Publications by authors named "Herbert H Lindner"

49 Publications

Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry Approaches for Characterization of the Protein and Metabolite Corona Acquired by Nanomaterials.

J Vis Exp 2020 10 27(164). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Innsbruck.

The adsorption of biomolecules from surrounding biological matrices to the surface of nanomaterials (NMs) to form the corona has been of interest for the past decade. Interest in the bio-nano interface arises from the fact that the biomolecular corona confers a biological identity to NMs and thus causes the body to identify them as "self". For example, previous studies have demonstrated that the proteins in the corona are capable of interacting with membrane receptors to influence cellular uptake and established that the corona is responsible for cellular trafficking of NMs and their eventual toxicity. To date, most research has focused upon the protein corona and overlooked the possible impacts of the metabolites included in the corona or synergistic effects between components in the complete biomolecular corona. As such, this work demonstrates methodologies to characterize both the protein and metabolite components of the biomolecular corona using bottom-up proteomics and metabolomics approaches in parallel. This includes an on-particle digest of the protein corona with a surfactant used to increase protein recovery, and a passive characterization of the metabolite corona by analyzing metabolite matrices before and after NM exposures. This work introduces capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry (CESI-MS) as a new technique for NM corona characterization. The protocols outlined here demonstrate how CESI-MS can be used for the reliable characterization of both the protein and metabolite corona acquired by NMs. The move to CESI-MS greatly decreases the volume of sample required (compared to traditional liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approaches) with multiple injections possible from as little as 5 µL of sample, making it ideal for volume limited samples. Furthermore, the environmental consequences of analysis are reduced with respect to LC-MS due to the low flow rates (<20 nL/min) in CESI-MS, and the use of aqueous electrolytes which eliminates the need for organic solvents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61760DOI Listing
October 2020

Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry at Trial by Metabo-Ring: Effective Electrophoretic Mobility for Reproducible and Robust Compound Annotation.

Anal Chem 2020 10 1;92(20):14103-14112. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Division of Systems Biomedicine and Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, 2311 G Leiden, The Netherlands.

Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a mature analytical tool for the efficient profiling of (highly) polar and ionizable compounds. However, the use of CE-MS in comparison to other separation techniques remains underrepresented in metabolomics, as this analytical approach is still perceived as technically challenging and less reproducible, notably for migration time. The latter is key for a reliable comparison of metabolic profiles and for unknown biomarker identification that is complementary to high resolution MS/MS. In this work, we present the results of a Metabo-ring trial involving 16 CE-MS platforms among 13 different laboratories spanning two continents. The goal was to assess the reproducibility and identification capability of CE-MS by employing effective electrophoretic mobility (μ) as the key parameter in comparison to the relative migration time (RMT) approach. For this purpose, a representative cationic metabolite mixture in water, pretreated human plasma, and urine samples spiked with the same metabolite mixture were used and distributed for analysis by all laboratories. The μ was determined for all metabolites spiked into each sample. The background electrolyte (BGE) was prepared and employed by each participating lab following the same protocol. All other parameters (capillary, interface, injection volume, voltage ramp, temperature, capillary conditioning, and rinsing procedure, etc.) were left to the discretion of the contributing laboratories. The results revealed that the reproducibility of the μ for 20 out of the 21 model compounds was below 3.1% vs 10.9% for RMT, regardless of the huge heterogeneity in experimental conditions and platforms across the 13 laboratories. Overall, this Metabo-ring trial demonstrated that CE-MS is a viable and reproducible approach for metabolomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c03129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581015PMC
October 2020

Exposing the High Heterogeneity of Circulating Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Fragments in Healthy Individuals and Heart Failure Patients.

Clin Chem 2020 09;66(9):1200-1209

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck , Austria.

Background: The high molecular complexity of variably O-glycosylated and degraded pro B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) derived molecular forms challenges current immunoassays. Antibodies used show pronounced differences in cross-reactivities with these circulating fragments, which still need to be better characterized on a molecular level. To pave the way for advanced quantitative assays in the future, it is critical to fully understand these circulating forms.

Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 8 heart failure (HF) patients and 2 healthy controls. NT-proBNP and proBNP were purified by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Fragments formed during proteolysis in solution digestion were distinguished from naturally occurring peptides by using an 18O stable isotope labeling strategy.

Results: We detected 16 previously unknown circulating fragments of proBNP peptides (9 of which are located in the N-terminal and 7 in the C-terminal region), revealing a more advanced state of degradation than previously known. Two of these fragments are indicative of either unidentified processing modes or a far-reaching C-terminal degradation (or a combination thereof) of the precursor proBNP.

Conclusions: Our results further restrict ideal target epitopes for immunoassay antibodies and expand the current thinking of diversity, degradation, and processing of proBNP, as well as the distribution of circulating forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvaa130DOI Listing
September 2020

A role of heparan sulphate proteoglycan in the cellular uptake of lipocalins ß-lactoglobulin and allergen Fel d 4.

