Publications by authors named "Hersila H Patel"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The association between neighborhood quality, youth physical fitness, and modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 05 14;57:30-39. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Department of Family Medicine & Community Health, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Purpose: Striking disparities persist in cardiovascular disease risk factors among minority youth. We examined the association between multiple indicators of neighborhood quality and minority youth fitness.

Methods: The primary exposure was the Child Opportunity Index (COI), a measure comprised of indicators that facilitate healthy child development. Outcome data were drawn from the 2018-2019 Fit2Play Study (Miami-Dade County, FL). Hotspot analysis evaluated COI spatial clustering. Generalized linear mixed models examined cross-sectional COI-fitness associations.

Results: The sample included 725 youth (53% Black, 43% Hispanic; 5-17 years). Significant neighborhood quality spatial clusters were identified (Gi* = -4.85 to 5.36). Adjusting for sociodemographics, walkability was associated with lower percentiles in body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure percentiles (DBP) (β = -5.25, 95% CI: -8.88, -1.62 and β = -3.95, 95% CI: -7.02, -0.89, respectively) for all, lower skinfold thickness (β = -4.83, 95% CI: -9.97, 0.31 and higher sit-ups (β = 1.67, 95% CI: -0.17, 3.50) among girls, and lower systolic blood pressure percentiles (SBP) (β = -4.75, 95% CI: -8.99, -0.52) among boys. Greenspace was associated with higher BMI (β = 6.17, 95% CI: 2.47, 9.87), SBP (β = 3.47, 95% CI: -0.05, 6.99), and DBP (β = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 7.13).

Conclusions: COI indicators were positively associated with youth fitness. Disparities in youth cardiovascular disease risk may be modifiable through community interventions and built environment initiatives targeting select neighborhood factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.02.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Objective Measurement of Physical Activity Attributed to a Park-Based Afterschool Program.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Jan 31;18(3):329-336. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Background: Only 24% of US youth meet physical activity recommendations set by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Research demonstrates that community-based programs provide underresourced minority youth with opportunities for routine physical activity, although limited work draws from accelerometry data. This study objectively assessed youth physical activity attributable to participation (vs nonparticipation) days in a park-based afterschool program in Miami-Dade County, Miami, FL.

Methods: Participants' (n = 66; 60% male; 57% white Hispanic, 25% non-Hispanic black, 14% Black Hispanic, mean age = 10.2 y) physical activity was assessed April to May 2019 over 10 days across 7 park sites using Fitbit (Charge 2) devices. Separate repeated-measures multilevel models were developed to assess the relationship between program daily attendance and total (1) moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes and (2) step counts per day.

Results: Models adjusted for individual-level age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty, and clustering by park showed significantly higher moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes (β = 25.33 more minutes per day; 95% confidence interval, 7.0 to 43.7, P < .01) and step counts (β = 4067.8 more steps per day; 95% confidence interval, 3171.8 to 4963.8, P < .001) on days when youth did versus did not attend the program.

Conclusions: Study findings suggest that park-based programs may support underserved youth in achieving daily physical activity recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0162DOI Listing
January 2021

Longitudinal Effects of Transportation Vulnerability on the Association Between Racial/Ethnic Segregation and Youth Cardiovascular Health.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Jun 2;8(3):618-629. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1601 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Transportation vulnerability (defined as lack of personal/public transportation access) is particularly prevalent in areas with high racial/ethnic segregation where communities typically lack proximity to quality education, jobs, healthy food, playgrounds, and medical care. Prior research has shown an association between residential segregation and youth cardiovascular health, although little work has examined the effects of transportation vulnerability on this relationship.

Methods: Longitudinal mixed methods were used to compare the effects of transportation vulnerability on the association between changes in exposure to residential segregation (defined as the uneven geographic distribution of minorities) and five cardiovascular health outcomes across sex in minority youth for up to four consecutive years of participation in an afterschool fitness program during 2010-2018 (n = 2742; Miami-Dade County, Florida, US).

Results: After accounting for child race/ethnicity, age, year, and poverty, girls with high transportation vulnerability and reduced exposure to segregation (vs. increased or no change in segregation) showed the most improvements across all outcomes, including body mass index percentile (26% (95% CI 23.84, 28.30)), sum of skinfold thicknesses (18% (95% CI 14.90, 20.46)), run time (17% (95% CI 14.88, 18.64)), systolic blood pressure percentile (15% (95% CI 11.96, 17.08)), and diastolic blood pressure percentile (12% (95% CI 9.09, 14.61)).

