast cultures induced by UVB radiation more than some of their individual standards ((+)-catechin (CAT), epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside). Prepared gel formulations increased skin antioxidant activity, and BCF components and the CAT standard were retained in the HRS/J hairless mice epidermis 2h after application. Topical treatment with the BCF or CAT formulations (1%) significantly reduced the decrease in GSH levels and decreased myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 induced by UVB radiation (P<0.05), indicating that both BCF and CAT had anti-inflammatory effects. BCF inhibited UVB-induced metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion/activity, whereas CAT had no effect on MMP-9 activity in the skin of treated animals. These results therefore suggest that BCF can be used as a photochemoprotective agent and antioxidant in the prevention/treatment of inflammation and oxidative stress of the skin induced by UVB radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.10.033DOI Listing
January 2018

Development of a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of acid diterpenes in Copaifera oleoresins.

J Chromatogr A 2017 Sep 12;1515:81-90. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Species of Copaifera genus (Fabaceae - Caesalpinoiodidaeae) produces an important commercial oleoresin that displays many medicinal properties. Copaifera oleoresins (COR) are composed mainly of a mixture of diterpenes and sequiterpenes, and the main reported acid diterpenes for this genus are kaurenoic, copalic, hardwickiic and polyaltic acids. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for identification and quantification of nine acid diterpenes. The developed method was applied in the analyses of 10 authentic COR samples collected in the North and Southeast of Brazil and six commercial COR samples. Samples preparation consisted of simple dilution of oleoresins in methanol followed by filtration. Validation parameters of the method for nine acid diterpenes were satisfactory: selectivity/specificity was defined by retention time and MS/MS analyses for each analyte; generally all analytical curves presented r>0.99, Lack-of-fit test not significant and RSD<20% for all concentration levels; limit of detection and limit of quantification were on the scale of nanogram per milliliter; inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy were adequate. Regarding the robustness, the method was sensible to small deliberate variations of temperature and additives to the mobile phase, such as formic acid and ammonium hydroxide. Results of 16 analyzed samples of COR showed qualitative and quantitative differences of acid diterpenes among all samples. The diterpenes ent-kaurenoic acid 1, ent-polyalthic acid 3, ent-copalic acid 5 and, ent-3-β-acetoxy copalic acid 9 were found with more frequency in COR analyzed samples. Additionally, the content of the acid diterpenes found in 16 Copaifera oleoresin samples was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), suggesting a botanical origin for the commercial samples. The developed UPLC method was shown to be reliable for the analysis of acid diterpenes in commercial Copaifera oleoresins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.07.038DOI Listing
September 2017

qPCR for the detection of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi.

Parasitol Int 2017 Oct 8;66(5):563-566. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Molecular Biology Laboratory, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Here we presented a potential real-time PCR (qPCR) method with public health importance and relevance for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in açai pulp. There is not a current process to identify T. cruzi in açai, that ensures innocuity of this food concerning oral transmission. First, six new primers were designed using the DNA sequences of T. cruzi y152 and Emerald strains obtained from GenBank. For primers evaluation and titration they were validated regarding the amplification and not with the fluorophore chosen 1ngμL of the T. cruzi DNA as target. For determination of the ideal concentration the titration of the primers drawn in this study showed T. cruzi DNA amplification in five primer pairs at concentrations 100, 200 and 300nM and DNA fixed concentrations at 1ngμL. For standardization all reactions were performed in triplicate with 5.0μL and positives and negatives controls were included in every run. As positive control DNA from two genotypes TcI and TcII were used. As negative control the reaction product without DNA of the parasite was used. The best primer concentration, for the expected fragments, was 300nM. From six primers improved the Ep1F/Ep1R primer detected 1×10ngμL for both genotype of the parasite. The Bp1F/Bp1R showed amplification for 1.70.10ngμL for TcI and 4.31.10ngμL for TcII, based on the standard curve. The last step we tested the selected primers in qPCR for monitoring T. cruzi in açai pulp experimentally contaminated. The recovery rate for the TcII was 71%, whereas in açai samples contaminated with TcI it was 76%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2017.06.001DOI Listing
October 2017

Linseed oil presents different patterns of oxidation in real-time and accelerated aging assays.

