Publications by authors named "Herbert L Bonkovsky"

204 Publications

Biochemical Diagnosis of Acute Hepatic Porphyria: Updated Expert Recommendations for Primary Care Physicians.

Am J Med Sci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biochemical Genetics Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) is a group of rare, metabolic diseases where patients can experience acute neurovisceral attacks, chronic symptoms, and long-term complications. Diagnostic biochemical testing is widely available and effective, but a substantial time from symptom onset to diagnosis often delays treatment and increases morbidity. A panel of laboratory scientists and clinical AHP specialists collaborated to produce recommendations on how to enhance biochemical diagnosis of AHP in the USA. AHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained abdominal pain, the most common symptom, soon after excluding common causes. Measurement of porphobilinogen (PBG) and porphyrins in a random urine sample, with results normalized to creatinine, is recommended as an effective and cost-efficient initial test for AHP. Delta-aminolevulinic acid testing may be included but is not essential. The optimal time to collect a urine sample is during an attack. Substantial PBG elevation confirms an AHP diagnosis and allows for prompt treatment initiation. Additional testing can determine AHP subtype and identify at-risk family members. Increased awareness of AHP and correct diagnostic methods will reduce diagnostic delay and improve patient outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2021.03.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Porphyric neuropathy.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Section on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist health, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Acute hepatic porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders that may present with polyneuropathy, which if not diagnosed early can lead to quadriparesis, respiratory weakness, and death. Porphyric neuropathy is an acute to subacute motor predominant axonal neuropathy with a predilection for the upper extremities and usually preceded by a predominantly parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The rapid progression and associated dysautonomia mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome but are distinguished by the absence of cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytologic dissociation, progression beyond 4 wk, and associated abdominal pain. Spot urine test to assess the porphyrin precursors delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen can provide a timely diagnosis during an acute attack. Timely treatment with intravenous heme, carbohydrate loading, and avoidance of porphyrinogenic medications can prevent further neurological morbidity and mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.27232DOI Listing
March 2021

Cost savings with hemin versus givosiran for the treatment of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP).

J Med Econ 2020 Dec 27;23(12):1441-1449. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Objective: Since 1983, hemin has been FDA-approved for acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) attacks. In 2019, FDA approved givosiran for the treatment of adults with acute hepatic porphyria. The objective of this research was to estimate and compare the total cost of AIP-related healthcare for patients treated with hemin or givosiran.

Methods: A microsimulation cost model was developed to estimate the annual economic impact of hemin versus givosiran treatment for patients with AIP from the U.S. healthcare payer perspective. Hemin treatment costs were calculated from the Hemin Shipment Data in which patients were defined as receiving acute attack treatment or prophylaxis treatment based on shipment patterns. Three separate hemin subpopulations were considered: one attack per year, multiple attacks per year, and hemin prophylaxis. Treatment costs for givosiran (with hemin for acute attacks) were simulated based on Phase III trial efficacy results applied to individual treatment histories in the Hemin Shipment Data. Other healthcare utilization was also considered. Outcomes were annualized and expenditures inflated to 2019.

Results: For all patients with AIP, the average annual total cost of care with hemin was 78% lower (difference = $482,113; 95% CI=$373,638-$594,778) than the average annual total cost of care with givosiran. Average annual total cost of care with hemin was between 46% and 92% lower than givosiran for the three hemin subpopulations: one attack per year (difference = $545,219; 95% CI=$436,584-$657,239), multiple attacks per year (difference = $459,366; 95% CI=$350,291-$574,403), and hemin prophylaxis (difference = $311,950; 95% CI=$191,898-$435,893). Cost savings with hemin were robust to one-way and probabilistic sensitivity as well as scenario analyses.

Conclusions: Hemin is expected to provide cost savings compared to givosiran for all AIP patients and subpopulations. Lower annual total costs of care with hemin range from $311,950 to $545,219 less depending on whether the patient uses hemin prophylactically or for acute treatment attacks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2020.1835306DOI Listing
December 2020

HLA-B*35:01 and Green Tea-Induced Liver Injury.

Hepatology 2020 Sep 5. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Medicine, Einstein Healthcare Network, Philadelphia, PA.

Background And Aims: Herbal supplements, and particularly multi-ingredient products, have become increasingly common causes of acute liver injury. Green tea is a frequent component in implicated products, but its role in liver injury is controversial. The aim of this study was to better characterize the clinical features, outcomes, and pathogenesis of green tea-associated liver injury.

Approach And Results: Among 1,414 patients enrolled in the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network who underwent formal causality assessment, 40 cases (3%) were attributed to green tea, 202 to dietary supplements without green tea, and 1,142 to conventional drugs. The clinical features of green tea cases and representation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles in cases and control were analyzed in detail. Patients with green tea-associated liver injury ranged in age from 17 to 69 years (median = 40) and developed symptoms 15-448 days (median = 72) after starting the implicated agent. The liver injury was typically hepatocellular (95%) with marked serum aminotransferase elevations and only modest increases in alkaline phosphatase. Most patients were jaundiced (83%) and symptomatic (88%). The course was judged as severe in 14 patients (35%), necessitating liver transplantation in 3 (8%), but rarely resulting in chronic injury (3%). In three instances, injury recurred upon re-exposure to green tea with similar clinical features, but shorter time to onset. HLA typing revealed a high prevalence of HLA-B*35:01, found in 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58-87) of green tea cases, but only 15% (95% CI, 10-20) caused by other supplements and 12% (95% CI, 10-14) attributed to drugs, the latter rate being similar to population controls (11%; 95% CI, 10.5-11.5).