Biol Chem 2020 08;401(9):1081-1092

Institute of Molecular Biology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innrain 80, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Lipocalins, small extracellular hydrophobic molecule carriers, can be internalized by a variety of different cells. However, to date receptors have only been identified for human lipocalins. Here, we specifically investigated uptake mechanisms for lipocalins ß-lactoglobulin and Fel d 4 in HeLa and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We provide evidence that cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan is essential for internalization of these lipocalins. In HeLa cells, lipocalin uptake was inhibited by competition with soluble heparin, enzymatic digestion of cellular heparan sulphate by heparinase and inhibition of its biosynthesis by sodium chlorate. Biochemical studies by heparin affinity chromatography and colocalization studies further supported a role of heparan sulphate proteoglycan in lipocalin uptake. Finally, lipocalin uptake was blocked in CHO mutant cells defective in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis whereas in wild-type cells it was clearly detectable. Thus, cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan represents a novel component absolutely participating in the cellular uptake of some lipocalins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2020-0132DOI Listing
August 2020

Phospholipid Acyl Chain Diversity Controls the Tissue-Specific Assembly of Mitochondrial Cardiolipins.

Cell Rep 2020 03;30(12):4281-4291.e4

Institute of Human Genetics, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid specific for mitochondrial membranes and crucial for many core tasks of this organelle. Its acyl chain configurations are tissue specific, functionally important, and generated via post-biosynthetic remodeling. However, this process lacks the necessary specificity to explain CL diversity, which is especially evident for highly specific CL compositions in mammalian tissues. To investigate the so far elusive regulatory origin of CL homeostasis in mice, we combine lipidomics, integrative transcriptomics, and data-driven machine learning. We demonstrate that not transcriptional regulation, but cellular phospholipid compositions are closely linked to the tissue specificity of CL patterns allowing artificial neural networks to precisely predict cross-tissue CL compositions in a consistent mechanistic specificity rationale. This is especially relevant for the interpretation of disease-related perturbations of CL homeostasis, by allowing differentiation between specific aberrations in CL metabolism and changes caused by global alterations in cellular (phospho-)lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.115DOI Listing
March 2020

Application of CE-MS for the analysis of histones and histone modifications.

Methods 2020 12 31;184:125-134. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

The analysis, identification and quantification of histones and their post-translational modifications plays a central role in chromatin research and in studying epigenetic regulations during physiological processes. In the last decade analytical strategies based on mass spectrometry have been greatly improved for providing a global view of single modification abundances or to determine combinatorial patterns of modifications. Presented here is a newly developed strategy for histone protein analysis and a number of applications are illustrated with an emphasis on PTM characterization. Capillary electrophoresis is coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and has proven to be a very promising concept as it enables to study intact histones (top-down proteomics) as well as the analysis of enzymatically digested proteins (bottom-up proteomics). This technology combines highly efficient low-flow CE separations with ionization in a single device and offers an orthogonal separation principle to conventional LC-MS analysis, thus expanding the existing analytical repertoire in a perfect manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2020.01.017DOI Listing
December 2020

LAMTOR/Ragulator regulates lipid metabolism in macrophages and foam cell differentiation.

FEBS Lett 2020 01 26;594(1):31-42. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Division of Cell Biology, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.

Late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor and MAPK and mTOR activator (LAMTOR/Ragulator) is a scaffold protein complex that anchors and regulates multiprotein signaling units on late endosomes/lysosomes. To identify LAMTOR-modulated endolysosomal proteins, primary macrophages were derived from bone marrow of conditional knockout mice carrying a specific deletion of LAMTOR2 in the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage. Affymetrix-based transcriptomic analysis and quantitative iTRAQ-based organelle proteomic analysis of endosomes derived from macrophages were performed. Further analyses showed that LAMTOR could be a novel regulator of foam cell differentiation. The lipid droplet formation phenotype observed in macrophages was additionally confirmed in MEFs, where lipidomic analysis identified cholesterol esters as specifically downregulated in LAMTOR2 knockout cells. The data obtained indicate a function of LAMTOR2 in lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003824PMC
January 2020