Food Chem 2016 Oct 4;208:111-5. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 2/L7.05.08, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address:

This study aimed at verifying if the hypothesis that one day at 60°C is equivalent to one month at 20°C could be confirmed during linseed oil aging for 6months at 20°C and 6days at 60°C using the "Schaal oven stability test". Tests were conducted with linseed oil supplemented or not with myricetin or butyl-hydroxytoluene as antioxidants. Oxidation was evaluated with the peroxide and p-anisidine values, as well as the content in conjugated dienes and aldehydes. All four indicators of oxidation showed very different kinetic behaviors at 20 and 60°C. The hypothesis is thus not verified for linseed oil, supplemented or not with antioxidant. In the control oil, the conjugated dienes and the peroxide value observed were respectively of 41.8±0.8 Absorbance Unit (AU)/g oil and 254.3±5.8meq.O2/kg oil after 6months at 20°C. These values were of 18.2±1.3AU/g oil and 65.2±20.3meq.O2/kg after 6days at 60°C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.010DOI Listing
October 2016

Copaifera reticulata oleoresin: Chemical characterization and antibacterial properties against oral pathogens.

Anaerobe 2016 Aug 23;40:18-27. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

Nucleus of Research in Sciences and Technology, Research Laboratory Culture of Applied Microbiology, University of Franca, Franca, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Oral infections such as periodontitis and tooth decay are the most common diseases of humankind. Oleoresins from different copaifera species display antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Copaifera reticulata is the commonest tree of this genus and grows abundantly in several Brazilian states, such as Pará, Amazonas, and Ceará. The present study has evaluated the chemical composition and antimicrobial potential of the Copaifera reticulata oleoresin (CRO) against the causative agents of tooth decay and periodontitis and has assessed the CRO cytotoxic potential. Cutting edge analytical techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS) aided the chemical characterization of CRO. Antimicrobial assays included determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Biofilm (MICB50), Time Kill Assay, and Checkerboard Dilution. Conduction of XTT assays on human lung fibroblasts (GM07492-A cells) helped to examine the CRO cytotoxic potential. Chromatographic analyses revealed that the major constituents of CRO were β-bisabolene, trans-α-bergamotene, β-selinene, α-selinene, and the terpene acids ent-agathic-15-methyl ester, ent-copalic acid, and ent-polyalthic acid. MIC and MBC results ranged from 6.25 to 200 μg/mL against the tested bacteria. The time-kill assay conducted with CRO at concentrations between 50 and 100 μg/mL showed bactericidal activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586) and Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 49456) after 4 h, Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563) after 6 h, Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277) and Lactobacillus casei (clinical isolate) after 12 h, and Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 25975) and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) after 18 h. The fractional inhibitory concentration indexes (FICIs) revealed antagonistic interaction for Lactobacillus casei (clinical isolate), indifferent effect for Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277), Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586), Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563), and Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 25975), and additive effect for Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 49456). Treatment of GM07492-A cells with CRO demonstrated that concentrations up to 39 μg/mL significantly reduced cell viability as compared to the negative control, being IC50 equal to 51.85 ± 5.4 μg/mL. These results indicated that CRO plays an important part in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against oral pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.04.017DOI Listing
August 2016

Anticonvulsant properties of Euterpe oleracea in mice.