Conclusions: Green tea-related liver injury has distinctive clinical features and close association with HLA-B*35:01, suggesting that it is idiosyncratic and immune mediated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052949PMC
September 2020

Evidence in the UK Biobank for the underdiagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria.

Genet Med 2021 01 2;23(1):140-148. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Deparment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), characterized by painful cutaneous photosensitivity, results from pathogenic variants in ferrochelatase (FECH). For 96% of patients, EPP results from coinheriting a rare pathogenic variant in trans of a common hypomorphic variant c.315-48T>C (minor allele frequency 0.05). The estimated prevalence of EPP derived from the number of diagnosed individuals in Europe is 0.00092%, but this may be conservative due to underdiagnosis. No study has estimated EPP prevalence using large genetic data sets.

Methods: Disease-associated FECH variants were identified in the UK Biobank, a data set of 500,953 individuals including 49,960 exome sequences. EPP prevalence was then estimated. The association of FECH variants with EPP-related traits was assessed.

Results: Analysis of pathogenic FECH variants in the UK Biobank provides evidence that EPP prevalence is 0.0059% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0042-0.0076%), 1.7-3.0 times more common than previously thought in the UK. In homozygotes for the common c.315-48T>C FECH variant, there was a novel decrement in both erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hemoglobin.

Conclusion: The prevalence of EPP has been underestimated secondary to underdiagnosis. The common c.315-48T>C allele is associated with both MCV and hemoglobin, an association that could be important both for those with and without EPP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-00951-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796935PMC
January 2021

Best practices for detection, assessment and management of suspected immune-mediated liver injury caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors during drug development.

J Autoimmun 2020 11 5;114:102514. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown significant efficacy in patients with various malignancies, however, they are associated with a wide range of immune-related toxicities affecting many organs, including the liver. Immune-mediated liver injury caused by checkpoint inhibitors (ILICI) is a distinctive form of drug induced liver injury (DILI), that differs from most DILI types in presumed underlying mechanism, incidence, and response to therapeutic interventions. Despite increased awareness of ILICI and other immune-related adverse effects of ICIs reflected by recent guidelines for their management in post marketing clinical practice, there is lack of uniform best practices to address ILICI risk during drug development. As efforts to develop safer and more effective ICIs for additional indications grow, and as combination therapies including ICIs are increasingly investigated, there is a growing need for consistent practices for ILICI in drug development. This publication summarizes current best practices to optimize the monitoring, diagnosis, assessment, and management of suspected ILICI in clinical trials using ICI as a single agent and in combination with other ICIs or other oncological agents. It is one of several publications developed by the IQ DILI Initiative in collaboration with DILI experts from academia and regulatory agencies. Recommended best practices are outlined pertaining to hepatic inclusion and exclusion criteria, monitoring of liver tests, ILICI detection, approach to a suspected ILICI signal, causality assessment, hepatic discontinuation rules and additional medical treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102514DOI Listing
November 2020

Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Acute Hepatic Porphyrias: Results from the Longitudinal Study of the U.S. Porphyrias Consortium.

Hepatology 2021 May 11;73(5):1736-1746. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background And Aims: The risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increased in acute hepatic porphyrias (AHP). The aim of this study was to explore the clinicopathologic characteristics, outcomes, and frequency of HCC in patients with AHP in the United States.

Approach And Results: This cross-sectional analysis evaluated patients with HCC in a multicenter, longitudinal study of AHP. Among 327 patients with AHP, 5 (1.5%) were diagnosed with HCC. Of the 5 HCC cases, 4 had acute intermittent porphyria and 1 had variegate porphyria, confirmed by biochemical and/or genetic testing. All patients were white females, with a median age of 27 years (range 21-75) at diagnosis. The median age at HCC diagnosis was 69 years (range 61-74). AHP was asymptomatic in 2 patients; 2 reported sporadic attacks; and 1 reported recurrent attacks (>4 attacks/year). All patients had a single HCC lesion on liver imaging that was 1.8-6.5 centimeters in diameter. Serum alpha fetoprotein levels were below 10 ng/mL in all 4 patients with available results. Four patients underwent liver resection, and 1 was treated with radioembolization. No significant inflammation or fibrosis was found in adjacent liver tissues of 3 patients who underwent liver resection. Two patients developed recurrence of HCC at 22 and 26 months following liver resection. All patients are alive with survival times from HCC diagnosis ranging from 26-153 months.

Conclusion: In this U.S. study, 1.5% of patients with AHP had HCC. HCC in AHP occurred in the absence of cirrhosis, which contrasts with other chronic liver diseases. Patients with AHP, regardless of clinical attacks, should be screened for HCC, beginning at age 50. The pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis in AHP is unknown and needs further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31460DOI Listing
May 2021

Phase 3 Trial of RNAi Therapeutic Givosiran for Acute Intermittent Porphyria.

