Publications by authors named "Hervé Ghesquieres"

115 Publications

Plasticity of Mature B Cells Between Follicular and Classic Hodgkin Lymphomas: A Series of 22 Cases Expanding the Spectrum of Transdifferentiation.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Multi-site Pathology Department Hematology Department, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre Bénite Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1 Pathology Department, Centre Léon Berard, Lyon Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 1065, Centre Me[Combining Acute Accent]diterrane[Combining Acute Accent]en de Me[Combining Acute Accent]decine Mole[Combining Acute Accent]culaire (C3M), Team 10, Nice Pathology Department, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Montpellier, Hôpital Gui De Chauliac, Montpellier Pathology Department, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Toulouse-Purpan, Institut Universitaire du Cancer-Oncopole de Toulouse, Toulouse CRCL, INSERM U1052-CNRS UMR5286, Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Oullins Pathology Department, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Université Paris Saclay, Boulogne-Billancourt Pathology Department, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Université Paris-Est, Créteil, France.

Follicular lymphoma and classic Hodgkin lymphoma can be associated in composite and/or sequential lymphomas. Common IGH and BCL2 rearrangements have already been identified between both contingents of these entities, but mutation profiles have not yet been investigated. The main objective of this study was to analyze the transdifferentiation process that may occur between Hodgkin and follicular contingents in sequential and composite lymphomas to better characterize these entities. From 2004 to 2020, a retrospective multicentric study was performed, including 9 composite and 13 sequential lymphomas. Clinical data were retrospectively collected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of BCL2 and BCL6 rearrangements, polymerase chain reaction of IGH and IGK rearrangements, next-generation sequencing of IGK rearrangement, and targeted next-generation sequencing (TNGS) on a panel of genes frequently mutated in lymphomas were performed on each contingent of composite and sequential lymphomas. For TNGS, each contingent was isolated by laser capture microdissection. Clinical presentation and evolution were more aggressive in sequential than composite lymphomas. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, common rearrangements of BCL6 and BCL2 were identified between both contingents. Similarly, a common clonal relationship was established by evaluating IGH and IGK rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction or next-generation sequencing. By TNGS, the same pathogenic variants were identified in both contingents in the following genes: CREBBP, KMT2D, BCL2, EP300, SF3B1, SOCS1, ARID1A, and BCOR. Specific pathogenic variants for each contingent were also identified: XPO1 for Hodgkin lymphoma contingent and FOXO1, TNFRSF14 for follicular lymphoma contingent. This study reinforces the hypothesis of a transdifferentiation process between Hodgkin and follicular contingent of sequential/composite lymphomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001780DOI Listing
July 2021

Gonadal Function Recovery in Patients With Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With a PET-Adapted Regimen: Prospective Analysis of a Randomized Phase III Trial (AHL2011).

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 22:JCO2100068. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Haematology, University Hospital F Mitterrand and Inserm UMR1231, Dijon, France.

Purpose: The prospective, randomized AHL2011 trial demonstrated that the use of the doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine regimen (ABVD) after two cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) in early responders on the basis of a positron emission tomography (PET)-driven strategy was safe and minimized toxicity compared with standard 6 BEACOPP cycles. This substudy investigated the benefit of this strategy in gonadal function and fertility in patients under 45 years old.

Methods: Ovarian function was assessed by serum measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and anti-müllerian hormone in women, and semen analysis, FSH, and testosterone levels were used to evaluate testicular function in men at baseline, end of treatment, and during 5 years of follow-up.

Results: A total of 145 women and 424 men, enrolled between May 19, 2011, and April 29, 2014, were included. The risk of premature ovarian insufficiency (FSH > 24 IU/L) and of having a low ovarian reserve (anti-müllerian hormone < 0.5 ng/mL) was reduced after treatment in the PET-driven group (odds ratio [OR], 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.50; = .001 and OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.56, = .005, respectively). Both parameters were correlated with age and dose of alkylating agents. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of pregnancy rates. Men in the PET-driven group had a higher recovery rate of sperm parameters after treatment compared with the standard BEACOPP group, as well as a lower risk of severe testicular damage (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.5; < .0001) and a higher likelihood of achieving pregnancy (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.4 to 9.3; = .004).

Conclusion: Although both treatments affected ovarian reserve and spermatogenesis, the PET-driven strategy decreased the risk of gonadal dysfunction and infertility in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00068DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic Impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients With Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Aug;46(8):627-634

Departments of Nuclear Medicine.

Purpose Of The Report: We aimed to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in predicting patient outcome following chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells infusion in aggressive B-cell lymphoma.

Methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT data before leukapheresis, before CAR T-cell infusion and 1 month (M1) after CAR T-cell infusion, from 72 patients were retrospectively analyzed. SUVmax, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and parameters describing tumor kinetics were calculated for each 18F-FDG PET/CT performed. The aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT metabolic parameters for predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) following CAR T-cell therapy.

