Publications by authors named "Herbert Gustavo Simões"

54 Publications

Age-related Decline in Renal Function is Attenuated in Master Athletes.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Graduate Program on Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasilia, Taguatinga, Brazil.

This study analyzed the kidney function and biomarkers of health in lifelong-trained sprinters and endurance runners, and compared them to untrained aged-matched and young controls. Sixty-two men (21-66 yr.) were recruited and allocated as master athletes from sprints (n=25), master athletes from endurance events (n=8), untrained middle-aged (n=14) and young controls (n=15). Participants underwent anamnesis, anthropometric measures and blood sampling for biochemical analyses of klotho, FGF23 and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Master sprinters presented better kidney function in relation to endurance athletes and their untrained peers (<0.0001). A number of biochemical variables were observed that negatively (i. e., GDF-15, TGF-Beta, IL-18) or positively (i. e., klotho/FGF23 ratio and sestrin-2) correlated with eGFR. Sestrin-2 presented the strongest association with eGFR (r=0.5, =0.03). Results also revealed that lifelong-trained individuals presented the highest probability of having better values for cystatin C and thus an estimated glomerular filtration rate that was 37-49% higher than untrained peers. Master sprinters presented better kidney function in relation to endurance athletes and middle-aged untrained peers. Sestrin-2 may play a role in exercise-induced kidney function protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1332-1594DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of dynamic and isometric resistance training protocols on metabolic profile in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, 28106, Physical Education, Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

To compare the effect of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and nitric oxide (NO) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: control (CTL; n=65), DRT (n=65), and IRT (n=67). Patients were tested for fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and NO were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Patients underwent to strength and body composition assessments. Subjects allocated in both DRT and IRT groups took part in a 24-week resistance training program, three times per week. Each training session was approximately one hour before dialysis and consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at low intensity. Total workload was higher in the DRT as compared with the IRT. This heightened workload related to better glycemic homeostasis in HD patients as measured by regulation of insulin, adiponectin, and leptin, while improvement of triglycerides, free-fat mass, and muscle strength. Additionally, NO levels were increased on DRT group. NO was significantly correlated with glucose intolerance (r=-0.42, p=0.0155) and workload (r=0.46, p=0.0022). The IRT group only improved strength (p<0.05). 24-week of DRT improved glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and NO in HD patients. Although IRT seems to play an important role in increasing strength, DRT might be a better choice to promote metabolic adjustments in HD patients. Clinical Trial http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-3gpg5w/; nº RBR-3gpg5w Novelty Bullets: -DRT might be a better choice for metabolic improvements in CKD patients. -Exercise-training might treat metabolic imbalance in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0900DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of pre-dialysis resistance training on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older community-dwelling patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Sarcopenia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been associated with negative outcomes in older people, including inflammatory profile and anemia biomarkers.

Aims: To investigate the effects of pre-dialysis resistance training (RT) on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older patients with CKD.

Methods: A total of 107 patients with CKD (65.4 ± 3.7 years) were randomly allocated into four groups: sarcopenic RT (n = 37), non-sarcopenic RT (n = 20), sarcopenic control (n = 28), and non-sarcopenic control (n = 22). DXA and handgrip strength were used to classify sarcopenia according to EWGSOP-2. Treatment groups underwent a 24-week intervention with RT before each dialysis session, three times per week. Blood sample analysis for ferritin, hepcidin, iron availability, and inflammatory profile (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10) was conducted. All-cause mortality was recorded over 5 years.

Results: Sarcopenic RT group increased iron availability after the intervention, while their counterparts decreased. Ferritin and hepcidin significantly decreased in sarcopenic RT group. RT elicited a reduction in both TNFα and IL-6, while increasing IL-10 in both intervention groups. The rate of sarcopenic subjects substantially decreased after the intervention period (from 37 to 17 in the RT group; p = 0.01). The proportion of deaths was higher (P = 0.033) for sarcopenic subjects (Controls 35.7% vs RT 29.7%) when compared to non-sarcopenic subjects (Controls 18% vs RT 10%). The proportion of deaths decreased according to the randomization group (X2 = 8.704; P < 0.1).

Conclusions: The 24-week RT intervention elicited a better sarcopenia status, better inflammatory profile, and improved anemia biomarkers. Sarcopenia was associated with higher mortality rate in older patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02799-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Rapid component of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption of children of different weight status after playing active video games.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Feb 15;21(1):80. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Health Technology Lab, College of Arts, Media & Design; Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of children could indicate the potential of an exercise therapy to treat or prevent obesity. However, EPOC as a result of playing active video games (AVG) has been poorly investigated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the rapid component of EPOC of children with healthy weight and overweight/obesity (according to their BMI percentile) after playing AVGs that feature predominately upper body (UB) and whole-body (WB) movement.