N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(24):2289-2301

From the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (M.B.); Porphyria Center Sweden, Center for Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (E.S., P.H., D.V.); the Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences for Children and Adults, Internal Medicine Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy (P.V.); Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (P.A.P.); King's College London, King's College Hospital, London (D.C.R., P.E.S.); Klinikum Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany (U.S.); the Liver Center and Porphyria Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (D.M.B., B.W.); the Section on Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wake Forest University-North Carolina Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem (H.L.B.); the Department of Hemostatic Disorders and Internal Medicine, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland (J.W.); the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (K.E.A.); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (C. Parker, J.P.); the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (S.M.S.); the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, University of Washington, Seattle (S.B.K.); the Center for Rare Disease and Hemophilia, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (J.-D.W.); St. Ivan Rilski University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria (A.I.); Porphyria Center Rotterdam, Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (J.G.L.); the Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (R.K.); Stadtspital Triemli, Zentrallabor, Zurich, Switzerland (E.M.); Tottori University School of Medicine, Tottori, Japan (Y.H.); Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA (C. Penz, J.C., S.L., J.J.K., M.T.S., P.G., A.V., J.B.K., A.R.S.); and the University of Paris and the Laboratory of Excellence GR-Ex, Paris, and Centre de Référence Maladies Rares Porphyries, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Colombes - all in France (L.G.).

Background: Up-regulation of hepatic delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1), with resultant accumulation of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen, is central to the pathogenesis of acute attacks and chronic symptoms in acute hepatic porphyria. Givosiran, an RNA interference therapy, inhibits ALAS1 expression.

Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned symptomatic patients with acute hepatic porphyria to receive either subcutaneous givosiran (2.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo monthly for 6 months. The primary end point was the annualized rate of composite porphyria attacks among patients with acute intermittent porphyria, the most common subtype of acute hepatic porphyria. (Composite porphyria attacks resulted in hospitalization, an urgent health care visit, or intravenous administration of hemin at home.) Key secondary end points were levels of ALA and porphobilinogen and the annualized attack rate among patients with acute hepatic porphyria, along with hemin use and daily worst pain scores in patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

Results: A total of 94 patients underwent randomization (48 in the givosiran group and 46 in the placebo group). Among the 89 patients with acute intermittent porphyria, the mean annualized attack rate was 3.2 in the givosiran group and 12.5 in the placebo group, representing a 74% lower rate in the givosiran group (P<0.001); the results were similar among the 94 patients with acute hepatic porphyria. Among the patients with acute intermittent porphyria, givosiran led to lower levels of urinary ALA and porphobilinogen, fewer days of hemin use, and better daily scores for pain than placebo. Key adverse events that were observed more frequently in the givosiran group were elevations in serum aminotransferase levels, changes in serum creatinine levels and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and injection-site reactions.

Conclusions: Among patients with acute intermittent porphyria, those who received givosiran had a significantly lower rate of porphyria attacks and better results for multiple other disease manifestations than those who received placebo. The increased efficacy was accompanied by a higher frequency of hepatic and renal adverse events. (Funded by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; ENVISION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03338816.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913147DOI Listing
June 2020

Editorial: hepatitis C and porphyria cutanea tarda in 2020.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 06;51(12):1432-1434

Section on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15728DOI Listing
June 2020

United States Pharmacopeia (USP) comprehensive review of the hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts.

Toxicol Rep 2020 15;7:386-402. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

United States Pharmacopeia Green Tea Hepatotoxicity Expert Panel (USP GTEH EP, 2015-2020 cycle), Rockville, MD, USA.

As part of the United States Pharmacopeia's ongoing review of dietary supplement safety data, a new comprehensive systematic review on green tea extracts (GTE) has been completed. GTEs may contain hepatotoxic solvent residues, pesticide residues, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and elemental impurities, but no evidence of their involvement in GTE-induced liver injury was found during this review. GTE catechin profiles vary significantly with manufacturing processes. Animal and human data indicate that repeated oral administration of bolus doses of GTE during fasting significantly increases bioavailability of catechins, specifically EGCG, possibly involving saturation of first-pass elimination mechanisms. Toxicological studies show a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury. Published adverse event case reports associate hepatotoxicity with EGCG intake amounts from 140 mg to ∼1000 mg/day and substantial inter-individual variability in susceptibility, possibly due to genetic factors. Based on these findings, USP included a cautionary labeling requirement in its Powdered Decaffeinated Green Tea Extract monograph that reads as follows: ")."
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044683PMC
February 2020

Evaluating quality of life tools in North American patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria and X-linked protoporphyria.

JIMD Rep 2019 Nov 14;50(1):9-19. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York New York.

Background: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked Protoporphyria (XLP) are rare photodermatoses presenting with severe phototoxicity. Although anecdotally, providers who treat EPP patients acknowledge their life-altering effects, tools that fully capture their impact on quality of life (QoL) are lacking.

Methods: Adult patients with EPP/XLP were given four validated QoL tools: the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 57 (PROMIS-57), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQR), and an EPP-Specific tool. All patients received the PROMIS-57 while the HADS, IPQR, and EPP-Specific tools were introduced at a later date. Associations between responses and clinical phenotypes were explored.

Results: Two hundred and two patients were included; 193 completed PROMIS-57, 104 completed IPQR, 103 completed HADS, and 107 completed the EPP-Specific tool. The IPQR showed that patients strongly believed EPP/XLP had a negative impact on their lives. Mean scores in anxiety and depression domains of both HADS and PROMIS-57 were normal; however, anxiety scores from HADS were borderline/abnormal in 20% of patients. The EPP-Specific tool revealed a decreased QoL in most patients. The PROMIS-57 showed that 21.8% of patients have clinically significant pain interference. Several tool domains correlated with measures of disease severity, most being from the PROMIS-57.