Corona Isolation Method Matters: Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry Based Comparison of Protein Corona Compositions Following On-Particle versus In-Solution or In-Gel Digestion.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Jun 20;9(6). Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Increased understanding of the role of the nanomaterial protein corona in driving nanomaterial uptake into, and impacts on, cells and organisms, and the consequent need for characterization of the corona, has led to a flourishing of methods for isolation and analysis of the constituent proteins over the past decade. However, despite over 700 corona studies to date, very little is understood in terms of which methods provide the most precise and comprehensive characterization of the corona. With the increasing importance of the modeling of corona formation and its correlation with biological impacts, it is timely to properly characterize and validate the isolation approaches used to determine the protein corona. The current work introduces Capillary Electrophoresis with Electro Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CESI-MS) as a novel method for protein corona characterizations and develops an on-particle tryptic digestion method, comparing peptide solubilization solutions and characterizing the recovery of proteins from the nanomaterial surface. The CESI-MS was compared to the gold standard nano-LC-MS for corona analysis and maintained a high degree of reproducibility, while increasing throughput by >3-fold. The on-particle digestion is compared to an in-solution digestion and an in-gel digestion of the protein corona. Interestingly, a range of different protein classes were found to be recovered to greater or lesser extents among the different methods. Apolipoproteins were detected at lower concentrations when a surfactant was used to solubilize peptides, whereas immunoglobulins in general have a high affinity for nanomaterials, and thus show lower recovery using on-particle digestion. The optimized on-particle digestion was validated using 6 nanomaterials and proved capable of recovering in excess of 97% of the protein corona. These are important factors to consider when designing corona studies and modeling corona formation and impacts, highlighting the significance of a comprehensive validation of nanomaterial corona analysis methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9060898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631359PMC
June 2019

Feedback inhibition of cAMP effector signaling by a chaperone-assisted ubiquitin system.

Nat Commun 2019 06 12;10(1):2572. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University Federico II, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Activation of G-protein coupled receptors elevates cAMP levels promoting dissociation of protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzymes and release of catalytic subunits (PKAc). This results in PKAc-mediated phosphorylation of compartmentalized substrates that control central aspects of cell physiology. The mechanism of PKAc activation and signaling have been largely characterized. However, the modes of PKAc inactivation by regulated proteolysis were unknown. Here, we identify a regulatory mechanism that precisely tunes PKAc stability and downstream signaling. Following agonist stimulation, the recruitment of the chaperone-bound E3 ligase CHIP promotes ubiquitylation and proteolysis of PKAc, thus attenuating cAMP signaling. Genetic inactivation of CHIP or pharmacological inhibition of HSP70 enhances PKAc signaling and sustains hippocampal long-term potentiation. Interestingly, primary fibroblasts from autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 16 (SCAR16) patients carrying germline inactivating mutations of CHIP show a dramatic dysregulation of PKA signaling. This suggests the existence of a negative feedback mechanism for restricting hormonally controlled PKA activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10037-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6561907PMC
June 2019

The structure of the Shiga toxin 2a A-subunit dictates the interactions of the toxin with blood components.

Cell Microbiol 2019 05 18;21(5):e13000. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS) is a severe complication of human infections with Shiga toxins (Stxs)-producing Escherichia coli. A key step in the pathogenesis of eHUS is the interaction of Stxs with blood components before the targeting of renal endothelial cells. Here, we show that a single proteolytic cleavage in the Stx2a A-subunit, resulting into two fragments (A1 and A2) linked by a disulfide bridge (cleaved Stx2a), dictates different binding abilities. Uncleaved Stx2a was confirmed to bind to human neutrophils and to trigger leukocyte/platelet aggregate formation, whereas cleaved Stx2a was ineffective. Conversely, binding of complement factor H was confirmed for cleaved Stx2a and not for uncleaved Stx2a. It is worth noting that uncleaved and cleaved Stx2a showed no differences in cytotoxicity for Vero cells or Raji cells, structural conformation, and contaminating endotoxin. These results have been obtained by comparing two Stx2a batches, purified in different laboratories by using different protocols, termed Stx2a(cl; cleaved toxin, Innsbruck) and Stx2a(uncl; uncleaved toxin, Bologna). Stx2a(uncl) behaved as Stx2a(cl) after mild trypsin treatment. In this light, previous controversial results obtained with purified Stx2a has to be critically re-evaluated; furthermore, characterisation of the structure of circulating Stx2a is mandatory to understand eHUS-pathogenesis and to develop therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.13000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6492301PMC
May 2019