Methods: Twenty-one children with healthy weight (BMI percentile < 85%) and with overweight/obesity (BMI percentile ≥ 85%) randomly underwent two 10-min AVG sessions (UB and WB). The heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO) and carbon dioxide production (VCO) were recorded during exercise and post-exercise recovery period. For the rapid component of EPOC in each AVG session, measurements were recorded every 15 s for 5-min of post-exercise recovery. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was also measured immediately before and after each AVG play.

Results: Children with overweight/obesity had a higher average of absolute VE, VO, and VCO than their healthy-weight counterparts (BMI percentile < 85%; n = 21) during post-exercise recovery. RPE, HR, and HR% were not different between the game sessions and weight groups. Children with overweight/obesity showed a higher absolute VO during EPOC than healthy-weight children in both game sessions, but relative VO was higher in healthy-weight children during EPOC. No differences were observed for EPOC between UB and WB sessions.

Conclusions: Children with overweight/obesity had a greater EPOC than healthy-weight children after AVG sessions in terms of absolute oxygen values, whereas healthy-weight children have higher EPOC considering relative VO when controlling for body mass. UB and WB AVGs induced a similar EPOC among children with healthy weight and overweight/obesity. As UB and WB AVGs induce the rapid component of EPOC in children regardless their weight status, AVGs could be used as an exercise method to treat and prevent child obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02528-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883419PMC
February 2021

Improving the prognosis of renal patients: The effects of blood flow-restricted resistance training on redox balance and cardiac autonomic function.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 3;106(4):1099-1109. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improve redox balance and positively impact the autonomic cardiac modulation in chronic kidney disease patients? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improved antioxidant defence (paraoxonase 1), decreased the pro-oxidative myeloperoxidase, improved cardiac autonomic function and slowed the decrease in renal function. We draw attention to the important clinical implications for the management of redox balance and autonomic cardiac function in chronic kidney disease patients.

Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to cardiovascular diseases secondary to abnormalities in both autonomic cardiac function and redox balance [myeloperoxidase (MPO) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1) ratio]. Although aerobic training improves both autonomic balance and redox balance in patients with CKD, the cardioprotective effects of resistance training (RT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), remain unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of RT and RT+BFR on antioxidant defence (PON1), pro-oxidative status (MPO), cardiac autonomic function (quantified by heart rate variability analysis) and renal function. Conservative CKD (stages 1 to 5 who do not need hemodialysis) patients (n = 105, 33 female) of both sexes were randomized into three groups: control (CTL; 57.6 ± 5.2 years; body mass index, 33.23 ± 1.62 kg/m ), RT (58.09 ± 6.26 years; body mass index 33.63 ± 2.05 kg/m ) and RT+BFR (58.06 ± 6.47 years; body mass index, 33.32 ± 1.87 kg/m ). Patients completed 6 months of RT or RT+BFR on three non-consecutive days per week under the supervision of strength and conditioning professionals. Training loads were adjusted every 2 months. Heart rate variability was recorded with a Polar-RS800 and data were analysed for time and frequency domains using Kubios software. The redox balance markers were PON1 and MPO, which were analysed in plasma samples. Renal function was estimated as estimated glomerular filtration rate. The RT and RT+BFR decreased pro-oxidative MPO (RT, ∼34 ng/ml and RT+BFR, ∼27 ng/ml), improved both antioxidant defence (PON1: RT, ∼23 U/L and RT+BFR, ∼31 U/L) and cardiac autonomic function (R-R interval: RT, ∼120.4 ms and RT+BFR, ∼117.7 ms), and slowed the deterioration of renal function (P < 0.0001). Redox balance markers were inversely correlated with heart rate variability time-domain indices. Our data indicated that both training models were effective as non-pharmacological tools to increase the antioxidant defences, decrease oxidative stress and improve the cardiac autonomic function of CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089341DOI Listing
April 2021

Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction prevent renal function decline: The role of the redox balance, angiotensin 1-7 and vasopressin.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 16;230:113295. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Post-Graduate Program of Physical Education of Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil-71966-700. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) and low-load RT with moderate blood flow restriction (RT+BFR) on blood pressure, exercise pressor response, redox balance and vasoactive peptides, body composition and muscle strength in patients with stage two of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled exercise intervention in 90 male and female hypertensive CKD patients (58±9 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; of 66.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/1.73m). Participants were randomized to one of three groups (n = 30/group); control group (CTL), RT, and RT+BFR. RT and RT+BFR performed three weekly training sessions using similar periodization for six months (two-month mesocycles), but of different intensities.

Results: There was similarly effects between RT and RT+BFR in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure during daytime and 24hour period (RT: 10.4%; RT+BFR: 10.3% of decrease), fat mass, F-isoprostanes, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and vasopressin (p<0.05 pre-vs post). Also promoted the increase of angiotensin 1-7, nitric oxide (NO), catalase, Trolox equivalent and muscle strength (p<0.05). Both training models attenuated the decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.0001 vs CTL). However, only RT+BFR was associated with lower discomfort during exercise (p<0.0001 pre-vs post). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05.