Conclusions: Impaired QoL is an important consequence of EPP/XLP. PROMIS-57 was most sensitive in evaluating impaired QoL in EPP/XLP. Further research is needed to compare the effectiveness of it for assessing response to treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850979PMC
November 2019

Porphyria-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and central nervous system dysfunction.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 11 1;128(3):242-253. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Section on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine/NC Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, United States of America.. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: An association between neuropsychiatric manifestations and neuroimaging suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) during porphyric attacks has been described in numerous case reports. We aimed to systematically review clinical-radiological features and likely pathogenic mechanisms of PRES in patients with acute hepatic porphyrias (AHP) and porphyric attacks.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, and Google Scholar were searched (July 30, 2019). We included articles describing patients with convincing evidence of an AHP, confirmed porphyric attacks, and PRES in neuroimaging.

Results: Forty-three out of 269 articles were included, which reported on 46 patients. Thirty-nine (84.8%) patients were women. The median age was 24 ± 13.8 years. 52.2% had unspecified AHP, 41.3% acute intermittent porphyria, 4.3% hereditary coproporphyria, and 2.2% variegate porphyria. 70.2% had systemic arterial hypertension. Seizures, mental changes, arterial hypertension, and hyponatremia occurred more frequently than expected for porphyric attacks (p < .001). Seizures and hyponatremia were also more frequent than expected for PRES. The most common distributions of brain lesions were occipital (81.4%), parietal (65.1%), frontal (60.5%), subcortical (40%), and cortical (32.5%). Cerebral vasoconstriction was demonstrated in 41.7% of the patients who underwent angiography. 19.6% of the patients had ischemic lesions, and 4.3% developed long-term sequelae (cognitive decline and focal neurological deficits).

Conclusions: Brain edema, vasoconstriction, and ischemia in the context of PRES likely account for central nervous symptoms in some porphyric attacks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.10.011DOI Listing
November 2019

Evaluating the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales in acute intermittent porphyria.

Genet Med 2020 03 6;22(3):590-597. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare inborn error of heme biosynthesis characterized by life-threatening acute attacks. Few studies have assessed quality of life (QoL) in AIP and those that have had small sample sizes and used tools that may not have captured important domains.

Methods: Baseline data from the Porphyrias Consortium's Longitudinal Study were obtained for 259 patients, including detailed disease and medical history data, and the following Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scales: anxiety, depression, pain interference, fatigue, sleep disturbance, physical function, and satisfaction with social roles. Relationships between PROMIS scores and clinical and biochemical AIP features were explored.

Results: PROMIS scores were significantly worse than the general population across all domains, except depression. Each domain discriminated well between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with symptomatic patients having worse scores. Many important clinical variables like symptom frequency were significantly associated with domain scores in univariate analyses, showing responsiveness of the scales, specifically pain interference and fatigue. However, most regression models only explained ~20% of the variability observed in domain scores.

Conclusion: Pain interference and fatigue were the most responsive scales in measuring QoL in this AIP cohort. Future studies should assess whether these scales capture longitudinal disease progression and treatment response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0683-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060090PMC
March 2020

EXPLORE: A Prospective, Multinational, Natural History Study of Patients with Acute Hepatic Porphyria with Recurrent Attacks.

Hepatology 2020 05 7;71(5):1546-1558. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA.

Background And Aims: Acute hepatic porphyria comprises a group of rare genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes involved in heme biosynthesis. Patients can experience acute neurovisceral attacks, debilitating chronic symptoms, and long-term complications. There is a lack of multinational, prospective data characterizing the disease and current treatment practices in severely affected patients.

Approach And Results: EXPLORE is a prospective, multinational, natural history study characterizing disease activity and clinical management in patients with acute hepatic porphyria who experience recurrent attacks. Eligible patients had a confirmed acute hepatic porphyria diagnosis and had experienced ≥3 attacks in the prior 12 months or were receiving prophylactic treatment. A total of 112 patients were enrolled and followed for at least 6 months. In the 12 months before the study, patients reported a median (range) of 6 (0-52) acute attacks, with 52 (46%) patients receiving hemin prophylaxis. Chronic symptoms were reported by 73 (65%) patients, with 52 (46%) patients experiencing these daily. During the study, 98 (88%) patients experienced a total of 483 attacks, 77% of which required treatment at a health care facility and/or hemin administration (median [range] annualized attack rate 2.0 [0.0-37.0]). Elevated levels of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 messenger ribonucleic acid levels, δ-aminolevulinic acid, and porphobilinogen compared with the upper limit of normal in healthy individuals were observed at baseline and increased further during attacks. Patients had impaired quality of life and increased health care utilization.

Conclusions: Patients experienced attacks often requiring treatment in a health care facility and/or with hemin, as well as chronic symptoms that adversely influenced day-to-day functioning. In this patient group, the high disease burden and diminished quality of life highlight the need for novel therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255459PMC
May 2020

A Low Iron Diet Protects from Steatohepatitis in a Mouse Model.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 10;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Center on Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA.

High tissue iron levels are a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To investigate causal relationships and underlying mechanisms, we used an established NAFLD model-mice fed a high fat diet with supplemental fructose in the water ("fast food", FF). Iron did not affect excess hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the mice on FF, and FF did not affect iron accumulation compared to normal chow. Mice on low iron are protected from worsening of markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), including serum transaminases and fibrotic gene transcript levels. These occurred prior to the onset of significant insulin resistance or changes in adipokines. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the major effects of iron to be on signaling by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway, a known mechanistic factor in NASH. High iron increased fibrotic gene expression in vitro, demonstrating that the effect of dietary iron on NASH is direct. Conclusion: A lower tissue iron level prevents accelerated progression of NAFLD to NASH, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy in humans with the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11092172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769937PMC
September 2019

Genetic Polymorphisms Implicated in Nonalcoholic Liver Disease or Selected Other Disorders Have No Influence on Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

Hepatol Commun 2019 Aug 6;3(8):1032-1035. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Medical Center New York NY.