Multimerization results in formation of re-bindable metabolites: A proof of concept study with FSC-based minigastrin imaging probes targeting CCK2R expression.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(7):e0201224. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Positron emission tomography (PET) with radiolabelled peptide-based tracers has attracted great interest in oncology over the past decades. The success of imaging is closely related to sufficient uptake of the radiotracer in malignant tissue and for this sufficient biological half-life, particularly in the bloodstream, is mandatory. Fast enzymatic degradation during circulation leading to insufficient imaging abilities of peptide-based radioligands remains a major issue. The design of multimeric constructs, bearing multiple targeting moieties, has been widely applied to improve target interaction. This concept may also be applied to prolong the biological half-life of peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals as enzymatic degradation can result in formation of metabolites still capable to interact with the target binding site. In this study we aimed to identify such metabolites and therefore we utilized the siderophore-based bifunctional chelator fusarinine C (FSC) for the design of novel mono- and multimeric constructs, bearing minigastrin (MG) analogues as targeting moieties to address cholecystokinin-2 receptors (CCK2R) which are overexpressed in a variety of cancerous diseases and are well known for fast enzymatic degradation, particularly for truncated des-(Glu)5-MG members, such as MG11. FSC-based imaging probes were radiolabelled with gallium-68 and characterized in vitro (logD, protein binding, affinity and cell-uptake studies, stability and metabolite studies, as well as generation of corresponding metabolites by artificial enzymatic degradation) and in vivo (biodistribution in A431-CCK2R/A431-mock tumour xenografted BALB/c nude mice and stability in blood of living BALB/c mice and analysis of corresponding organ homogenates and urine to identify degradation products). In summary, multimerization was accompanied by partial improvement towards targeting abilities. Identified metabolites formed by artificial enzymatic cleavage of trimeric FSC-MG conjugates in vitro contained intact binding sequences for the receptor. Furthermore, the 68Ga-labelled trimers exhibiting increasing uptake of radioligand in tumour tissue over time and improved in vivo stability in blood samples of living animals of the trimers compared to corresponding mono- and dimers, strongly supporting our hypothesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201224PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6066219PMC
January 2019

Comparing the effect of strontium-functionalized and fluoride-modified surfaces on early osseointegration.

J Periodontol 2018 08 10;89(8):940-948. Epub 2018 May 10.

Private practice, Lienz, Austria.

Background: Studies have shown that medical devices comprising strontium contribute to bone healing and osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of surface-functionalized implants (Ti-Sr-O) showing predictable release characteristics of strontium and compare it to performance a commercially available fluoride-modified surface.

Methods: Ti-Sr-O functionalized, fluoride-modified,  Grade 4 titanium implants were inserted in the femoral condyle of adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was utilized to monitor strontium blood serum levels. Two weeks after insertion, histomorphometric evaluation was performed with respect to bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) and bone formation (BF%) using defined regions of interest.

Results: Mean values for BIC% showed a comparable degree of osseointegration for Ti-Sr-O and the fluoride-modified surface, while BF% revealed a significant difference in increased BF with Ti-Sr-O. AAS measurements did not indicate any influence of the Ti-Sr-O modified implants on the strontium blood serum concentrations.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it was shown that the Ti-Sr-O coating, with sustained release characteristics of strontium, enhanced bone apposition and, thus, could find practical applications, e.g., within the field of medical implantology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.17-0680DOI Listing
August 2018

Counterregulation of cAMP-directed kinase activities controls ciliogenesis.

Nat Commun 2018 03 26;9(1):1224. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University 'Federico II', Naples, 80131, Italy.

The primary cilium emanates from the cell surface of growth-arrested cells and plays a central role in vertebrate development and tissue homeostasis. The mechanisms that control ciliogenesis have been extensively explored. However, the intersection between GPCR signaling and the ubiquitin pathway in the control of cilium stability are unknown. Here we observe that cAMP elevation promotes cilia resorption. At centriolar satellites, we identify a multimeric complex nucleated by PCM1 that includes two kinases, NEK10 and PKA, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. We show that NEK10 is essential for ciliogenesis in mammals and for the development of medaka fish. PKA phosphorylation primes NEK10 for CHIP-mediated ubiquitination and proteolysis resulting in cilia resorption. Disarrangement of this control mechanism occurs in proliferative and genetic disorders. These findings unveil a pericentriolar kinase signalosome that efficiently links the cAMP cascade with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, thereby controlling essential aspects of ciliogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03643-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5964327PMC
March 2018

Investigating capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the analysis of common post-translational modifications.

Electrophoresis 2018 05 8;39(9-10):1208-1215. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Tirol, Austria.

Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry is a very efficient analytical method for the analysis of post-translational modifications because of its high separation efficiency and high detection sensitivity. Here we applied CE-MS using three differently coated separation capillaries for in-depth analysis of a set of 70 synthetic post-translationally modified peptides (including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, and nitration). We evaluated the results in terms of peptide detection and separation characteristics and found that the use of a neutrally coated capillary resulted in highest overall signal intensity of singly modified peptides. In contrast, the use of a bare-fused silica capillary was superior in the identification of multi-phosphorylated peptides (12 out of 15 were identified). Fast separations of approximately 12 min could be achieved using a positively coated capillary, however, at the cost of separation efficiency. A comparison to nanoLC-MS revealed that multi-phosphorylated peptides interact with the RP material very poorly so that these peptides were either washed out or elute as very broad peaks from the nano column which results in a reduced peptide identification rate (7 out of 15). Moreover, the methods applied were found to be very well suited for the analysis of the acetylated, nitrated and methylated peptides. All 36 synthetic peptides, which exhibit one of those modifications, could be identified regardless of the method applied. As a final step in this study and as a proof of principle, the phosphoproteome enriched from PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells was analyzed by CE-MS resulting in 5686 identified and 4088 quantified phosphopeptides. We compared the characterized analytes to those identified by a nanoLC-MS proteomics study and found that less than one third of the phosphopeptides were identical, which demonstrates the benefit by combining different approaches quite impressively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201700437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001557PMC
May 2018

LAMTOR/Ragulator is a negative regulator of Arl8b- and BORC-dependent late endosomal positioning.