Conclusion: Transportation inequities related to concentrated racial/ethnic segregation may be an important factor in reducing disparities in youth cardiovascular health, particularly among girls. These study findings provide important longitudinal evidence in support of health interventions to reduce transportation vulnerability for racial/ethnic minority youth in underserved areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00821-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Two-Year Changes in Neighborhood Juvenile Arrests After Implementation of a Park-Based Afterschool Mental Health Promotion Program in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2015-2017.

Am J Public Health 2019 06;109(S3):S214-S220

Emily M. D'Agostino, Eric Hansen, Hersila H. Patel, Zafar Ahmed, Deirdre Okeke, and Maria I. Nardi are with Miami-Dade Parks, Recreation, and Open Spaces Department, Miami, FL. Stacy L. Frazier is with Florida International University, Department of Psychology, Miami. At the time of the study, Sarah E. Messiah was with University of Miami, Department of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences, Miami.

To examine the association of Fit2Lead, an afterschool park-based youth mental health promotion program, and neighborhood juvenile arrests (2015-2017) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. We tracked juvenile (ages 12-17 years) arrest rates over 2 years of program implementation across zip codes matched by (1) park and (2) baseline sociodemographics and youth arrests. Fit2Lead mental and physical health, meditation, resilience, and life skills activities were offered in 12 high-need areas for youths (n = 501) aged 12 to 17 years. We tested the association of Fit2Lead implementation (binary variable) and change in juvenile arrest rates by zip code, adjusting for area-level gender, age, race/ethnicity, single-parent households, and poverty. Fit2Lead was offered in areas composed of 48% male youths, 60% Hispanics, 29% non-Hispanic Blacks, 33% single-parent households, and 33% of residents living in poverty. After covariate adjustment, zip codes with Fit2Lead implementation showed a significant mean reduction ( < .001) in youth arrests per 10 000 youths aged 12 to 17 years per year compared with zip codes without program implementation (b = -6.9; 95% confidence interval = -9.21, -4.65). Park-based programs may have the potential to promote mental health and resilience, and also to prevent violence among at-risk youths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595515PMC
June 2019

Changes in cardiovascular health and physical fitness in ethnic youth with intellectual disabilities participating in a park-based afterschool programme for two years.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2019 Nov 20;32(6):1478-1489. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Background: Youth with intellectual disabilities are more likely to be an unhealthy weight and less physically active than youth without intellectual disability.

Objective: The effects of Fit2Play, a park-based afterschool programme on cardiovascular/fitness health outcomes among youth with intellectual disability, were prospectively assessed.

Methods: Youth ages 6 to 22 with intellectual disability who participated in Fit2Play for either one or two school years between 2010 and 2016 (N = 297, mean age 14.1 years, 70% Hispanic, 20% non-Hispanic black, 72% male) were examined via a fitness battery at the beginning/end of the school year(s). Effects of length of Fit2Play participation on body mass index (BMI) %ile, skinfold thicknesses, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) %iles, fitness tests, and health and wellness knowledge) were evaluated via two-level repeated measures analysis adjusted for child gender, age, ethnicity and area-level poverty.

Results: Adjusted models showed that up to two years of Fit2Play participation was significantly associated with improved BMI %ile, skinfold thicknesses, SPB/DBP %iles and PACER scores (p < 0.05 for all). One and two years of programme participation was associated with a 6% [95% CI: 0.92, 0.96] and 10% [95% CI: 0.87, 0.93] reduction in SBP%ile, respectively (p < 0.001), and a 36% [95% CI: 1.28, 1.45] and 57% [95% CI: 1.44, 1.70] increase in PACER score laps, respectively, compared to baseline.

Conclusions: Results here suggest that park-based, structured afterschool programmes with a focus on health and wellness can be a rich resource for this nation by offering both exclusive and immersion programmes for children with intellectual disability to foster cardiovascular health in all youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12642DOI Listing
November 2019

Does transportation vulnerability explain the relationship between changes in exposure to segregation and youth cardiovascular health?

Health Place 2019 05 24;57:265-276. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1601 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL, USA; Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1601 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL, USA.