Results: Regarding PFS, ∆MTVpre-CAR and ∆TLGpre-CAR were found to be more discriminating compared with metabolic parameters at preinfusion. Median PFS in patients with a ∆MTVpre-CAR of less than 300% was 6.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 months to not reached) compared with 2.8 months (95% CI, 0.9-3.0 months) for those with a value of 300% or greater (P = 0.004). Likewise, median PFS in patients with ∆TLGpre-CAR of less than 420% was 6.8 months (95% CI, 2.8 months to not reached) compared with 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.3-3.0 months) for those with a value of 420% or greater (P = 0.0148). Regarding OS, metabolic parameters at M1 were strongly associated with subsequent outcome. SUVmax at M1 with a cutoff value of 14 was the most predictive parameter in multivariate analysis, outweighing other clinicobiological variables (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Disease metabolic volume kinetics before infusion of CAR T cells seems to be superior to initial tumor bulk itself for predicting PFS. For OS, SUVmax at M1 might adequately segregate patients with different prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003756DOI Listing
August 2021

Allogenic Stem Cell Transplantation Abrogates Negative Impact on Outcome of AML Patients with KMT2A Partial Tandem Duplication.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 10;13(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Hematology, Lyon-Sud Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69495 Pierre Bénite, France.

Recently, a new subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting a direct partial tandem duplication (PTD) of the gene was described. The consequences of this alteration in terms of outcome and response to treatment remain unclear. We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of -mutated patients with newly diagnosed AML. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years, the median overall survival was 12.1 months. -mutated patients were highly enriched in mutations affecting epigenetic actors and the signaling pathway. Integrating in ELN classification abrogates its predictive value on survival suggesting that this mutation may overcome other genomic marker effects. In patients receiving intensive chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) significantly improved the outcome compared to non-transplanted patients. In the multivariate analysis, only HSCT at any time in complete remission (HR = 2.35; = 0.034) and status (HR = 0.29; = 0.014) were independent variables associated with overall survival, whereas age was not. In conclusion, our results emphasize that should be considered as a potential adverse prognostic factor. However, as -mutated patients are usually considered an intermediate risk group, upfront HSCT should be considered in first CR due to the high relapse rate observed in this subset of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126020PMC
May 2021

Moxetumomab pasudotox as re-treatment for heavily-pretreated relapsed hairy cell leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 May 25:1-3. Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1929959DOI Listing
May 2021

The Impact of DNMT3A Status on NPM1 MRD Predictive Value and Survival in Elderly AML Patients Treated Intensively.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

University of Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut de Recherche contre le Cancer de Lille, UMR9020-UMR-S 1277-Canther-Cancer Heterogeneity, Plasticity and Resistance to Therapies, 59000 Lille, France.

Minimal residual disease (MRD) is now a powerful surrogate marker to assess the response to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). mutation has been associated with adverse outcomes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of status on NPM1 MRD predictive value for survival in a retrospective cohort of AML patients aged over 60 years old treated intensively. A total of 138 patients treated for -mutated AML in two French institutions were analyzed retrospectively. status did not influence the probability of having a ≥ 4log MRD1 reduction after induction. Only 20.4% of patients reached ≥ 4log MRD1 reduction compared to 47.5% in wt cases. A 4log reduction of MRD was associated with a better outcome, even in mutated patients, independent of the allelic ratio. negative patients who reached a 4log reduction had a superior outcome to those who did not (HR = 0.23; < 0.001). However, postinduction MRD1 reduction was not predictive of OS and LFS in mut patients. These results confirm that post-induction MRD1 is a reliable tool to assess disease outcome in elderly AML patients. However, the presence of also identifies a subgroup of patients at high risk of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124973PMC
April 2021

Intravenous high-dose methotrexate based systemic therapy in the treatment of isolated primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: An LOC network study.

Am J Hematol 2021 07 3;96(7):823-833. Epub 2021 May 3.

Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brest, Brest, France.

The treatment of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) remains controversial regarding the use of local, systemic, or combined treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy and toxicity of intravenous high-dose methotrexate (IV HD-MTX) based systemic therapy in a uniformly treated population of PVRL patients. From a nationwide French database, we retrospectively selected 59 patients (median age: 70 years, median Karnofsky Performance Status: 90%) with isolated PVRL at diagnosis who received first-line treatment with HD-MTX between 2011 and 2018. 8/59 patients also received a local treatment. No deaths or premature discontinuations of MTX due to toxicity were reported. A complete response was obtained in 40/57 patients after chemotherapy. Before treatment, IL-10 was elevated in the aqueous humor (AH) or in the vitreous in 89% of patients. After treatment, AH IL-10 was undetectable in 87% of patients with a CR/uCR/PR and detectable in 92% of patients with PD/SD. After a median follow-up of 61 months, 42/59 (71%) patients had relapsed, including 29 isolated ocular relapses as the first relapse and a total of 22 brain relapses. The median overall survival, progression-free survival, ocular-free survival and brain-free survival were 75, 18, 29 and 73 months, respectively. IV HD-MTX based systemic therapy as a first-line treatment for isolated PVRL is feasible, with acceptable toxicity, even in an elderly population. This strategy seems efficient to prevent brain relapse with prolonged overall survival. However, the ocular relapse rate remains high. New approaches are needed to improve local control of this disease, and ocular assessment could be completed by monitoring AH IL-10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26199DOI Listing
July 2021

Real-life targeted next-generation sequencing for lymphoma diagnosis over 1 year from the French Lymphoma Network.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jun 25;193(6):1110-1122. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Pathology Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Bénite, France.