Conclusion: These findings suggest low-load RT+BFR as a promising non-pharmacological strategy to control blood pressure, oxidative stress, vasoactive peptides, and consequently, attenuate the decrease of the eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113295DOI Listing
March 2021

Biomarkers and Redox Balance in Aging Rats after Dynamic and Isometric Resistance Training.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Mar 18;42(3):283-290. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging muscle is prone to sarcopenia and its associated telomere shortening and increased oxidative stress. Telomeres are protected by a shelterin protein complex, proteins expressed in response to DNA damage. Aerobic exercise training has shown to positively modulate these proteins while aging, but the effects of resistance training are less clear. This investigation was to examine the role of dynamic and isometric RT on markers of senescence and muscle apoptosis: checkpoint kinase 2, 53 kDa protein, shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2, DNA repair, telomere length and redox state in the quadriceps muscle. Fifteen 49-week-old male rats were divided into three groups: control, dynamic resistance training, and isometric resistance training. Dynamic and isometric groups completed five sessions per week during 16 weeks at low to moderate intensity (20-70% maximal load). Only dynamic group decreased expression of 53 kDa protein, proteins from shelterin complex, oxidative stress, and improved antioxidant defense. There was no difference among groups regarding telomere length. In conclusion, dynamic resistance training was more effective than isometric in reducing markers of aging and muscle apoptosis in elderly rats. This modality should be considered as valuable tool do counteract the deleterious effects of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1231-5410DOI Listing
March 2021

Blood Flow Restriction Training Blunts Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Humans.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 02;53(2):249-257

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to verify the effect of 6 months of periodized resistance training (RT) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) in patients with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), uremic parameters, cytokines, and klotho-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis.

Methods: A total of 105 subjects were randomized in three groups of 35 each: control (CTL), RT, and RT + BFR. A first visit was required for an anamnesis to evaluate the number of medications and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, and body mass index). Muscle strength (one-repetition maximum) was assessed. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 months of training in all patients for the analysis of markers of renal function and integrity, as well as for the determination of the inflammatory profile. Statistical significances were adopted with P < 0.05.

Results: Both training therapies attenuated the decline of GFR (P < 0.05). The majority of CTL patients declined to stage 3 CKD (88.5%), whereas fewer incidents were noted with RT (25.7%) and RT + BFR (17.1%). Improved uremic parameters as well as inflammation (IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17a, IL-18, and TNF-α) and klotho-FGF23 axis in RT and RT + BFR (P < 0.05) were observed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was not changed (P > 0.05) but presented a large effect size (Cohen's d), demonstrating a propensity for improvement.

Conclusion: Six months of periodized RT with and without BFR in patients with stage 2 CKD attenuated the progression of the disease by maintaining GFR, improving uremic parameters, cytokine profile regulation, and klotho-FGF23 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002465DOI Listing
February 2021

Resistance training improves sleep quality, redox balance and inflammatory profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11708. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (USB), EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 117, Águas Claras, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 71966-700, Brazil.

Patients in maintenance hemodialisys (HD) present sleep disorders, increased inflammation, unbalanced redox profiles, and elevated biomarkers representing endothelial dysfunction. Resistance training (RT) has shown to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, strength, improve inflammatory profiles, and endothelial function while decreasing oxidative stress for those in HD. However, the relation between those factors and sleep quality are inadequately described. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of 3 months of RT on sleep quality, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation profile, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients undergoing HD. Our primary goal was to describe the role of RT on sleep quality. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of RT on NO, metabolism markers, and inflammatory and redox profiles as potential mechanisms to explain RT-induced sleep quality changes. Fifty-five men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were randomized into either a control (CTL, n = 25) and RT group (RTG; n = 30). Participants in the RT group demonstrated an improvement in sleep pattern, redox, inflammatory profiles, and biomarkers of endothelial function (NO and ADMA). This group also increased muscle strength (total workload in RT exercises of upper and lower limbs). These findings support that RT may improve the clinical status of HD patients by improving their sleep quality, oxidative and inflammatory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367305PMC
July 2020

Effects of resistance training on hepcidin levels and iron bioavailability in older individuals with end-stage renal disease: A randomized controlled trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 4;139:111017. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

Anemia is an inherent complication of older individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that is associated with inflammation which in turn is an important factor in the activation of hepcidin that contributes to the decrease in serum iron. Athough resistance training (RT) seems to reduce inflammation in ESRD, its influence on hepcidin and iron availability in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to exemine the effects of RT in on inflammatory profile, hepcidin, and iron status in older individuals with ESRD. End-stage renal disease patients (N: 157, age: 66.8 ± 3.6; body mass: 73 ± 15 body mass index:27 ± 3), were assigned to control (CTL n: 76) and exercise groups (RT n: 81). RT consisted of 24 weeks/3 days per week of a moderate intensity. There was an increase in the bioavailability of iron (ΔRT: 22.2; ΔCTL: -1 μg/dL, p < 0.0001), a decrease in hepcidin levels (ΔRT: -7.9; ΔCTL: 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.0001),and an improvement of the inflammatory profile. These novel findings show that RT is a potential coadjuvant to reduce iron deficiency by decreasing the levels of hepcidin and pro-inflammatory markers in older patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111017DOI Listing
October 2020

Sprint and endurance training in relation to redox balance, inflammatory status and biomarkers of aging in master athletes.