Transportation vulnerability (lack of community/personal access to transportation that in turn increases the risk for health or financial consequences in the event of hardship/disease/disasters) may be an important mechanistic factor linking residential segregation to youth cardiovascular health inequities. This natural experiment examined the impact of transportation vulnerability on the association between changes in exposure to residential segregation and cardiovascular health among minority youth (n = 2,129, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 52% Hispanic, 48% non-Hispanic black [NHB]; 49% high area poverty) over two years. Two-level generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts were fit to test the effects of transportation vulnerability on the association between changes in segregation and cardiovascular health (body mass index percentile (BMIP), sum of skinfold thicknesses, 400 m run time, systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentiles (SBPP and DBPP, respectively) over two school years and across gender. After adjusting for potential confounders (individual-level race/ethnicity, age, time, and park-area poverty), improvements in cardiovascular health were greatest for girls exposed to reduced segregation with high compared with low transportation vulnerability for all outcomes. Specifically, BMIP and SBPP decreased 29% (IRR 95% CI: 0.69, 0.73) and 13% (IRR 95% CI: 0.85, 0.90) vs. 10% (IRR 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96) and no significant change (IRR 95% CI: 0.88, 1.00), for high and low transportation vulnerability, respectively. Adjusted models showed the greatest improvements in cardiovascular health for boys exposed to reduced segregation and low compared with high transportation vulnerability for BMIP and skinfold thicknesses. Specifically, BMIP and skinfold thicknesses decreased 33% (IRR 95% CI: 0.73, 0.81) and 21% (IRR 95% CI: 0.74, 0.84) vs. increased 8% (IRR 95% CI: 1.05, 1.11) and no significant change (IRR 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03), for low and high transportation vulnerability, respectively. Policy interventions that promote transportation equity should be further studied as a means to reduce youth cardiovascular health disparities, particularly for girls living in areas with high racial/ethnic segregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.04.002DOI Listing
May 2019

Natural experiment examining the longitudinal association between change in residential segregation and youth cardiovascular health across race/ethnicity and gender in the USA.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 07 10;72(7):595-604. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: Identifying how racial/ethnic residential segregation and mobility may impact health can guide innovative strategies for reducing youth disparities.

Methods: This natural experiment examined the association between change in residential segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes across race/ethnicity and gender for youth (n=2250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% non-Hispanic black (NHB); 49% high area poverty) attending a multisite park-based afterschool fitness programme in Florida, USA. Two-level generalised linear mixed models with random intercepts for park effects were fit to test the change in segregation-cardiovascular health association over two school years.

Results: After covariate adjustment (individual-level gender, race/ethnicity, age, time and park-area poverty), greater improvements in cardiovascular health including body mass index percentile, sum of skinfold thicknesses, systolic/diastolic blood pressure percentiles and 400 m run time were found for youth who attended the program in a less segregated area compared with their home area (p<0.05 for all outcomes). NHB girls showed the greatest cardiovascular health improvements. Specifically, compared with the reference group (no change in segregation), skinfold thicknesses and systolic blood pressure percentiles decreased 17% (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 95% CI 0.81 to 0.86) and 16% (IRR 95% CI 0.82 to 0.87), respectively, versus 1% increase for both outcomes (IRR 95% CI 0.98 to 1.05) and (IRR 95% CI 0.98 to 1.05), respectively, for movement to less versus more segregated areas.

Conclusion: In light of a continually expanding youth obesity epidemic, the global effort to reduce health inequities may be supported through Parks and Recreation Departments given potential to expand geographic mobility for low resource subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210592DOI Listing
July 2018

Impact of change in neighborhood racial/ethnic segregation on cardiovascular health in minority youth attending a park-based afterschool program.