As the impact of targeted next-generation sequencing (TNGS) on daily diagnosis has not been evaluated, we performed TNGS (46 genes) on lymphomas of unclear subtype following expert haematopathological review. The potential impact on patient care and modifications of final diagnosis were divided into major and minor changes according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines. Among 229 patients [19 primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), 48 large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs), 89 small BCLs (SBCLs), seven Hodgkin lymphomas (HL), 66 T-cell lymphomas], the overall concordance rate of histological and TNGS diagnosis was 89·5%. TNGS confirmed the histological diagnosis in 144 cases (62·9%), changed the diagnosis in 24 cases (10·5%) and did not help to clarify diagnosis in 61 cases (26·7%). Modifications to the final diagnosis had a clinical impact on patient care in 8·3% of cases. Diagnostic modifications occurred in all types of lymphoma except in PCNSL and HL; the modification rate was 14·6% in SBCL and 12·5% in LBCL. While comparing informative and uninformative cases, no differences were found in terms of DNA amplification, quality or depth of sequencing and biopsy type. The present study highlights that TNGS may directly contribute to a more accurate diagnosis in difficult-to-diagnose lymphomas, thus improving the clinical management in routine practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17395DOI Listing
June 2021

Relapsed/Refractory International Prognostic Index (R/R-IPI): An international prognostic calculator for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Am J Hematol 2021 05 18;96(5):599-605. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnosata.

Disease progression after frontline therapy for Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically significant event. Patients who experience early progression or have refractory disease have especially poor outcomes. Simple, clinically applicable prognostic tools are needed for selecting patients for consideration for novel therapies and prognostication in the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting. Model building was performed in patients from the Surrogate endpoints in aggressive lymphoma (SEAL) consortium with disease progression after frontline immunochemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) measured from date of progression. Validation was performed in the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic SPORE Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) and Danish National Lymphoma Register (LYFO) cohorts. Model performance was assessed using time-dependent concordance indices (c-statistic) and calibration with metrics evaluated at 2 years from progression. Note, 1234 of 5112 patients treated with frontline immunochemotherapy in the SEAL consortium developed progressive disease. Time to progression on immunochemotherapy and age at progression were strongly associated with post-progression OS (both p < 0.001). A prognostic model was developed incorporating spline fit for both variables. The model had good concordance in the discovery (0.67) and validation sets (LYFO c = 0.64, MER c = 0.68) with generally good calibration. Time to progression on frontline therapy is strongly associated with post-progression OS in DLBCL. We developed and validated a simple to apply clinical prognostic tool in the R/R setting. The useful prediction of expected outcomes in R/R DLBCL and can inform treatment decisions such as considerations for CAR-T therapy as well as trial designs. The model is available in smartphone-based point of care applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26149DOI Listing
May 2021

A French multicentric prospective prognostic cohort with epidemiological, clinical, biological and treatment information to improve knowledge on lymphoma patients: study protocol of the "REal world dAta in LYmphoma and survival in adults" (REALYSA) cohort.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 2;21(1):432. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Inserm U1219 - EPICENE team, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Age-adjusted lymphoma incidence rates continue to rise in France since the early 80's, although rates have slowed since 2010 and vary across subtypes. Recent improvements in patient survival in major lymphoma subtypes at population level raise new questions about patient outcomes (i.e. quality of life, long-term sequelae). Epidemiological studies have investigated factors related to lymphoma risk, but few have addressed the extent to which socioeconomic status, social institutional context (i.e. healthcare system), social relationships, environmental context (exposures), individual behaviours (lifestyle) or genetic determinants influence lymphoma outcomes, especially in the general population. Moreover, the knowledge of the disease behaviour mainly obtained from clinical trials data is partly biased because of patient selection.

Methods: The REALYSA ("REal world dAta in LYmphoma and Survival in Adults") study is a real-life multicentric cohort set up in French areas covered by population-based cancer registries to study the prognostic value of epidemiological, clinical and biological factors with a prospective 9-year follow-up. We aim to include 6000 patients over 4 to 5 years. Adult patients without lymphoma history and newly diagnosed with one of the following 7 lymphoma subtypes (diffuse large B-cell, follicular, marginal zone, mantle cell, Burkitt, Hodgkin, mature T-cell) are invited to participate during a medical consultation with their hematologist. Exclusion criteria are: having already received anti-lymphoma treatment (except pre-phase) and having a documented HIV infection. Patients are treated according to the standard practice in their center. Clinical data, including treatment received, are extracted from patients' medical records. Patients' risk factors exposures and other epidemiological data are obtained at baseline by filling out a questionnaire during an interview led by a clinical research assistant. Biological samples are collected at baseline and during treatment. A virtual tumor biobank is constituted for baseline tumor samples. Follow-up data, both clinical and epidemiological, are collected every 6 months in the first 3 years and every year thereafter.

Discussion: This cohort constitutes an innovative platform for clinical, biological, epidemiological and socio-economic research projects and provides an opportunity to improve knowledge on factors associated to outcome of lymphoma patients in real life.

Trial Registration: 2018-A01332-53, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03869619 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10433-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927409PMC
March 2021

Tafasitamab for the treatment of relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 Apr 15;21(4):455-463. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Kraków, Poland.

Introduction: Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL) require further treatment options, especially in cases that cannot tolerate stem cell transplant or cytotoxic chemotherapy. CD19 has emerged as an attractive target in B-cell malignancy and is the subject of several therapeutic strategies. The anti-CD19, humanized, monoclonal antibody tafasitamab (MOR208) has an engineered, modified Fc region with increased affinity for Fcγ receptors, leading to increased cytotoxicity via natural killer cells and macrophages (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis) in a promising approach.