Nitric Oxide 2020 09 18;102:42-51. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Studies have shown a positive influence of intense athletic training on several biomarkers of aging, but it remains unclear whether this influence is dependent of exercise-training-mode. This study compared redox balance, cytokine levels and biomarkers of aging between master sprinters and endurance athletes, as well as in young and middle-aged individuals as controls.

Methods: Participants were male master sprinters (SA, 50 ± 8.9yrs; n = 13) and endurance runners (EA, 53 ± 8.2yrs; n = 18) with remarkable athletic experience (~25yrs of practice), besides untrained young (YC, 22.7 ± 3.9yrs; n = 17) and age-matched controls (MC, 45.5 ± 9.8yrs; n = 12). Anamnesis, anthropometrics, biomarkers of aging, inflammation status and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in all participants.

Results: An increased pro-oxidant activity (elevated protein carbonyl; isoprostanes and 8-OHdG) was observed for MC in comparison to remaining groups (p < 0.05). However, SA presented a better antioxidant capacity than both MC and EA, while nitrite/nitrate (NO) availability was higher for EA and lower for the MC (p < 0.05). Both groups of athletes presented a better anti-inflammatory status than MC (increased IL-10 and lowered IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNF-RI), but worse than YC (increased TNF-α, sTNF-RI, and sIL-6R) (p < 0.05). Telomere length was shorter in MC, which also had lower levels of irisin and klotho, and elevated FGF-23 (p < 0.05). ADMA levels were higher in MC and SA, while irisin was lower in EA when compared to SA and YC (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Master athletes presented better redox balance and inflammatory status, with decreased biomarkers of aging compared to control. Regarding exercise mode, a better NO- profile, as a marker of endothelial function, was observed for EA, whereas SA had a better redox balance, cytokines profile and attenuated biomarkers of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2020.05.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Anaerobic Threshold Determination in Cycle Ergometer From Rating of Perceived Exertion.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Graduate Program on Physical Education, Federal University of Vale do São Francisco, UNIVASF, PE, Petrolina, Brazil.

Santos, GAd, Numata-Filho, ES, Rosa, TdS, Passos Neves, RV, Simões, HG, and Moreira, SR. Anaerobic threshold determination in cycle ergometer from rating of perceived exertion. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The objective of the study was to investigate the validity of the rating of perceived exertion threshold (TRPE) for anaerobic threshold (AT) estimation during an incremental test (IT) on a cycle ergometer. Nineteen physically active and healthy men performed an IT on a cycle ergometer. The intensity corresponding to the AT was considered as the point immediately before the abrupt increase in blood lactate concentration ([La]) in the IT. TRPE was determined in the last intensity corresponding to perceptual response previous the 15 arbitrary units (AU) in the 15-point RPE scale. The heart rate (HR), [La], and RPE were obtained at the end of each stage of the IT. There was no significant difference between workload obtained from the AT (150 [120-150] watts) and TRPE (150 [120-150] watts) (p > 0.05). In addition, there were no differences between HR (AT, 139.5 ± 12.7 b·min vs. TRPE, 141.9 ± 14.6 b·min, p > 0.05) and [La] (AT, 3.1 [2.8-3.2] mM vs. TRPE, 3.1 [2.9-3.7] mM, p > 0.05). There was a strong correlation between the intensities in AT and TRPE during the IT (r = 0.88). A substantial reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84 [0.64-0.94 confidence interval 95%]) was evidenced, as well as a substantial agreement between the AT and TRPE intensities (Pc = 0.84), as confirmed by the Bland-Altman plot (-4.7 [-34.2/24.7]). TRPE was a predictor of the AT (β = 1.146, R = 0.770, SEE = 15.070, p < 0.01). It can be concluded that TRPE is valid for AT estimation during an IT on a cycle ergometer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003627DOI Listing
May 2020

Faster and Healthier: Relationship between Telomere and Performance in Master Athletes.