Soc Sci Med 2018 05 27;205:116-129. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Research on the mechanistic factors associating racial/ethnic residential segregation with health is needed to identify effective points of intervention to ultimately reduce health disparities in youth. We examined the association of changes in racial/ethnic segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes including body mass index percentile, sum of skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentile, and 400 m run time in non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic youth (n = 2,250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% NHB; 49% high area poverty; 25% obese) attending Fit2Play™, a multisite park-based afterschool program in Miami, Florida, USA. A series of crude and adjusted two-level longitudinal generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts for park effects were fit to assess the association of change in segregation between home and program/park site and cardiovascular health outcomes for youth who participated for up to two school years in Fit2Play™. After adjusting for individual-level factors (sex, age, time, and park-area poverty) models showed significantly greater improvements in cardiovascular health if youth attended Fit2Play™ in an area less segregated than their home area (p < 0.05 for all outcomes) except 400 m run time and diastolic blood pressure percentile in Hispanics (p<.001 and p = 0.11, respectively). Area poverty was not found to confound or significantly modify this association. These findings have implications for youth programming focused on reducing health disparities and improving cardiovascular outcomes in NHB and Hispanic youth, particularly in light of a continually expanding obesity epidemic in these groups. Parks and Recreation Departments have potential to expand geographic mobility for minorities, therein supporting the national effort to reduce health inequalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.03.038DOI Listing
May 2018

Sex differences in fitness outcomes among minority youth after participation in a park-based after-school program.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 07 12;28(7):432-439. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.

Purpose: This study aimed to describe sex differences in fitness outcomes after participation in Fit2Play, a park-based after-school health and wellness program.

Methods: Youth who participated in Fit2Play for either 1, 2, or 3 school years between 2010 and 2016 (n = 2129, mean age 9.1 years, 52% Hispanic, 48% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) were tested via a comprehensive fitness battery at the beginning/end of the school year(s). Effects of length of Fit2Play participation on fitness outcomes were assessed via three-level repeated measures analysis stratified by sex and adjusted for child sociodemographics, weight category, area poverty, and year.

Results: Significant improvements for boys and girls were found in the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (P < .01 for girls, P < .001 for boys), 400 meter run tests (P < .001 for girls, P < .01 for boys), and push-ups (P < .01 for both), with dose-response trends for girls after up to 3 years of Fit2Play participation. From baseline to 1, 2, and 3 years of participation, girls demonstrated 8%, 14%, and 23% mean improvement in 400 meter run times versus 9%, 9%, and 17% for boys, respectively (P < .001 for all). Dose-response improvements were also found in girls for PACER scores and sit-ups.

Conclusions: After-school physical activity programs can improve fitness in all youth, and particularly girls with increased years of participation. Further research should examine sex differences in the effects of park-/community-based programs to reduce sex disparities in fitness, particularly in light of the current youth obesity epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2018.03.020DOI Listing
July 2018

Development of a University Campus Healthy Sleep Promotion Program.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2018 Mar 13;39(3):264-268. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

d Nicklaus Children's Hospital , Miami , Florida , USA.

This article provides a preliminary evaluation of a campus sleep health program for undergraduate university students. In this study, 5 focus groups with 38 undergraduates assessed perceptions about sleep in relationship to college experiences. Additionally, 35 undergraduate students participated in campus sleep improvement workshops, and completed a brief self-report survey before and after the workshop. Results showed five themes emerged from focus groups: (a) Sleep and its impact on academics, (b) Understanding of the importance of sleep, (c) Procrastination and its impact on sleep, (d) Stress, and (e) Sleep and extracurricular/social activities. Based on self-report surveys, there was no improvement in perceived sleep importance, but perceived sleep confidence of undergraduate student-participants increased significantly after the workshop. The sleep health program for undergraduates showed promising results, and should be evaluated using a larger, more rigorous design in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2017.1397231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116905PMC
March 2018

Longitudinal analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profile in neighbourhood poverty subgroups: 5-year results from an afterschool fitness programme in the USA.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 03 24;72(3):193-201. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: The WHO calls for affordable population-based prevention strategies for reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality; however, effective, sustainable and accessible community-based approaches for CVD prevention in at-risk youth have yet to be identified. We examined the effects of implementing a daily park-based afterschool fitness programme on youth CVD risk profiles over 5 years and across area poverty subgroups.

Methods: The study included 2264 youth (mean age 9.4 years, 54% male, 50% Hispanic, 47% non-Hispanic black, 70% high/very high area poverty) in Miami, Florida, USA. We used three-level repeated measures mixed models to determine the longitudinal effects of programme participation on modifiable CVD outcomes (2010-2016).