Areas Covered: The development of tafasitamab is reviewed, together with the pharmacokinetics and clinical experience of tafasitamab in R/R DLBCL; clinical data have led to FDA approval and inclusion in NCCN treatment guidelines for tafasitamab in combination with lenalidomide in this indication.

Expert Opinion: Patients with R/R DLBCL who have failed rituximab-containing regimens may be resistant to CD20-directed therapies; therefore, therapies with an alternative mode of action are of great interest in this setting. Tafasitamab, an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody, in combination with lenalidomide has demonstrated promising efficacy for patients with R/R DLBCL who are ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. This could provide an alternative approach to classical chemotherapy-based regimens in the relapsed setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2021.1884677DOI Listing
April 2021

First-line treatment of double-hit and triple-hit lymphomas: Survival and tolerance data from a retrospective multicenter French study.

Am J Hematol 2021 03 29;96(3):302-311. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Historically, double or triple hit lymphoma (DHL and THL) have poor outcomes with conventional chemotherapy, but there is currently no guideline. We report the French experience in managing DHL and THL in first line using collective data on both survival and tolerance. All consecutive patients with newly diagnosis of large B-cell lymphoma with MYC, BCL2, and/or BCL6 rearrangements, as determined by FISH between January 2013 and April 2019 were included. Based on the eligibility criteria, 160 patients were selected among the 184 patients identified. With a median follow-up of 32 months, 2- and 4-year progression free survival (PFS) rates were 40% and 28% with R-CHOP compared with 57% and 52% with intensive chemotherapy (P = .063). There was no difference in overall survival (OS). For advanced stages, PFS was significantly longer with intensive chemotherapy than with R-CHOP (P = .029). There was no impact of autologous stem cell transplantation among patient in remission. For patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, the 2-year PFS and OS rate was 21% and 39%, vs 57% and 75% without CNS disease (P = .007 and P < .001). By multivariate analysis, elevated IPI score and CNS disease were strongly and independently associated with a poorer survival, whereas treatment was not significantly associated with OS. This is the largest series reporting the treatment of DHL and THL in Europe. The PFS was significantly longer with an intensive regimen for advanced stage, but no difference in OS, supporting the need for a prospective randomized trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26068DOI Listing
March 2021

Immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma: Impact of the SCARMET (Self CARe and MEdication Toxicity) educational intervention on outpatients' knowledge to manage adverse effects.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(12):e0243309. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Unité de Pharmacie Clinique Oncologique, Groupement Hospitalier Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite, France.

Long-term multiple myeloma therapy by immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) raises the question of management of adverse effects. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of an educational session for patients on the acquisition of knowledge to manage hematologic and thromboembolic adverse effects of IMiDs. In this prospective single-center study, patients attended an educational session with a hospital clinical pharmacist and a nurse. The primary endpoint was the patient's level of knowledge for the management of IMiDs adverse effects, assess with a dedicated questionnaire administered before the session then 1 and 6 months after. Assessment of knowledge was combined with self-assessment of certainty. The secondary endpoints were adherence and IMiD treatment satisfaction. 50 patients were included. Patient knowledge increased at 1 month (p<0.001) despite a loss of knowledge at 6 months (p<0.05). Six months after the educational intervention, the number of patients with skills considered satisfactory by the pharmacist and nurse increased (p<0.01). Most patients showed satisfactory adherence, with medication possession ratio ≥ 80%. The Self CARe and MEdication Toxicity (SCARMET) study highlighted the impact of multidisciplinary follow-up in multiple myeloma patients to improve knowledge of toxicity self-management.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243309PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717911PMC
January 2021

Obinutuzumab vs rituximab for advanced DLBCL: a PET-guided and randomized phase 3 study by LYSA.

Blood 2021 Apr;137(17):2307-2320

Department of Hematology, University Hospital F. Mitterrand, Dijon, France; and.

Rituximab plus polychemotherapy is the standard of care in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). GAINED, a randomized phase 3 trial, compared obinutuzumab to rituximab. Transplant-eligible patients (18-60 years) with an untreated age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score ≥1 DLBCL were randomized (1:1) between obinutuzumab or rituximab and stratified by aaIPI (1; 2-3) and chemotherapy regimen (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, prednisone plus vindesine, bleomycin [ACVBP] or vincristine [CHOP]). Consolidation treatment was determined according to response to interim positron emission tomography (PET). Responders after cycle 2 and 4 (PET2-/PET4-) received immunochemotherapy. Responders after only cycle 4 (PET2+/4-) received transplantation. The primary objective was an 8% improvement (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 80% power; α risk, 2.5%; 1-sided) in 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in the obinutuzumab arm. From September 2012, 670 patients were enrolled (obinutuzumab, n = 336; rituximab, n = 334). A total of 383 (57.2%) were aaIPI 2-3, 339 (50.6%) received CHOP. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. The 2-year EFS was similar in both groups (59.8% vs 56.6%; P = .123; HR = 0.88). The 2-year PFS in the whole cohort was 83.1% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 85.8%). PET2-/4- and PET2+/4- had similar 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): 89.9% vs 83.9% and 94.8% vs 92.8%. The 2-year PFS and OS for PET4+ patients were 62% and 83.1%. Grade 3-5 infections were more frequent in the obinutuzumab arm (21% vs 12%). Obinutuzumab is not superior to rituximab in aaIPI ≥1 DLBCL transplant-eligible patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01659099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008750DOI Listing
April 2021

Commercial anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive B cell lymphoma in a European center.