J Cell Biol 2017 12 9;216(12):4199-4215. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Division of Cell Biology, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria

Signaling from lysosomes controls cellular clearance and energy metabolism. Lysosomal malfunction has been implicated in several pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cancer, infection, immunodeficiency, and obesity. Interestingly, many functions are dependent on the organelle position. Lysosomal motility requires the integration of extracellular and intracellular signals that converge on a competition between motor proteins that ultimately control lysosomal movement on microtubules. Here, we identify a novel upstream control mechanism of Arl8b-dependent lysosomal movement toward the periphery of the cell. We show that the C-terminal domain of lyspersin, a subunit of BLOC-1-related complex (BORC), is essential and sufficient for BORC-dependent recruitment of Arl8b to lysosomes. In addition, we establish lyspersin as the linker between BORC and late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor and mitogen activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin activator (LAMTOR) complexes and show that epidermal growth factor stimulation decreases LAMTOR/BORC association, thereby promoting BORC- and Arl8b-dependent lysosomal centrifugal transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201703061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716276PMC
December 2017

Enhancing Proteomic Throughput in Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry by Sequential Sample Injection.

Proteomics 2017 Nov 25;17(22). Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

In this study we demonstrate the potential of sequential injection of samples in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid and sensitive proteome characterization of human lymphoblastic T-cells (line CCRF-CEM). Proteins were extracted, enzymatically digested, and the resulting peptides fractionated by RP-HPLC. Twenty fractions were thereafter analyzed by CE-MS within a single MS analysis. The CE-MS method was designed so that every 10 min a new fraction was injected into the CE system. Without any rinsing or equilibration steps we were able to generate a continuous stream of peptides feeding the mass analyzer. In 250 min, the total analysis time of a single sequential injection experiment, we were able to identify roughly 28 000 peptide sequences counting for 4800 proteins. These numbers could be increased to 62 000 peptides and more than 6100 proteins identified, when performing three experiments analyzing a total of 60 fractions, all within 12.5 h. We found that the electrophoretic mobility of peptides can be used to trace back peptides and assign them to the fraction they originate from.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201700310DOI Listing
November 2017

Crystal structure of the human lysosomal mTORC1 scaffold complex and its impact on signaling.

Science 2017 10 21;358(6361):377-381. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

The LAMTOR [late endosomal and lysosomal adaptor and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) activator] complex, also known as "Ragulator," controls the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosome. The crystal structure of LAMTOR consists of two roadblock/LC7 domain-folded heterodimers wrapped and apparently held together by LAMTOR1, which assembles the complex on lysosomes. In addition, the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) associated with the pentamer through their carboxyl-terminal domains, predefining the orientation for interaction with mTORC1. In vitro reconstitution and experiments with site-directed mutagenesis defined the physiological importance of LAMTOR1 in assembling the remaining components to ensure fidelity of mTORC1 signaling. Functional data validated the effect of two short LAMTOR1 amino acid regions in recruitment and stabilization of the Rag GTPases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao1583DOI Listing
October 2017

Identification of Novel Site-Specific Alterations in the Modification Level of Myelin Basic Protein Isolated from Mouse Brain at Different Ages Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry.

Proteomics 2017 Oct;17(19)

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a multifunctional protein involved in maintaining the stability and integrity of the myelin sheath by a variety of interactions with membranes and other proteins. MBP is subjected to extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that are known to be crucial for the regulation of these interactions. Here, we report capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometric (CE-MS) analysis for the separation and identification of MBP peptides that incorporate the same PTM at different sites, creating multiple localization variants, and the ability to analyze challenging modifications such as asparagine and glutamine deamidation, isomerization, and arginine citrullination. Moreover, we observed site-specific alterations in the modification level of MBP purified from brain of mice of different age. In total, we identified 40 modifications at 33 different sites, which include both previously reported and seven novel modifications. The identified modifications include Nα-terminal acetylation, mono- and dimethylation, phosphorylation, oxidation, deamidation, and citrullination. Notably, some new sites of arginine methylation overlap with the sites of citrullination. Our results highlight the need for sensitive and efficient techniques for a comprehensive analysis of PTMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201700269DOI Listing
October 2017

Inactivation of microbicidal active halogen compounds by sodium thiosulphate and histidine/methionine for time-kill assays.