With the application of genetic testing to contemporary medical diagnostics and practice, it has become apparent that the phenotypes of many disorders are modulated by host genetic factors. The aim of the current study was to determine whether selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unrelated to the human leukocyte antigen region or other immune pathways, including those associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may influence development, severity, or outcomes of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Thirteen variants previously associated with NAFLD and/or selected other liver diseases were tested in 832 Caucasian DILI cases and 10,397 Caucasian population controls. DILI cases were attributed to multiple agents (177 individual drugs), with 56 cases due to herbal/dietary supplement products. Allele frequencies were imputed from recent genome-wide association studies and compared to those for European control samples from the Gnomad database. Significance was tested by linear regression or logistic regression, depending on the nature of the trait. Any variant that passed the Bonferroni threshold of  < 0.0004 ( ) was considered a significant association. None of the variants proved to be significantly associated with DILI as phenotype nor with any of the selected severity traits. Among the variants studied, rs1421085, found in the fat mass and obesity associated () gene, showed a marginal protective effect (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.95;  = 0.005). None of the genetic polymorphisms tested were significantly associated with the risk of development, severity, or outcome of DILI. : SNPs implicated in common liver diseases, such as NAFLD, do not play a substantial role in DILI pathogenesis across agents. It remains possible that these variants could be involved with DILI due to single agents, but this will require the evaluation of larger numbers of cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6671782PMC
August 2019

Porphyrin-Induced Protein Oxidation and Aggregation as a Mechanism of Porphyria-Associated Cell Injury.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 21;8(4):535-548. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.

Genetic porphyrias comprise eight diseases caused by defects in the heme biosynthetic pathway that lead to accumulation of heme precursors. Consequences of porphyria include photosensitivity, liver damage and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, and neurovisceral involvement, including seizures. Fluorescent porphyrins that include protoporphyrin-IX, uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin, are photo-reactive; they absorb light energy and are excited to high-energy singlet and triplet states. Decay of the porphyrin excited to ground state releases energy and generates singlet oxygen. Porphyrin-induced oxidative stress is thought to be the major mechanism of porphyrin-mediated tissue damage. Although this explains the acute photosensitivity in most porphyrias, light-induced porphyrin-mediated oxidative stress does not account for the effect of porphyrins on internal organs. Recent findings demonstrate the unique role of fluorescent porphyrins in causing subcellular compartment-selective protein aggregation. Porphyrin-mediated protein aggregation associates with nuclear deformation, cytoplasmic vacuole formation and endoplasmic reticulum dilation. Porphyrin-triggered proteotoxicity is compounded by inhibition of the proteasome due to aggregation of some of its subunits. The ensuing disruption in proteostasis also manifests in cell cycle arrest coupled with aggregation of cell proliferation-related proteins, including PCNA, cdk4 and cyclin B1. Porphyrins bind to native proteins and, in presence of light and oxygen, oxidize several amino acids, particularly methionine. Noncovalent interaction of oxidized proteins with porphyrins leads to formation of protein aggregates. In internal organs, particularly the liver, light-independent porphyrin-mediated protein aggregation occurs after secondary triggers of oxidative stress. Thus, porphyrin-induced protein aggregation provides a novel mechanism for external and internal tissue damage in porphyrias that involve fluorescent porphyrin accumulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820234PMC
July 2020

Tumour-specific amplitude-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields induce differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma via targeting Ca3.2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channels and Ca influx.

EBioMedicine 2019 Jun 31;44:209-224. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Centre, Winston-Salem, NC, United States of America.

Background: Administration of amplitude modulated 27·12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (AM RF EMF) by means of a spoon-shaped applicator placed on the patient's tongue is a newly approved treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of action of tumour-specific AM RF EMF is largely unknown.

Methods: Whole body and organ-specific human dosimetry analyses were performed. Mice carrying human HCC xenografts were exposed to AM RF EMF using a small animal AM RF EMF exposure system replicating human dosimetry and exposure time. We performed histological analysis of tumours following exposure to AM RF EMF. Using an agnostic genomic approach, we characterized the mechanism of action of AM RF EMF.

Findings: Intrabuccal administration results in systemic delivery of athermal AM RF EMF from head to toe at levels lower than those generated by cell phones held close to the body. Tumour shrinkage results from differentiation of HCC cells into quiescent cells with spindle morphology. AM RF EMF targeted antiproliferative effects and cancer stem cell inhibiting effects are mediated by Ca influx through Ca3·2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CACNA1H) resulting in increased intracellular calcium concentration within HCC cells only.

Interpretation: Intrabuccally-administered AM RF EMF is a systemic therapy that selectively block the growth of HCC cells. AM RF EMF pronounced inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells may explain the exceptionally long responses observed in several patients with advanced HCC. FUND: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Centre Support Grant award number P30CA012197 issued to the Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Centre (BP) and by funds from the Charles L. Spurr Professorship Fund (BP). DWG is supported by R01 AA016852 and P50 AA026117.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.05.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604666PMC
June 2019

Pilot study of mitochondrial bioenergetics in subjects with acute porphyrias.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 11 20;128(3):228-235. Epub 2019 May 20.