Am J Hematol 2020 11 25;95(11):1324-1333. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Hematology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Two autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) T cells (axicabtagene ciloleucel [axi-cel] and tisagenlecleucel [tisa-cel]) are commercially approved in Europe for relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We performed a retrospective study to evaluate patterns of use, efficacy and safety for axi-cel and tisa-cel. Data from 70 patients who underwent apheresis for commercial CAR T cells between January 2018 and November 2019 in our institution were retrospectively collected. Sixty-one patients were infused. The median age at infusion was 59 years old (range 27-75 years). The median number of prior therapies was 3 (range, 2-6). The overall response rates (ORRs) at 1 month and 3 months were 63% and 45%, respectively, with 48% and 39% achieving a complete response (CR), respectively. After a median follow-up after infusion of 5.7 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.8-8.8 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 11.8 months (95% CI, 6.0-12.6 months). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with poor PFS were the number of previous lines of treatment before CAR T cells (≥4) (P = .010) and a C reactive protein (CRP) value >30 mg/L at the time of lymphodepletion (P < .001). Likewise, the only factor associated with a shorter OS was CRP >30 mg/L (P = .009). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) of any grade occurred in 85% of patients, including 8% of patients with CRS of grade 3 or higher. Immune cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) of any grade occurred in 28% of patients, including 10% of patients with ICANS of grade 3 or higher. Regarding efficacy and safety, no significant difference was found between axi-cel and tisa-cel. This analysis describes one of the largest real-life cohorts of patients treated with axi-cel and tisa-cel for R/R aggressive B cell lymphoma in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25951DOI Listing
November 2020

Early Off-Study Experience of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Aggressive Lymphoma: Closer to a Real-World Setting.

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 15;38(27):3085-3087. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Lyon Sud, Service d'Hématologie, Pierre Bénite, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01134DOI Listing
September 2020

Second autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after a previous autograft: a study of the lymphoma working party of the EBMT.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 11;61(12):2915-2922. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Haematology, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Hospital Duran I Reynals, Barcelona, Spain.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of second autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT2) for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after a first transplantation (ASCT1). Outcomes for 56 patients receiving an ASCT2 registered in the EBMT database were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and disease relapse/progression were 5% and 67%, respectively. The 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 62% and 28%. In univariate analysis, relapse of HL within 12 months of ASCT1 was associated with a worse OS (35% versus 76%,  = 0.01) and PFS (19% versus 29%,  = 0.059). Chemosensitivity at ASCT2 predicted better outcomes (4-year OS 72% versus 29%,  = 0.002; PFS 31% versus 12%,  = 0.015). This series shows that ASCT2 is a safe procedure and a relatively effective option for patients with late relapses after ASCT1 and with chemosensitive disease who are not eligible for an allogeneic transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1789624DOI Listing
December 2020

Drug cost savings in phase III hematological oncology clinical trials in a university hospital.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Oct 16;38(4):576-583. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Clinical Oncology Pharmacy Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Sud, Pierre-Bénite, France.

The rapid emergence of expensive anticancer therapies is leading to exponential growth in healthcare expenses. In clinical trials, most investigational drugs are provided free of charge by industrial and academic sponsors. This results in drug cost savings for healthcare payers, who are no longer charged with the cost of the standard-of-care treatment, which would have been administered outside the trial. This study aims to estimate drug cost savings resulting from patient enrolment in hematological oncology clinical trials, from a public payer perspective. Retrospective screening identified all patients with hematological malignancies included from 2011 to 2016 in a phase III trial and having received at least one sponsor-provided cycle. Drug cost savings were defined as the standard treatment costs not charged to the payer due to sponsor provision of treatment. For each patient, cost savings were determined by the number of cycles received in the trial and the cost of standard (control arm) treatment. Of the 345 patients included in eligible trials during study period, 272 received sponsor-provided drugs. Drug cost savings could be estimated for 177 patients (65.1%) included in 27 trials. Total cost savings were €5218 million (US$ 6804 million) for 1720 sponsor-provided cycles. Mean cost saving per patient was €19 182.7 ± 29 865.7 ($25 015.24 ± 39 478.25). Most cost-saving trials were industry-sponsored (77.8%), although academic trials generated 40.15% of total cost savings. Enrolling patients in clinical trials, whether industry-sponsored or academic, leads to substantial drug cost savings for payers. Implications are significant for public payers facing increasing financial constraints, as savings can be reallocated to patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2753DOI Listing
October 2020

Performance of CT Compared with F-FDG PET in Predicting the Efficacy of Nivolumab in Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Radiology 2020 06 14;295(3):651-661. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