J Microbiol Methods 2017 10 29;141:42-47. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Rapid inactivation of antimicrobial test agents after exact incubation times with microorganisms is required in time-kill assays. Sodium thiosulphate and a combination of methionine and histidine were compared for neutralisation of active halogen compounds. Test oxidants were mixed with surplus sodium thiosulphate (3%-6%) or histidine/methionine (1% each) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated for different times, followed by addition of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1000CFU/ml. After further incubation, quantitative cultures were performed. Thiosulphate did not sufficiently inactivate chlorine and bromine compounds, indicated by a 10-fold (S. aureus) up to >100-fold (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) reduction of CFU. This was particularly true for high concentrations of the oxidants of about 50mM, for highly reactive agents (HOCl and bromamine T) more than for chloramine T and N-chlorotaurine, and for short pre-incubation times before addition of the bacteria. By contrast, histidine/methionine proved to be suitable for chloramines and bromamine T and for low concentrations of HOCl (0.07%). HOCl at 0.7% could neither be inactivated completely by thiosulphate nor by histidine/methionine. In contrast to chlorine and bromine compounds, iodine was neutralized by thiosulphate, but not by histidine/methionine. Histidine/methionine is superior to inactivate chlorine and bromine and should replace sodium thiosulphate at least in killing tests with high concentrations of these disinfectants. Inclusion of a short reaction time (maximum one minute) of test oxidant and neutralising substance before addition of bacteria is decisive in inactivation tests to obtain reliable results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2017.07.014DOI Listing
October 2017

Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

EBioMedicine 2017 Jul 6;21:79-85. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies on breast cancer (BC), underarm cosmetic products (UCP) and aluminum salts have shown conflicting results. We conducted a 1:1 age-matched case-control study to investigate the risk for BC in relation to self-reported UCP application.

Methods: Self-reported history of UCP use was compared between 209 female BC patients (cases) and 209 healthy controls. Aluminum concentration in breast tissue was measured in 100 cases and 52 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for established BC risk factors.

Findings: Use of UCP was significantly associated with risk of BC (p=0.036). The risk for BC increased by an OR of 3.88 (95% CI 1.03-14.66) in women who reported using UCP's several times daily starting at an age earlier than 30years. Aluminum in breast tissue was found in both cases and controls and was significantly associated to self-reported UCP use (p=0.009). Median (interquartile) aluminum concentrations were significantly higher (p=0.001) in cases than in controls (5.8, 2.3-12.9 versus 3.8, 2.5-5.8nmol/g).

Interpretation: Frequent use of UCPs may lead to an accumulation of aluminum in breast tissue. More than daily use of UCPs at younger ages may increase the risk of BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5514401PMC
July 2017

Exploiting charge differences for the analysis of challenging post-translational modifications by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2017 May 1;1498:215-223. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) is typically employed for mapping modifications in proteins and peptides. Here we applied a low-flow capillary electrophoresis (CE) -electrospray ionization interface coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometers to analyze challenging modifications such as asparagine deamidation, aspartate isomerization, arginine citrullination, and phosphopeptide isomers. We achieved excellent resolution of asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and isoaspartic acid (iso-Asp) containing peptides using a synthetic peptide mixture. The migration order in CE enabled a clear assignment of in vitro deamidation/isomerization sites in a protein standard mixture of intermediate complexity (48 proteins) as well as the determination of the in vivo deamidation rate of histone H1.0 directly in a crude nuclear protein fraction. Besides these well-known modifications citrullination, a post-translational modification which changes the positively charged guanidinium group of arginine to the uncharged ureido group of citrulline, was investigated. Applying CE-MS for fast and sensitive analyses of various post-translational modifications of intact and enzymatically digested histone H4, we were able to detect a variety of citrullinated proteoforms. MS/MS analysis with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation identified the presence of deiminated Arg at position 3 and 17 of histone H4. Moreover, based on CE-MS, isobaric mono-phosphorylated peptides obtained in the course of a kinase activity study were separated and individual positional isomers quantified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.01.086DOI Listing
May 2017

Unraveling the Molecular Complexity of O-Glycosylated Endogenous (N-Terminal) pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Forms in Blood Plasma of Patients with Severe Heart Failure.

Clin Chem 2017 Jan 8;63(1):359-368. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry and Protein Micro-Analysis Facility, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria;

Background: Currently, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its physiologically active counterpart, BNP, are most frequently used as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease monitoring of heart failure (HF). Commercial NT-proBNP and BNP immunoassays cross-react to varying degrees with unprocessed proBNP, which is also found in the circulation. ProBNP processing and immunoassay response are related to O-linked glycosylation of NT-proBNP and proBNP. There is a clear and urgent need to identify the glycosylation sites in the endogenously circulating peptides requested by the community to gain further insights into the different naturally occurring forms.

Methods: The glycosylation sites of (NT-) proBNP (NT-proBNP and/or proBNP) were characterized in leftovers of heparinized plasma samples of severe HF patients (NT-proBNP: >10000 ng/L) by using tandem immunoaffinity purification, sequential exoglycosidase treatment for glycan trimming, β-elimination and Michael addition chemistry, as well as high-resolution nano-flow liquid chromatography electrospray multistage mass spectrometry.