Int J Sports Med 2020 May 11;41(5):339-344. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia - UCB, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and decreased telomere length (TL). However, the lifestyle of master athletes can lead to a reduced risk of these conditions, and thus attenuates aging and performance deterioration. We aimed to analyze the relationships between TL and relative performance (RP), and their relation to adiposity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in endurance (END) and sprint/power (SPW) master athletes (MAs). Twenty-two world-class MAs visited the laboratory for anamnesis, anthropometrics, and blood sampling. Inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were assessed using commercial kits. Relative TL was determined in leukocytes through qPCR analyses. A positive association was observed between RP and TL in both groups (SPW: 0.641; END: 0.685) and the whole sample (0.594). The IL6/IL10 ratio presented an inverse correlation with RP in the whole sample (-0.580). Body mass index also demonstrated a negative correlation with TL for the END group (-0.690) and the whole sample analysis (-0.455). Moreover, the IL6/IL10 ratio was negatively associated with strength/power training hours (=-0.464), whereas the CAT/TBARS ratio was negatively associated with aerobic training hours (-0.482). In conclusion, TL of MAs was associated with RP regardless of the training model (endurance or sprint/power), and inflammation and adiposity were associated with shorter telomeres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1088-5279DOI Listing
May 2020

Oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and body composition of master athletes: The interplay.

Exp Gerontol 2020 02 9;130:110806. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Unhealthy aging is associated with increased adiposity, inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), but the interactions between them have been poorly investigated in people growing old under vigorous lifelong exercise regimens. Therefore, we compared and analyzed the relationships between markers of inflammation, OS and adiposity in master athletes (MA), young (YC) and middle-aged controls (MC). Fifty-nine participants (MA, n = 30, 51.56 ± 8.61 yrs, minimum of 20 yrs of training; YC, n = 17, 22.70 ± 3.92 yrs; MC, n = 12, 45.54 ± 9.86 yrs) underwent body composition measurements, blood sampling for inflammation and OS measurements, and provided information regarding general health and training status. The MA and YC demonstrated higher catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and higher CAT/TBARS (TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and SOD/TBARS ratios. The cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and their soluble receptors sTNF-RI and sIL-6R were lower in YC compared to MC and MA (p < 0.05). Moreover, MA showed lower levels of sTNF-RI, IL-6 and sIL-6R and higher IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 ratio compared to MC (p < 0.05). The body fat was negatively associated with antioxidant enzymes (CAT: r = -0.448 and SOD: r = -0.413) and IL-10 (r = -0.585) and positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α: r = 0.278; sTNF-RI: r = 0.709; IL-6: r = 0.720: sIL-6R: r = 0.430) (p < 0.05). Further, CAT and SOD activities were inversely associated with inflammatory parameters (sTNF-RI, IL-6 and sIL-6R; p < 0.05). In conclusion, markers of OS and inflammation did not differ between MA and YC and were associated with adiposity. Moreover, MA were leaner than MC, similarly to YC. Thus, lifelong training clearly attenuates inflammation, OS, and adiposity, supporting an attenuated and healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.110806DOI Listing
February 2020

Isometric Exercise with Large Muscle Mass Improves Redox Balance and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Adults.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 05;52(5):1187-1195

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, BRAZIL.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic, oxidative stress (OS), and nitric oxide (NO) responses to a submaximal isometric exercise session (IES) involving large muscle mass.

Methods: Fourteen hypertensive (HTG: age = 35.9 ± 8.1 yr, height = 1.73 ± 0.10 m, total body mass = 78.0 ± 15.8 kg) and 10 normotensive (NTG: age = 41.1 ± 9.4 yr, height = 1.71 ± 0.12 m, total body mass = 82.3 ± 22.4 kg) participants performed two experimental sessions in the leg press and bench press: (i) control session and (ii) 8 sets × 1 min contraction at 30% maximal voluntary isometric contraction with 2-min rest interval. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at rest and during 60 min postexercise. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after the session, and 60 min postexercise. NO was obtained through the Griess reaction method. OS parameters were analyzed using commercial kits. A repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to analyze all dependent variables.

Results: A significant decrease in systolic BP was observed only for HTG at 45 and 60 min postexercise (baseline vs 45 min: P = 0.03, Δ% = 4.44%; vs 60 min: P = 0.018, Δ% = 5.58%). NO increased immediately postexercise only for HTG (P = 0.008, Δ% = 16.44%). Regarding OS parameters, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances presented a significant reduction 60 min after the IES for NTG and HTG; catalase increased in both groups.