From the Dept of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hosp, Columbia Univ Medical Ctr, New York, NY (F.Z.M., L.D., A.C., L.H.S.); Dept of Radiology, Rangueil Univ Hosp, Toulouse, France (F.Z.M.); Dept of Radiology, First Affiliated Hosp of Nanjing Medical Univ, Nanjing, China (A.C.); Univ Lille, CHU Lille, EA 7365-GRITA-Groupe de Recherche sur les Formes Injectables et les Technologies Associées, Lille, France (F.M.); Dept of Hematology, Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen, France (A.S.); Dept of Hematology, Paoli-Calmette Inst, Marseille, France (J.M.S.d.C.); Dept of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hosp, AP-HP, Paris, France (L.V.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Dijon, Dijon, France (O.C.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Besançon, Besançon, France (A.C.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Reims, Reims, France (A.D.); Dept of Hematology, Leon Berard Ctr, Lyon, France (E.N.V.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Lyon, Lyon, France (H.G.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Angers, Angers, France (M.P.M.M.); Dept of Hematology, Bergonie Inst, Bordeaux, France (A.S.); Dept of Hematology, Saint-Antoine Hosp, AP-HP, Paris, France (R.D.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France (K.B.); Dept of Hematology, Institut Universitaire du Cancer Toulouse-Oncopole, Toulouse, France (C.B.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Limoges, Limoges, France (M.T.); Dept of Hematology, Cochin Hosp, AP-HP, Paris, France (B.D.F.); Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice, France (F.P.); Dept of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Curie, Paris, France (R.D.S.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Rennes, Rennes, France (G.M., R.H.); INSERM, U1236, Rennes, France (G.M., R.H.); and UMR1015, Institut Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif 94800, France (L.D.).

Background CT and fluorine 18 (F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT performances following immune therapy are not well known in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (RRHL). Purpose To compare CT and PET/CT for prognostic value of early response evaluation following nivolumab therapy. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included patients from 34 institutions who underwent early imaging response evaluation from July 2013 to April 2017. Three experienced readers classified imaging response by using Cheson et al and 2016 Lymphoma Response to Immunomodulatory Therapy Criteria as follows: complete (metabolic) response, partial (metabolic) response, stable disease or no metabolic response, or progressive (metabolic) disease. Primary CT and PET assessments were performed at a median of 2.0 months (interquartile range, 1.7-3.7 months) after nivolumab initiation. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine the relationship of primary CT and PET assessment response categories to overall survival (OS). Agreements between primary and secondary imaging assessments were assessed by using κ analysis. Results A total of 45 patients (median age, 37 years; range, 18-77 years; 25 men) underwent a primary assessment using CT and PET/CT; 36 patients also underwent a subsequent assessment. Eleven patients (24%) died after a median follow-up of 21.2 months. CT and PET response categories were associated with OS ( = .03 for primary CT assessment; = .02 for primary PET assessment). There was no pseudoprogression at primary CT and PET assessments. At the primary assessment, response categories by using CT were reclassified by using PET in 44% (20 of 45) of patients. Among these, 55% (11 of 20) were reclassified to complete metabolic response (complete metabolic response rate: 29% [13 of 45 patients] vs complete response rate: 4% [two of 45 patients]), with a 2-year OS probability of 100%. At the secondary assessment, complete response rate using CT increased to 17% (six of 36 patients), hence a better agreement with PET (κ = 0.78; < .001). Conclusion Early CT and PET/CT at a median of 2 months after initiation of nivolumab predicted overall survival in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Early PET detected additional patients with complete metabolic response. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Scott and Wang in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192056DOI Listing
June 2020

International prognostic indices in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a comparison of IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI.

Blood 2020 06;135(23):2041-2048

Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Great heterogeneity in survival exists for patients newly diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Three scoring systems incorporating simple clinical parameters (age, lactate dehydrogenase, number/sites of involvement, stage, performance status) are widely used: the International Prognostic Index (IPI), revised IPI (R-IPI), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network IPI (NCCN-IPI). We evaluated 2124 DLBCL patients treated from 1998 to 2009 with frontline rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; or variant) across 7 multicenter randomized clinical trials to determine which scoring system best discriminates overall survival (OS). Median age was 63 years, and 56% of patients were male. Five-year OS estimates ranged from 54% to 88%, from 61% to 93%, and from 49% to 92% using the IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI, respectively. The NCCN-IPI had the greatest absolute difference in OS estimates between the highest- and lowest-risk groups and best discriminated OS (concordance index = 0.632 vs 0.626 [IPI] vs 0.590 [R-IPI]). For each given IPI risk category, NCCN-IPI risk categories were significantly associated with OS (P ≤ .01); the reverse was not true, and the IPI did not provide additional significant prognostic information within all NCCN-IPI risk categories. Collectively, the NCCN-IPI outperformed the IPI and R-IPI. Patients with low-risk NCCN-IPI had favorable survival outcomes with little room for further improvement. In the rituximab era, none of the clinical risk scores identified a patient subgroup with long-term survival clearly <50%. Integrating molecular features of the tumor and microenvironment into the NCCN-IPI or IPI might better characterize a high-risk group for which novel treatment approaches are most needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002729DOI Listing
June 2020

Lipid Trait Variants and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 27;29(5):1074-1078. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

Methods: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated ( < 5 × 10) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, = 137), total cholesterol (TC, = 161), and triglycerides (TG, = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance ( < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes.

Impact: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196490PMC
May 2020

Genetically Determined Height and Risk of Non-hodgkin Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:1539. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999122PMC
January 2020

Composite and sequential lymphoma between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal lymphoma/diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, a clinico-pathological series of 25 cases.