Results: We describe 9 distinct glycosylation sites on circulating (NT-) proBNP in HF patients. Differentially glycosylated variants were detected based on highly accurate mass determination and multistage mass spectrometry. Remarkably, for each of the identified proteolytic glycopeptides, a nonglycosylated form also was detectable.

Conclusions: Our results directly demonstrate for the first time a rather complex distribution of the endogenously circulating glycoforms by mass spectrometric analysis in HF patients, and show 9 glycosites in human (NT-) proBNP. This information may also have an impact on commercial immunoassays applying antibodies specific for the central region of (NT-) proBNP, which detect mostly nonglycosylated forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2016.265397DOI Listing
January 2017

Asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA provides a repressive mark to modulate TNFα/NF-κB response.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Apr 5;113(16):4326-31. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Division of Cell Biology, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an inducible transcription factor that plays critical roles in immune and stress responses and is often implicated in pathologies, including chronic inflammation and cancer. Although much has been learned about NF-κB-activating pathways, the specific repression of NF-κB is far less well understood. Here we identified the type I protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) as a restrictive factor controlling TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB. PRMT1 forms a cellular complex with NF-κB through direct interaction with the Rel homology domain of RelA. We demonstrate that PRMT1 methylates RelA at evolutionary conserved R30, located in the DNA-binding L1 loop, which is a critical residue required for DNA binding. Asymmetric R30 dimethylation inhibits the binding of RelA to DNA and represses NF-κB target genes in response to TNFα. Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA-bound RelA:p50 predicted structural changes in RelA caused by R30 methylation or a mutation that interferes with the stability of the DNA-NF-κB complex. Our findings provide evidence for the asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA and unveil a unique mechanism controlling TNFα/NF-κB signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1522372113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843428PMC
April 2016

Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2015 Dec 9;4:291-298. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Division of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Peter-Mayr Str 1, Innsbruck, Austria.

The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2015.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669359PMC
December 2015

Quantitative proteomics using ultralow flow capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2015 16;87(9):4633-40. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

†Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

In this work, we evaluate the incorporation of an ultralow flow interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS), in combination with reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation as an alternate workflow for quantitative proteomics. Proteins, extracted from a SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) labeled and an unlabeled yeast strain were mixed and digested enzymatically in solution. The resulting peptides were fractionated using RP-HPLC and analyzed by CE-MS yielding a total of 28 538 quantified peptides that correspond to 3 272 quantified proteins. CE-MS analysis was performed using a neutral capillary coating, providing the highest separation efficiency at ultralow flow conditions (<10 nL/min). Moreover, we were able to demonstrate that CE-MS is a powerful method for the identification of low-abundance modified peptides within the same sample. Without any further enrichment strategies, we succeeded in quantifying 1 371 phosphopeptides present in the CE-MS data set and found 49 phosphopeptides to be differentially regulated in the two yeast strains. Including acetylation, phosphorylation, deamidation, and oxidized forms, a total of 8 106 modified peptides could be identified in addition to 33 854 unique peptide sequences found. The work presented here shows the first quantitative proteomics approach that combines SILAC labeling with CE-MS analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423236PMC
November 2015

Comparing and combining capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of post-translationally modified histones.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2013 Sep 29;12(9):2640-56. Epub 2013 May 29.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

We present the first comprehensive capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CESI-MS) analysis of post-translational modifications derived from H1 and core histones. Using a capillary electrophoresis system equipped with a sheathless high-sensitivity porous sprayer and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS) as two complementary techniques, we characterized H1 histones isolated from rat testis. Without any pre-separation of the perchloric acid extraction, a total of 70 different modified peptides, including 50 phosphopeptides, were identified in the rat linker histones H1.0, H1a-H1e, and H1t. Out of the 70 modified H1 histone peptides, 27 peptides could be identified with CESI-MS only, and 11 solely with LC-ESI-MS. Immobilized metal-affinity chromatography enrichment prior to MS analysis yielded a total of 55 phosphopeptides; 22 of these peptides could be identified only by CESI-MS, and 19 only by LC-ESI-MS, showing the complementarity of the two techniques. We mapped 42 H1 modification sites, including 31 phosphorylation sites, of which 8 were novel sites. For the analysis of core histones, we chose a different strategy. In a first step, the sulfuric-acid-extracted core histones were pre-separated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Individual rat testis core histone fractions obtained in this way were digested and analyzed via bottom-up CESI-MS. This approach yielded the identification of 42 different modification sites including acetylation (lysine and N(α)-terminal); mono-, di-, and trimethylation; and phosphorylation. When we applied CESI-MS for the analysis of intact core histone subtypes from butyrate-treated mouse tumor cells, we were able to rapidly detect their degree of modification, and we found this method very useful for the separation of isobaric trimethyl and acetyl modifications. Taken together, our results highlight the need for additional techniques for the comprehensive analysis of post-translational modifications. CESI-MS is a promising new proteomics tool as demonstrated by this, the first comprehensive analysis of histone modifications, using rat testis as an example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M112.024109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3769336PMC
September 2013

Histone H5-chromatin interactions in situ are strongly modulated by H5 C-terminal phosphorylation.