Conclusions: The data showed that only 8 min of IES with a large muscle mass elicits an elevated pro-oxidant activity leading to a greater NO bioavailability, increases antioxidant reaction, and consequently reduces BP in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002223DOI Listing
May 2020

Effects of The Performance Level and Race Distance on Pacing in Ultra-Triathlons.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Jun 5;67:247-258. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the performance level and race distance on pacing in ultra-triathlons (Double, Triple, Quintuple and Deca), wherein pacing is defined as the relative time (%) spent in each discipline (swimming, cycling and running). All finishers (n = 3,622) of Double, Triple, Quintuple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlons between 1985 and 2016 were analysed and classified into quartile groups (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) with Q1 being the fastest and Q4 the slowest. Performance of all non-finishers (n = 1,000) during the same period was also examined. Triple and Quintuple triathlons (24.4%) produced the highest rate of non-finishers, and Deca Iron ultra-triathlons produced the lowest rate (18.0%) (χ = 12.1, p = 0.007, φC = 0.05). For the relative swimming and cycling times (%), Deca triathletes (6.7 ± 1.5% and 48.8 ± 4.9%, respectively) proved the fastest and Double (9.2 ± 1.6% and 49.6 ± 3.6%) Iron ultra-triathletes were the slowest (p < 0.008) with Q4 being the fastest group (8.3 ± 1.6% and 48.8 ± 4.3%) and Q1 the slowest one (9.5 ± 1.5% and 50.9 ± 3.0%) (p < 0.001). In running, Double triathletes were relatively the fastest (41.2 ± 4.0%) and Deca (44.5 ± 5.4%) Iron ultra-triathletes the slowest (p < 0.001) with Q1 being the fastest (39.6 ± 3.3%) and Q4 the slowest group (42.9 ± 4.7%) (p < 0.001). Based on these findings, it was concluded that the fastest ultra-triathletes spent relatively more time swimming and cycling and less time running, highlighting the importance of the role of the latter discipline for the overall ultra-triathlon performance. Furthermore, coaches and ultra-triathletes should be aware of differences in pacing between Double, Triple, Quintuple and Deca Iron triathlons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714366PMC
June 2019

Celebrating 40 Years of Ironman: How the Champions Perform.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 03 20;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland.

We aimed to determine which discipline had the greater performance improvements in the history of Ironman triathlon in Hawaii and also which discipline had the greater influence in overall race time. Data from 1983 to 2018 of the top three women and men of each year who competed in the Ironman World Championship were included. In addition to exploratory data analyses, linear regressions between split times and years of achievement were performed. Further, a stepwise multiple linear regression was applied using total race time as the dependent variable and split times as the independent variables. Both women and men significantly improved their performances from 1983 to 2018 in the Ironman World Championship. Swimming had the largest difference in improvements between men and women (3.0% versus 12.1%, respectively). A negative and significant decrease in each discipline was identified for both women and men, with cycling being the discipline with the greatest reduction. The results from the stepwise multiple regression indicated that cycling was the discipline with the highest influence on overall race time for both sexes. Based on the findings of this study, cycling seems to be the Ironman triathlon discipline that most improved overall race times and is also the discipline with the greatest influence on the overall race time of elite men and women in the Ironman World Championship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466240PMC
March 2019

Heart rate cost of running in track estimates velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake.

Physiol Behav 2019 06 22;205:33-38. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Running velocity associated with VOmax (vVOmax) is a parameter widely used for exercise prescription and is related to endurance performance. However, the vVOmax determination usually requires a maximal effort test and equipped laboratory for expired gas analysis, what make difficulty its assessment.

Objective: We aimed to test the validity of a simple method of vVOmax prediction through the heart rate cost of running (HRC) in a submaximal 6-min running test, both in treadmill and in a 400-meter track.

Methods: Male recreational runners (n = 16; 30.3 ± 8.0 years; VOmax of 46.2 ± 3.2 ml·kg·min) randomly underwent an incremental test in treadmill with gas analysis, and a 3000-m time trial in a track, to determine vVOmax. Before every maximal test, participants also performed a submaximal 6-min running (~85% HRmax), both in the treadmill and in a track, to assess HRC (bpmm·min) by dividing the submaximal running velocity by its respective HR. The vVOmax (km·h) was predicted by dividing the HRmax (bpm)/HRC (bpmm·min).

Results: No differences were verified (p > .05) among vVOmax determined both in the treadmill (13.8 ± 0.9 km·h) and track (13.6 ± 0.9 km·h) to those predicted by the HRC method both in treadmill (13.5 ± 0.8 km·h) and track (13.6 ± 1.0 km·h). The vVOmax measured directly with expired gas analysis was highly correlated with vVOmax estimated through HRC in treadmill and track (p < .05). Additionally, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman technique revealed good agreement and reliability classified with substantial agreement [ICC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.064-0.886; p = .019)] and almost perfect agreement [ICC = 0.870 (95% CI 0.628-0.955 p = .0001)] between methods to identify vVOmax, respectively.

Conclusion: A submaximal 6-min exercise test protocol to assess HRC of running was considered valid to estimate vVOmax of recreational runners both in treadmill and outdoor track.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.02.029DOI Listing
June 2019

Dynamic, Not Isometric Resistance Training Improves Muscle Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy in Rats.