Results: Duration of programme participation was significantly associated with CVD risk profile improvements, including body mass index (BMI) z-score, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, skinfold thicknesses, waist-hip ratio, sit-ups, push-ups, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) score, 400 m run time, probability of developing systolic/diastolic hypertension and overweight/obesity in high/very high poverty neighbourhoods (P<0.001). Diastolic blood pressure decreased 3.4 percentile points (95% CI -5.85 to -0.85), 8.1 percentile points (95% CI -11.98 to -4.26), 6.1 percentile points (95% CI -11.49 to -0.66), 7.6 percentile points (95% CI -15.33 to -0.15) and 11.4 percentile points (95% CI -25.32 to 2.61) for 1-5 years, respectively, in high/very high poverty areas. In contrast, significant improvements were found only for PACER score and waist-hip ratio in low/mid poverty areas.

Conclusion: This analysis presents compelling evidence demonstrating that park-based afterschool programmes can successfully maintain or improve at-risk youth CVD profiles over multiple years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-209333DOI Listing
March 2018

Estrogen receptor beta signaling alters cellular inflammasomes activity after global cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescence female rats.

J Neurochem 2016 Feb 13;136(3):492-6. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Laboratories, Department of Neurology, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Periodic treatments with estrogen receptor subtype-β (ER-β) agonist reduce post-ischemic hippocampal injury in ovariectomized rats. However, the underlying mechanism of how ER-β agonists protect the brain remains unknown. Global cerebral ischemia activates the innate immune response, and a key component of the innate immune response is the inflammasome. This study tests the hypothesis that ER-β regulates inflammasome activation in the hippocampus, thus reducing ischemic hippocampal damage in reproductively senescent female rats that received periodic ER-β agonist treatments. First, we determined the effect of hippocampal ER-β silencing on the expression of the inflammasome proteins caspase 1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and interleukin (IL)-1β. Silencing of ER-β attenuated 17β-estradiol mediated decrease in caspase 1, ASC, and IL-1β. Next, we tested the hypothesis that periodic ER-β agonist treatment reduces inflammasome activation and ischemic damage in reproductively senescent female rats. Periodic ER-β agonist treatments significantly decreased inflammasome activation and increased post-ischemic live neuronal counts by 32% (p < 0.05) as compared to the vehicle-treated, reproductively senescent rats. Current findings demonstrated that ER-β activation regulates inflammasome activation and protects the brain from global ischemic damage in reproductively senescent female rats. Further investigation on the role of a periodic ER-β agonist regimen to reduce the innate immune response in the brain could help reduce the incidence and the impact of global cerebral ischemia in post-menopausal women. We propose that estrogen receptor subtype-β (ER-β) activation regulates inflammasome activation and protects the brain from global ischemic damage in reproductively senescent female rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.13404DOI Listing
February 2016

Periodic Estrogen Receptor-Beta Activation: A Novel Approach to Prevent Ischemic Brain Damage.

Neurochem Res 2015 Oct 7;40(10):2009-17. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Laboratories, Department of Neurology, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Two Story Lab (TSL), Room # 230A, 1420 NW 9th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

In women, the risk for cerebral ischemia climbs rapidly after menopause. At menopause, production of ovarian hormones; i.e., progesterone and estrogen, slowly diminishes. Estrogen has been suggested to confer natural protection to premenopausal women from ischemic stroke and some of its debilitating consequences. This notion is also strongly supported by laboratory studies showing that a continuous chronic 17β-estradiol (E2; a potent estrogen) regimen protects brain from ischemic injury. However, concerns regarding the safety of the continuous intake of E2 were raised by the failed translation to the clinic. Recent studies demonstrated that repetitive periodic E2 pretreatments, in contrast to continuous E2 treatment, provided neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia in ovariectomized rats. Periodic E2 pretreatment protects hippocampal neurons through activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). Apart from neuroprotection, periodic activation of ER-β in ovariectomized rats significantly improves hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Difficulties in learning and memory loss are the major consequence of ischemic brain damage. Periodic ER-β agonist pretreatment may provide pharmacological access to a protective state against ischemic stroke and its debilitating consequences. The use of ER-β-selective agonists constitutes a safer target for future research than ER-α agonist or E2, inasmuch as it lacks the ability to stimulate the proliferation of breast or endometrial tissue. In this review, we highlight ER-β signaling as a guide for future translational research to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women, while avoiding the side effects produced by chronic E2 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-014-1346-7DOI Listing
October 2015