Section on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Wake Forest University/NC Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The acute porphyrias are characterized by defects in heme synthesis, particularly in the liver. In some affected patients, there occurs a critical deficiency in a regulatory heme pool within hepatocytes that leads to up-regulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] synthase-1, which is the first and normally rate-controlling enzyme in the pathway. In earlier work, we described defects in mitochondrial functions in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with acute intermittent porphyria [AIP]. Others described defects in livers of murine models of AIP. Here, we explored mitochondrial energetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] and platelets in persons with AIP and hereditary coproporphyria [HCP]. Our hypotheses were that there are deficits in bioenergetic capacity in acute porphyrias and that subjects with more severe acute porphyria have more pronounced reductions in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates [OCR].

Methods: We studied 17 subjects with acute hepatic porphyrias, 14 with classical AIP, one with severe AIP due to homozygous deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], 2 with HCP, and 5 non-porphyric controls. We collected peripheral blood, isolated PBMCs, which we assayed either immediately or after frozen storage [80C] for up to 14 days. Using Seahorse XF-24-3, we measured OCR in the presence of glucose + pyruvate under basal condition, and after additions of oligomycin, carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP], and antimycin+rotenone.

Results: Most subjects [13/17, 76%] were female. Subjects with moderate/severe symptoms associated with acute porphyria had significantly lower basal and maximal-OCR than those with no/mild symptoms who were the same as controls. We observed significant inverse correlation between urinary porphobilinogen [PBG] excretion and OCR. The subject with homozygous AIP had a much lower-OCR than his asymptomatic parents.

Summary/conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that active acute hepatic porphyria is characterized by a deficiency in mitochondrial function that is detectable in PBMCs, suggesting that limitations in electron transport and ATP production exist in such individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864263PMC
November 2019

International Porphyria Molecular Diagnostic Collaborative: an evidence-based database of verified pathogenic and benign variants for the porphyrias.

Genet Med 2019 11 10;21(11):2605-2613. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

With the advent of precision and genomic medicine, a critical issue is whether a disease gene variant is pathogenic or benign. Such is the case for the three autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs), including acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria, each resulting from the half-normal enzymatic activities of hydroxymethylbilane synthase, coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase, respectively. To date, there is no public database that documents the likely pathogenicity of variants causing the porphyrias, and more specifically, the AHPs with biochemically and clinically verified information. Therefore, an international collaborative with the European Porphyria Network and the National Institutes of Health/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH/NCATS/NIDDK)-sponsored Porphyrias Consortium of porphyria diagnostic experts is establishing an online database that will collate biochemical and clinical evidence verifying the pathogenicity of the published and newly identified variants in the AHP-causing genes. The overall goal of the International Porphyria Molecular Diagnostic Collaborative is to determine the pathogenic and benign variants for all eight porphyrias. Here we describe the overall objectives and the initial efforts to validate pathogenic and benign variants in the respective heme biosynthetic genes causing the AHPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0537-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229570PMC
November 2019

Pathogenesis and clinical features of the acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs).

Mol Genet Metab 2019 11 6;128(3):213-218. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Section on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine/NC Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States of America.

The acute hepatic porphyrias include four disorders: acute intermittent porphyria [AIP], hereditary coproporphyria [HCP], variegate porphyria [VP], and the rare porphyria due to severe deficiency of ALA dehydratase [ADP]. In the USA, AIP is the most severe and most often symptomatic. AIP, HCP, and VP are due to autosomal dominant genetic abnormalities, in which missense, nonsense, or other mutations of genes of normal hepatic heme biosynthesis, in concert with other environmental, nutritional, hormonal and genetic factors, may lead to a critical deficiency of heme, the end-product of the pathway, in a small but critical 'regulatory pool' within hepatocytes. This deficiency leads to de-repression of the first and normally rate-controlling enzyme of the heme synthetic pathway, delta- or 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] synthase-1, and thus to marked up-regulation of this key enzyme and to marked hepatic overproduction of ALA. In addition, except for ADP, there is marked overproduction as well of porphobilinogen [PBG], the intermediate immediately downstream of ALA in the synthetic chain, and, especially in HCP and VP, also porphyrinogens and porphyrins farther down the pathway. The major clinical features of the acute porphyrias are attacks of severe neuropathic-type pain. Pain is felt first and foremost in the abdomen but may also occur in the back, chest, and extremities. Attacks are more common in women than in men [ratio of about 4:1], often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, constipation, tachycardia, and arterial hypertension. Hyponatremia may also occur. Some patients also describe chronic symptoms of pain, anxiety, insomnia, and others.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754303PMC
November 2019

Baseline Hepatic Levels of miR-29b and Claudin are Respectively Associated with the Stage of Fibrosis and HCV RNA in Hepatitis C.

Clin Exp Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jan-May;1(1). Epub 2019 Mar 8.

The Liver-Biliary-Pancreatic Center, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.