Front Physiol 2019 22;10. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

This study aimed to compare the effects of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on blood glucose, muscle redox capacity, inflammatory state, and muscle strength and hypertrophy. Fifteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CTL), DRT, and IRT, = 5 animals per group. The animals were submitted to a maximal weight carried (MWC; every 15 days) and maximum isometric resistance (MIR; pre- and post-training) tests. Both training protocols were performed five times a week during 12 weeks, consisting of one set of eight uninterrupted climbs for 1 min with a 30% overload of MWC. The animals in the IRT group remained under isometry for 1 min. The DRT group experienced greater MWC from pre- to post-training compared to the CTL and IRT groups ( < 0.0001). The DRT and IRT groups displayed similar gains in MIR ( = 0.3658). The DRT group exhibited improved glycemic homeostasis ( = 0.0111), redox ( < 0.0001), and inflammatory ( < 0.0001) balance as compared with CTL and IRT groups. In addition, the improved glycemic profile was associated with an increase in muscle strength and hypertrophy, improvement in redox balance and inflammation status. We conclude that DRT was more effective than IRT on increasing cross-sectional area, but not muscle strength, in parallel to improved blood glucose, inflammatory status, and redox balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349781PMC
January 2019

Cycling as the Best Sub-8-Hour Performance Predictor in Full Distance Triathlon.

Sports (Basel) 2019 Jan 18;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.

For any triathlon distance (short, Olympic, half-distance and full-distance), competitors spend more time cycling than swimming or running, but running has emerged as the discipline with the greatest influence on overall performance at the Olympic distance. However, there is a lack of evidence on which discipline has the greatest influence on performance in the overall full-distance triathlon (3.8 km swimming/180 km cycling/42.195 km running), especially for the fastest performing athletes of all time. The total race times of 51 fastest triathletes (sub-8-hour) were studied, while for the split times, a sample of 44 participants was considered. The discipline that seemed to better predict total race time was cycling (coefficient = 0.828; < 0.001), followed by running (coefficient = 0.726; < 0.001) and swimming (coefficient = 0.476; < 0.001). Furthermore, cycling was the discipline with the highest performance improvement over the years, whereas running had a slightly decrease. In conclusion, cycling seems to be the discipline with greater influence in final result for the full-distance triathlon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7010024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359305PMC
January 2019

Heart rate variability in middle-aged sprint and endurance athletes.

Physiol Behav 2019 06 30;205:39-43. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Aging is associated with decreased autonomic balance which could be assessed by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Exercise training improves autonomic balance, but there is a lack in the literature regarding the heart rate variability (HRV) of master sprinters and endurance athletes.

Purpose: The effects of lifelong endurance and sprint training on cardiac autonomic balance were assessed in master athletes and compared with age-matched controls and young untrained controls.

Methods: Participants (n = 81) were 8 master sprinters (MS; 51.8 ± 11.1 yrs), 8 master endurance athletes (EN, n = 8, 53.6 ± 8.6 yrs), 17 age-matched untrained (CON, 47.47 ± 6.00 yrs) and 48 young controls (YC, 25.40 ± 3.87 yrs). For the acquisition of RR intervals (iRR) (Polar RS800X Heart Rate Monitor®) the participants remained seated for 15-min with the final 10-min being considered for analysis. HRV was measured using Kubios software. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was applied.

Results: All studied parameters did not differ between MS and EN {Time Domain [HR (bpm) 59.00 ± 6.13 vs. 58.94 ± 12.75], [R-R (ms) 1030.45 ± 107.45 vs. 1068.77 ± 206.17], [SDNN (ms) 57.35 ± 20.07 vs. 80.66 ± 71.07], [RMSSD (ms) 40.88 ± 20.07 vs. 38.93 ± 20.44]; Non-linear domain [SD1 (ms) 28.93 ± 14.20 vs. 27.56 ± 14.46]}, whose demonstrated a reduced HR and elevated mean R-R intervals in comparison to both YC {[HR (bpm) 69.64 ± 9.81]; [R-R (ms) 883.93 ± 124.11]} and age-matched controls {[HR (bpm) 70.06 ± 6.63]; [R-R (ms) 865.11 ± 78.39]}. It was observed a lower HRV for middle-aged CON {[RMSSD (ms) 20.23 ± 5.87], [SDNN (ms) 37.79 ± 10.15] and [SD1 (ms) 14.31 ± 4.15]} compared to YC {[RMSSD (ms) 43.33 ± 26.41], [SDNN (ms) 67.07 ± 28.77] and [SD1 (ms) 30.66 ± 18.69; p < .05]}. These last age-related differences were not observed for MS and EN.

Conclusion: For master athletes, regardless of whether they are trained in endurance or sprinters, both training modes revealed to be equally beneficial in attenuating the effects of aging on the autonomic balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.10.018DOI Listing
June 2019

Training Performed Above Lactate Threshold Decreases p53 and Shelterin Expression in Mice.