Cytometry A 2013 Mar 18;83(3):273-9. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

We used linker histone-depleted normal human fibroblast nuclei as templates to study how phosphorylation affects histone H5 binding to chromatin in situ. Permeabilized cells were treated with 0.7 M NaCl to extract the native linker histones. Histone H5 was purified from chicken erythrocytes and phosphorylated in vitro by recombinant cdk5/p35 kinase. High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) showed that the phosphorylated protein contained a mixture of multiply phosphorylated forms. Control experiments, using mass spectrometry, revealed that up to five SPXK motifs in the C terminus were phosphorylated, but also that about 10% of the protein contained one phosphoserine in the N-terminus. Reconstitution of H1-depleted fibroblast nuclei with nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated H5 was performed at physiological ionic strength. The bound H5 was then extracted using NaCl concentrations in the range of 0.15 to 0.7 M. The release of the H5 molecules was monitored by DAPI staining and image cytofluorometry. Our results show that H5 phosphorylation substantially reduced its affinity for chromatin in situ, which support previous observations indicating that C-terminal phosphorylation may be essential for the biological functions of linker histones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.22221DOI Listing
March 2013

Evaluation of non-reductive β-elimination/Michael addition for glycosylation site determination in mucin-like O-glycopeptides.

Electrophoresis 2011 Dec;32(24):3546-53

Division of Clinical Biochemistry and Protein Micro-Analysis Facility, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Investigation of site-specific protein O-glycosylation remains a formidable task in post-translational modification-centred proteomics. In particular, the determination of O-glycosylated amino acids in mucin-like glycopeptides lags far behind the techniques for phosphorylation site and N-glycosylation site identification, for which well-established enrichment techniques are available. The present work investigated β-elimination of mucin-like O-glycopeptides with a mild alkylamine base and concomitant Michael-type addition using 2-mercaptoethanol as nucleophile applied to synthetic GalNAcylated O-glycopeptides as well as exoglycosidase-treated endogenous peptides isolated from human blood plasma. This strategy permits O-glycosylated sites to be unambiguously localized, even in multiple-glycosylated peptides. Peptides covalently modified with the glycan surrogate exhibit excellent backbone fragmentation in MS/MS due to their stability during CID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201100393DOI Listing
December 2011

Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2011 Aug 5;4:15. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

Division of Cell Biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, SE-58185 Linköping, Sweden.

Background: Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations.

Results: We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells.

Conclusion: Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-8935-4-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177758PMC
August 2011

SidL, an Aspergillus fumigatus transacetylase involved in biosynthesis of the siderophores ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2011 Jul 27;77(14):4959-66. Epub 2011 May 27.

Division of Molecular Biology, Biocenter, Fritz-Pregl-Str. 3, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces four types of siderophores, low-molecular-mass iron chelators: it excretes fusarinine C (FsC) and triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) for iron uptake and accumulates ferricrocin (FC) for hyphal and hydroxyferricrocin (HFC) for conidial iron distribution and storage. Siderophore biosynthesis has recently been shown to be crucial for fungal virulence. Here we identified a new component of the fungal siderophore biosynthetic machinery: AFUA_1G04450, termed SidL. SidL is conserved only in siderophore-producing ascomycetes and shows similarity to transacylases involved in bacterial siderophore biosynthesis and the N(5)-hydroxyornithine:anhydromevalonyl coenzyme A-N(5)-transacylase SidF, which is essential for TAFC biosynthesis. Inactivation of SidL in A. fumigatus decreased FC biosynthesis during iron starvation and completely blocked FC biosynthesis during iron-replete growth. In agreement with these findings, SidL deficiency blocked conidial accumulation of FC-derived HFC under iron-replete conditions, which delayed germination and decreased the size of conidia and their resistance to oxidative stress. Remarkably, the sidL gene is not clustered with other siderophore-biosynthetic genes, and its expression is not affected by iron availability. Tagging of SidL with enhanced green fluorescent protein suggested a cytosolic localization of the FC-biosynthetic machinery. Taken together, these data suggest that SidL is a constitutively active N(5)-hydroxyornithine-acetylase required for FC biosynthesis, in particular under iron-replete conditions. Moreover, this study revealed the unexpected complexity of siderophore biosynthesis, indicating the existence of an additional, iron-repressed N(5)-hydroxyornithine-acetylase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00182-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3147410PMC
July 2011