We sought to determine if the baseline hepatic levels of miR-122, miR-29b, Claudin, Occludin, Protein Kinase R (PKR) or PKR activator (PRKRA) were correlated with HCV RNA or stage of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A total of 25 CHC patients (genotype 1) who were treatment naive at the time of sample collection enrolled in this study. By multivariate analysis, CLDN RNA was found as the single independent factor positively correlated with HCV RNA levels (p=0.003), while hepatic miR-29b levels was found as the single independent factor for predicting advanced stage of fibrosis (p=0.028). Conclusion: Our results highlight miR-29b and CLDN as novel predictors of advanced stage of liver fibrosis and baseline HCV RNA in CHC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448799PMC
March 2019

Severe and protracted cholestasis in 44 young men taking bodybuilding supplements: assessment of genetic, clinical and chemical risk factors.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 05 1;49(9):1195-1204. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Liver Diseases Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Bodybuilding supplements can cause a profound cholestatic syndrome.

Aim: To describe the drug-Induced liver injury network's experience with liver injury due to bodybuilding supplements.

Methods: Liver injury pattern, severity and outcomes, potential genetic associations, and exposure to anabolic steroids by product analysis were analysed in prospectively enrolled subjects with bodybuilding supplement-induced liver injury with causality scores of probable or higher.

Results: Forty-four males (mean age 33 years) developed liver injury with a median latency of 73 days. Forty-one per cent presented with hepatocellular pattern of liver injury as defined by the R > 5 ([Fold elevation of ALT] ÷ [Fold elevation of Alk Phos] (mean, range = 6.4, 0.5-31.4, n = 42) despite all presenting with clinical features of cholestatic liver injury (100% with jaundice and 84% with pruritus). Liver biopsy (59% of subjects) demonstrated a mild hepatitis and profound cholestasis in most without bile duct injury, loss or fibrosis. Seventy-one per cent were hospitalised, and none died or required liver transplantation. In some, chemical analysis revealed anabolic steroid controlled substances not listed on the label. No enrichment of genetic variants associated with cholestatic syndromes was found, although mutations in ABCB11 (present in up to 20%) were significantly different than in ethnically matched controls.

Conclusions: Patients with bodybuilding supplements liver injury uniformly presented with cholestatic injury, which slowly resolved. The ingested products often contained anabolic steroids not identified on the label, and no enrichment in genetic variants was found, indicating a need for additional studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682544PMC
May 2019

Acute Hepatic Porphyrias: Review and Recent Progress.

Hepatol Commun 2019 Feb 20;3(2):193-206. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine Wake Forest University School of Medicine Winston-Salem NC.

The acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) are a group of four inherited diseases of heme biosynthesis that present with episodic, acute neurovisceral symptoms. The four types are 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria. Their diagnoses are often missed or delayed because the clinical symptoms mimic other more common disorders. Recent results indicate that acute intermittent porphyria, the most severe of the more common types of AHP, is more prevalent than previously thought, occurring in about 1 in 1600 Caucasians, but with low clinical penetrance (approximately 2%-3%). Here we provide an updated review of relevant literature and discuss recent and emerging advances in treatment of these disorders. Symptomatic attacks occur primarily in females between 14 and 45 years of age. AHP is diagnosed by finding significantly elevated levels of porphyrin precursors ALA and porphobilinogen in urine. Acute attacks should be treated promptly with intravenous heme therapy to avoid the development of potentially irreversible neurologic sequelae. All patients should be counseled about avoiding potential triggers for acute attacks and monitored regularly for the development of long-term complications. Their first-degree relatives should undergo targeted gene testing. Patients who suffer recurrent acute attacks can be particularly challenging to manage. Approximately 20% of patients with recurrent symptoms develop chronic and ongoing pain and other symptoms. We discuss newer treatment options in development, including small interfering RNA, to down-regulate ALA synthase-1 and/or wild-type messenger RNA of defective genes delivered selectively to hepatocytes for these patients. We expect that the newer treatments will diminish and perhaps obviate the need for liver transplantation as treatment of these inborn metabolic disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357830PMC
February 2019

Benefits of prophylactic heme therapy in severe acute intermittent porphyria.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2019 Jun 30;19:100450. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Medicine, Wake Forest University/NC Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of metabolism, is the most common and severe form of the acute porphyrias. Attacks of severe abdominal pain, often with hypertension, tachycardia, are cardinal features of AIP, often requiring hospital admissions. Frequent recurrent attacks of AIP, defined as >3 attacks in one year, during which at least one attack requires intravenous heme therapy, are associated with significant morbidity, lost productivity, and health care burden. We report two patients with such frequent attacks of AIP, who have been managed with prophylactic heme therapy on a weekly basis. We describe results particularly in relation to symptom control, biochemical findings, health care costs, quality of life, and utilization of resources. During 11-month duration of weekly prophylactic heme infusions, we observed a 100% decrease in acute attacks and inpatient admissions in one subject and a 75% decrease in the other. During this time, we also observed a significant decrease in the number of emergency room visits. The decrease in number of acute attacks requiring hospital admission was associated with significantly decreased health care costs and improved quality of life. Reduction of both emergency room visits and hospital admissions decreased the utilization of health care services. Outpatient weekly infusions were also noted to be associated with better reimbursements and reduced overall costs of health care for the subjects. Both our subjects also endorsed better symptom control, quality of life and better understanding of disease. Thus, prophylactic heme therapy, through a multi-disciplinary approach, decreases the incidence of acute attacks, decreases health care costs and leads to better patient satisfaction and quality of life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2019.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358544PMC
June 2019

Phase 1 Trial of an RNA Interference Therapy for Acute Intermittent Porphyria.