Br J Haematol 2020 04 6;189(2):244-256. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Haematology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre Bénite cedex, France.

Composite and sequential lymphomas involving both classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) are rare phenomena. Beyond the relevant biological interest raised by these cases, treatments and outcome data are poorly covered in the recent literature. This retrospective analysis describes the pathological and clinical characteristics of 10 composite and 15 sequential cases included after a central pathological review. At diagnosis, 70% of the composite lymphomas presented a disseminated and extranodal disease. Among the 15 sequential lymphomas, 12 were CHL at first occurrence and three were PMBCL. Based on their clinical evolution, these sequential lymphomas could be divided into early (i.e., diagnosis of second lymphoma within a year) and late [(i.e., a second lymphoma occurrence occurring after a long period of complete remission]). All composite cases were alive in complete remission after a median follow-up of 34 months. If the early sequential lymphoma presented a particularly poor outcome with a median overall survival shorter than one year, the late cases were efficiently salvaged. Further molecular studies are needed to describe the underlying biology of these rare diseases, possibly representing the extreme of tumour cell plasticity found in grey-zone lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16331DOI Listing
April 2020

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of relapsed follicular lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation in the rituximab era.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Apr 30;38(2):137-145. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Hematology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a therapeutic option for patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL). The clinical characteristics and outcomes of FL relapse after ASCT in the rituximab era have not yet been fully elucidated. We retrospectively reviewed 414 FL patients treated with ASCT between 2000 and 2014 in four hematology departments. All patients received rituximab as a first-line treatment. We specifically analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies at relapse, and outcomes of 95 patients (23%) who relapsed after ASCT. The patients (median age, 57 y) received a median of two lines of therapy (range, 2-6) prior to ASCT, with 92% in complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) before ASCT. Histological transformation at relapse after ASCT was observed in 20% of the patients. Treatment at relapse after ASCT consisted of chemotherapy with or without rituximab (n = 45/90, 50%), targeted agents (18%), rituximab monotherapy (14%), or consolidation allogeneic transplantation after induction chemotherapy (12%) and radiotherapy (6%). After relapse, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1 year (95% CI, 0.541-1.579) and 5.5 years (95% CI, 1.910-9.099), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, histological transformation (HT) was associated with OS (P = .044; HR 2.439; 95% CI, 1.025-5.806), and a high FLIPI score at relapse was associated with PFS (P = .028; HR 2.469; 95% CI, 1.104-5.521). This retrospective study showed that the period of PFS of patients who relapsed after ASCT is short. A biopsy should be performed for these patients to document the HT. Our results indicate that new treatment strategies will need to be developed for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2713DOI Listing
April 2020

Management and outcome of primary CNS lymphoma in the modern era: An LOC network study.

Neurology 2020 03 6;94(10):e1027-e1039. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

From Service de Neurologie 2-Mazarin, Sorbonne Université, IHU, ICM (C. Houillier, A.A., D.D., H.D., D.G., B.A., K.H.-X.), Service d'Hématologie (S. Choquet), Service de Neuro-Radiologie (N.M.-D.), Service d'Ophtalmologie (V.T.), Service de Médecine Nucléaire (A.K.), Service de Neuro-Pathologie (K.M.), Service d'Anatomie et Cytologies Pathologiques (F.C.), Service de Radiothérapie (L.F.), Service d'Hémato-Biologie (M.L.G.-T., M.C.), and Service de Neurochirurgie (B.M., M.P.), APHP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Service d'Hématologie (C. Soussain), Institut Curie, Site Saint-Cloud; Service d'Hématologie (H.G.), CHU Lyon Sud; Service d'Hématologie (P.S., A.S.), Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux; Service de Neuro-Oncologie (O. Chinot), Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, INP, AP-HM, CHU de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Neurologie (L.T., M.B.), CHU de Nancy; Service d'Hématologie (R.H.), Inserm U1236 Université de Rennes 1 (T.L.), CHU de Rennes; Service de Neurologie (G.A.), Hôpitaux Civils, Colmar; Service d'Hématologie (G.D.), CHU de Caen; Service d'Oncologie Médical (P.A.), Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest, Saint Herblain; Service d'Hématologie (C.M.-C.), CHU de Clermont-Ferrand; Service de Neurologie (A.A.), CHU de Toulouse; Service d'Oncologie Hématologique et de Thérapie Cellulaire (V.D.), CHU de Poitiers, INSERM, CIC 1402, Centre d'Investigation Clinique, Université de Poitiers; Service d'Oncologie Médicale (M.F.), Institut du Cancer de Montpellier Val d'Aurelle; Service d'Hématologie (F.J.), Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen; Service d'Hématologie (A.C.), CHU de Besançon; Service d'Hématologie (M.P.M.-M.), CHU d'Angers; Service d'Hématologie (F.M., E.B.), CHRU de Lille; Service d'Hématologie (O. Casasnovas), CHU de Dijon; Service d'Onco-Hématologie (R.G.), CHU de Grenoble; Service d'Hématologie (L.M.F.), CHU de Strasbourg; Service d'Hématologie (J.A.), CHU de Limoges; Service d'Hématologie (J.-P.M.), CHU d'Amiens; Service d'Hématologie (A.T.), CHU de Brest; Service de Neurologie (C.C.) and Service d'Hématologie (A.W.), CHU de Nîmes; Clinique Courlancy (P.C.), Reims; Service d'Hématologie (J.T.), Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Paris; Service d'Hématologie Clinique (K.L.), Centre Hospitalier, Le Mans; Service d'Hématologie (C. Serrier), Centre Hospitalier de Perpignan; Service d'Hématologie (C. Haioun), Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, APHP; Service d'Hématologie Clinique (S. Chebrek), Centre Hospitalier d'Avignon; Service d'Hématologie (J.O.B.), CHU de Clermont-Ferrand; Service d'Hématologie (L.O.), Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse; Service de Neuro-Oncologie (E.T.), Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, INP, AP-HM, CHU de la Timone; Service d'Ophtalmologie (N.C.), Institut Curie, Université Paris V Descartes et PSL (Paris Science et Lettre), Paris; and Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire (E.G.), Centre d'Investigations Cliniques INSERM U1517, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Université de Tours, France.