Neurochem Int 2015 Nov 2;90:20-7. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB), Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, Brazil. Electronic address:

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a highly consumed fruit in Amazon, is from a common palm with remarkable antioxidant properties. Because oxidative stress and seizures are intimately linked, this study investigated the potential neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of commercial clarified açai juice (EO). EO did not alter spontaneous locomotor activity. Four doses of EO were sufficient to increase latencies to both first myoclonic jerk and first generalized tonic-clonic seizure and significantly decrease the total duration of tonic-clonic seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol administration. Also, electrocortical alterations provoked by pentylenetetrazol were prevented, significantly decreasing amplitude of discharges and frequencies above 50 Hz. EO was also able to completely prevent lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex, showing a potent direct scavenging property. These results demonstrate for the first time that E. oleracea significantly protects against seizures and seizure-related oxidative stress, indicating an additional protection for humans who consume this fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2015.06.014DOI Listing
November 2015

Immunomodulatory action of Copaifera spp oleoresins on cytokine production by human monocytes.

Biomed Pharmacother 2015 Mar 9;70:12-8. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, 18618-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Copaifera spp oleoresins have been used in folk medicine for centuries; nevertheless, its immunomodulatory action has not been investigated. Thus, the goal of this study was to characterize different oleoresins and to verify their action on human monocytes regarding pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10, respectively). The chemical composition of Brazilian Copaifera reticulata, Copaifera duckey and Copaifera multijuga oleoresins was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Cell viability was assessed by MTT method after incubation of cells with Copaifera spp. Noncytotoxic concentrations of oleoresins were incubated with human monocytes from healthy donors, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA. HPLC-MS analysis for terpenes allowed the identification of six diterpene acids and one sesquiterpene acid. Oleoresins exerted no cytotoxic effects on human monocytes. All oleoresins had a similar profile: LPS-induced TNF-α production was maintained by oleoresins, while a significant inhibitory action on IL-10 production was seen. Copaifera oleoresins seemed to exert an activator profile on human monocytes without affecting cell viability. Such effect may be due to the presence of either diterpene or sesquiterpene acids; however, further studies are necessary to determine the involvement of such compounds in Copaifera immunomodulatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2014.12.035DOI Listing
March 2015

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis Strain AI06, an Endophyte of the Amazonian Açaí Palm.

Genome Announc 2014 Nov 20;2(6). Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Centre for Technological Innovation (CIT), Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Brazil.

We report the genome, in a single chromosome, of Lactococcus lactis strain AI06, isolated from the mesocarp of the açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea) in eastern Amazonia, Brazil. This strain is an endophyte of the açaí palm and also a component of the microbiota of the edible food product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01225-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239368PMC
November 2014

Effects of a bleaching agent with calcium on bovine enamel.

Eur J Dent 2014 Jul;8(3):320-325

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Federal University of Pará, Belem, Para, Brazil.

Objective: This in vitro study analyzed the effects of a bleaching treatment containing 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) with or without calcium on bovine enamel, using the Knoop hardness number (KHN), tristimulus colorimetry (TC), and scanning electron microscopy.

Materials And Methods: Forty-five specimens were randomly divided into groups (n = 5), which included artificial saliva (negative control [NC]), 35% HP (positive control [PC]), and 35% HP Blue Calcium (HP Blue). The specimens were subjected to three bleaching sessions. During the sessions, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva at 37°C. Before and after bleaching, KHN tests were conducted using a force of 25 gf for 5 s. TC was performed using the CIE-L*a*b* system and readouts were obtained at the following 4 time points: Before the bleaching treatment; after the first session, the second session, and the third session. The specimens were dehydrated and coated with gold, and the photomicrographs were analyzed in a double-blind manner with a LEO microscope.

Results: Using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P < 0.05), a statistically significant difference was identified between the initial and final mean KHNs of the NC and PC groups, while the initial and final mean KHNs were not significantly different in the HP Blue group. The final mean values of ΔE, ΔL, and Δb of the PC and HP Blue groups were significantly higher than the initial values (P < 0.01 for both). The photomicrographs revealed no differences among the groups.

Conclusions: Therefore, treatment with HP Blue prevented changes in the KHN without reducing the efficacy of bleaching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1305-7456.137634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4144128PMC
July 2014
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