N Engl J Med 2019 02;380(6):549-558

From the Porphyria Centre Sweden, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (E.S., P.H., D.V.); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (M.B., R.D.); King's College Hospital, London (P.S., D.R.); University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (D.M.B.); University of Utah, Salt Lake City (C. Parker, J.P.); Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (H.L.B.); Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA (C. Penz, A.C.-D., Q.H., W.Q., K.F., J.B.K., P.G., A.V., A.R.S.); and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston (K.E.A.).

Background: Induction of delta aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 ( ALAS1) gene expression and accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates result in neurovisceral attacks and disease manifestations in patients with acute intermittent porphyria, a rare inherited disease of heme biosynthesis. Givosiran is an investigational RNA interference therapeutic agent that inhibits hepatic ALAS1 synthesis.

Methods: We conducted a phase 1 trial of givosiran in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. In part A of the trial, patients without recent porphyria attacks (i.e., no attacks in the 6 months before baseline) were randomly assigned to receive a single subcutaneous injection of one of five ascending doses of givosiran (0.035, 0.10, 0.35, 1.0, or 2.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. In part B, patients without recent attacks were randomly assigned to receive once-monthly injections of one of two doses of givosiran (0.35 or 1.0 mg per kilogram) or placebo (total of two injections 28 days apart). In part C, patients who had recurrent attacks were randomly assigned to receive injections of one of two doses of givosiran (2.5 or 5.0 mg per kilogram) or placebo once monthly (total of four injections) or once quarterly (total of two injections) during a 12-week period, starting on day 0. Safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and exploratory efficacy outcomes were evaluated.

Results: A total of 23 patients in parts A and B and 17 patients in part C underwent randomization. Common adverse events included nasopharyngitis, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Serious adverse events occurred in 6 patients who received givosiran in parts A through C combined. In part C, all 6 patients who were assigned to receive once-monthly injections of givosiran had sustained reductions in ALAS1 messenger RNA (mRNA), delta aminolevulinic acid, and porphobilinogen levels to near normal. These reductions were associated with a 79% lower mean annualized attack rate than that observed with placebo (exploratory efficacy end point).

Conclusions: Once-monthly injections of givosiran in patients who had recurrent porphyria attacks resulted in mainly low-grade adverse events, reductions in induced ALAS1 mRNA levels, nearly normalized levels of the neurotoxic intermediates delta aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen, and a lower attack rate than that observed with placebo. (Funded by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02452372 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1807838DOI Listing
February 2019

Sex differences in vascular reactivity in mesenteric arteries from a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 11 7;128(3):376-381. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Section on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Wake Forest University/NC Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) results from a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). Symptomatic AIP patients, most of whom are women, experience acute attacks characterized by severe abdominal pain and abrupt increases in blood pressure. Here, we characterized the reactivity of mesenteric arteries from male and female AIP mice with ~30% of normal PBGD activity and wild type C57BL/6 mice.

Methods: An acute porphyric attack was induced in AIP mice by treatment with phenobarbital. Vascular responses to K, phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and hemin were determined (Wire Multi Myograph).

Results: Maximal contraction to PE was increased in arteries from male and female AIP mice (p < .05) during an induced attack of acute porphyria. Female AIP arteries had increased sensitivity to PE (p < .05) even after nitric oxide (NO) blockade with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (p < .05). Maximal relaxation to ACh was similar in males and females with lower sensitivity in female AIP arteries (p < .05). Hemin induced greater relaxation in AIP arteries in both males and females (p < .05).

Summary/conclusions: Sex differences in this AIP mouse model include a pro-contractile response in females. These alterations may contribute to the increased blood pressure during an acute attack and provide a novel mechanism of action whereby heme ameliorates the attacks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612470PMC
November 2019

Cytokine profiles in acute liver injury-Results from the US Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) and the Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

PLoS One 2018 25;13(10):e0206389. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Changes in levels of cytokines and chemokines have been proposed as possible biomarkers of tissue injury, including liver injury due to drugs. Recently, in acute drug-induced liver injury (DILI), we showed that 19 of 27 immune analytes were differentially expressed and that disparate patterns of immune responses were evident. Lower values of serum albumin (< 2.8 g/dL) and lower levels of only four analytes, namely, IL-9, IL-17, PDGF-bb, and RANTES, were highly predictive of early death [accuracy = 96%]. The goals of this study were to assess levels of the same 27 immune analytes in larger numbers of subjects to learn whether the earlier findings would be confirmed in new and larger cohorts of subjects, compared with a new cohort of healthy controls. We studied 127 subjects with acute DILI enrolled into the US DILIN. We also studied 118 subjects with severe acute liver injury of diverse etiologies, enrolled into the ALF SG registry of subjects. Controls comprised 63 de-identified subjects with no history of liver disease and normal liver tests. Analytes associated with poor outcomes [death before 6 months, n = 32 of the total of 232 non-acetaminophen (Apap) subjects], were lower serum albumin [2.6 vs 3.0 g/dL] and RANTES [6,458 vs 8,999 pg/mL] but higher levels of IL-6 [41 vs 18], IL-8 [78 vs 48], and MELD scores [30 vs 24]. Similar patterns were observed for outcome of death/liver transplant within 6 months. A model that included only serum albumin < 2.8 g/dL and RANTES below its median value of 11,349 had 83% (or 81%) accuracy for predicting early death (or early death/liver transplant) in 127 subjects from DILIN. No patterns of serum immune analytes were reflective of the etiologies of acute liver failure, but there were cytokine patterns that predicted prognosis in both acute DILI and ALF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206389PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201986PMC
April 2019