Objective: Real-life studies on patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) are scarce. Our objective was to analyze, in a nationwide population-based study, the current medical practice in the management of PCNSL.

Methods: The French oculo-cerebral lymphoma network (LOC) database prospectively records all newly diagnosed PCNSL cases from 32 French centers. Data of patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: We identified 1,002 immunocompetent patients (43% aged >70 years, median Karnofsky Performance Status [KPS] 60). First-line treatment was high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy in 92% of cases, with an increasing use of rituximab over time (66%). Patients <60 years of age received consolidation treatment in 77% of cases, consisting of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (54%) or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HCT-ASCT) (23%). Among patients >60 years of age, WBRT and HCT-ASCT consolidation were administered in only 9% and 2%, respectively. The complete response rate to initial chemotherapy was 50%. Median progression-free survival was 10.5 months. For relapse, second-line chemotherapy, HCT-ASCT, WBRT, and palliative care were offered to 55%, 17%, 10%, and 18% of patients, respectively. The median, 2-year, and 5-year overall survival was 25.3 months, 51%, and 38%, respectively (<60 years: not reached [NR], 70%, and 61%; >60 years: 15.4 months, 44%, and 28%). Age, KPS, sex, and response to induction CT were independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Our study confirms the increasing proportion of elderly within the PCNSL population and shows comparable outcome in this population-based study with those reported by clinical trials, reflecting a notable application of recent PCNSL advances in treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238921PMC
March 2020

Early F-FDG PET/CT Response Predicts Survival in Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated with Nivolumab.

J Nucl Med 2020 05 18;61(5):649-654. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are associated with high response rates in patients with relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To date, no prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) has been established with these agents in HL. We examined whether the first early response assessment evaluated using F-FDG PET/CT may be associated with OS in this setting. This retrospective study included 45 patients from 34 institutions. In a masked, centralized review, 3 independent radiologists classified PET/CT scans obtained at a median of 2.0 mo (interquartile range, 1.7-3.7 mo) after nivolumab initiation using existing criteria (i.e., 2014 Lugano classification and 2016 LYRIC). Patients were classified according to 4 possible response categories: complete metabolic response (CMR), partial metabolic response (PMR), no metabolic response (NMR), or progressive metabolic disease (PMD). Because the OS of patients with NMR and PMR was similar, they were grouped together. OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using log-rank testing. Eleven patients (24%) died after a median follow-up of 21.2 mo. The classification was identical between Lugano and LYRIC because all 16 progression events classified as indeterminate response per LYRIC were confirmed on subsequent evaluations. Both Lugano and LYRIC classified patients as CMR in 13 cases (29%), PMD in 16 (36%), NMR in 4 (9%), and PMR in 12 (27%). The 2-y OS probability was significantly different in patients with PMD (0.53; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.32-0.87), NMR or PMR (0.80; 95%CI, 0.63-1.00), and CMR (1.00; 95%CI, 1.00-1.00) in the overall population ( = 0.02, 45 patients), as well as according to a landmark analysis at 3 mo ( = 0.05, 32 patients). In relapsed or refractory HL patients treated with anti-PD-1 mAbs, the first early PET/CT assessment using either Lugano or LYRIC predicted OS and allowed early risk stratification, suggesting that PET/CT might be used to develop risk-adapted strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.119.232827DOI Listing
May 2020

Inherited variants at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 are associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and implicate immune pathways.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 01;29(1):70-79

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001601PMC
January 2020

Unclassifiable Isolated Monoclonal Lymphocytosis: Comprehensive Description of a Retrospective Cohort.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Oct 4;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Laboratoire d'hématologie, 69495 Pierre Bénite, France.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, the nosology of B-cell neoplasms integrates clinical, morphological, phenotypic, and genetic data. In this retrospective analysis, we identified 18 patients with isolated neoplastic lymphocytosis that could not be accurately classified within the WHO classification. Most of them were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis and the evolution was relatively indolent, as only five patients required treatment after a median follow-up of 48 months. The neoplastic B-cells expressed CD5 in most cases, but the Royal Marsden Hospital score was strictly below 3. Trisomy 12 was the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality. High-throughput sequencing highlighted mutations found in both chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Similarly, the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region repertoire was distinct from those reported in CLL or MZL. However, as treatment choice is dependent on the correct classification of the lymphoproliferative disorder, a histological diagnosis should be performed in case patients need to be treated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826630PMC
October 2019
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