Int J Sports Med 2018 Sep 26;39(9):704-711. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Graduate Program in Genomic Science and Biotechnology, Catholic University of Brasília - Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

Telomere shortening is associated to sarcopenia leading to functional impairment during aging. There are mechanisms associated with telomere attrition, as well to its protection and repair. Physical training is a factor that attenuates telomere shortening, but little is known about the effects of different exercise intensities on telomere biology. Thus, we evaluated the effects of exercise intensity (moderate vs. high-intensity domain) on gene expression of senescence markers Checkpoint kinase 2 and tumor suppressor ( and , respectively), shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2 (/), DNA repair (), telomerase reverse transcriptase () and telomere length in middle aged mice. Three groups were studied: a control group (CTL) and two groups submitted to swimming at intensities below the lactate threshold (LI group) and above the lactate threshold (HI group) for 40 and 20 min respectively, for 12 weeks. After training, the HI group showed reduction in p53 expression in the muscle, and decreased shelterin complex expression when compared to LI group. No differences were observed between groups for expression and telomere length. Thus, exercise training in high-intensity domain was more effective on reducing markers of senescence and apoptosis. The higher intensity exercise training also diminished shelterin expression, with no differences in telomere length and mTERT expression. Such results possibly indicate a more effective DNA protection for the higher-intensity exercise training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0631-3441DOI Listing
September 2018

Effects of a physical activity and nutritional intervention in overweight and obese children through an educational and recreational camp.

Nutr Health 2018 Sep 12;24(3):145-152. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

1 Graduate Program on Physical Education, Study Group on the Benefits of Physical Exercise for Children's Health, Catholic University of Brasília, Brazil.

Background:: Educational camps have hosted millions of children around the world. However, few studies have described their benefits on weight control and health promotion for overweight and obese children.

Aim:: To investigate the impact of a health educational program for children composed of 5 days of camp and a 12-week follow up on the physical activity level, sedentary behaviour, anthropometric data and food intake in overweight and obese children.

Methods:: 12 children attended the Health Educational Program for Children divided into two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pre-assessments and Phase 2 corresponded to 12 weeks of follow up. Physical activity level, sedentary behaviour and food intake were assessed throughout the questionnaire.

Results:: After the follow up, 25% of the children became active (>1500 and <3000 Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks per week). In contrast, the number of sedentary children (<600 Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks per week) decreased by 15% and insufficiently active (600-1500 Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks per week) increased by 15%. The physical activity level of leisure time increased significantly throughout weekdays (26.0%) and weekends (14.1%) after the follow up compared to before the camp. Sedentary behaviour showed a significant reduction of 177.14 and 41.43 minutes on weekdays and weekends, respectively. Before the camp, the consumption of sugar and sweets was out of control (100% inadequate), and after the intervention, 58.4% started to consume these foods in a balanced way.

Conclusions:: The Health Educational Program for Children (5-day camp and the 12 weeks of follow up) contributed to an increase in the physical activity level and a reduction in the sedentary behaviour and anthropometric measures in overweight and obese children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0260106018771519DOI Listing
September 2018

Acute metabolic responses following different resistance exercise protocols.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2018 Aug 20;43(8):838-843. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

a Graduate Program in Physical Education, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Taguatinga-DF, Brazil.

Resistance exercise (RE) can be an excellent modality for glycemic control. Studies have demonstrated that a single RE session can reduce glycemia in subjects with or without diabetes. Little is known about the dose-response effect of RE on glycemic control. This study aimed to investigate the acute metabolic responses after different RE protocols. Eighty-nine males were separated into six groups that completed RE protocols: 2 sets of 18 repetitions (2 × 18 at 50% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM); n = 19); 3 sets of 12 repetitions (3 × 12 at 70% of 1RM; n = 14); 4 sets of 9 repetitions (4 × 9 at 80% of 1RM; n = 13); 6 sets of 6 repetitions (6 × 6 at 90% of 1RM; n = 19); circuit (2 × 18 at 50% of 1RM; n = 12); and a control session (n = 12). The exercise sequence consisted of 8 exercises. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with metabolic measurements immediately after each RE protocol and every 15 min until 120 min of recovery. All groups exhibited significantly lower values (p < 0.05) in the glucose area under the curve (AUC) when compared with control over a 120 min monitoring period. The 6 × 6 group showed a significantly lower glucose AUC versus the 3 × 12 and 4 × 9 groups (p = 0.004; p = 0.001, respectively). As for blood lactate, the control and 6 × 6 groups exhibited lower AUC values versus all other groups (p < 0.05), and AUC for glucose and lactate concentration showed a negative and significant correlation (r = -0.46; p < 0.0001). It appears that a combination of 9-12 repetitions per set and 3-4 sets per muscle group might be optimal for acute postprandial glucose control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2017-0771DOI Listing
August 2018

An integrative perspective of the anaerobic threshold.

Physiol Behav 2019 06 14;205:29-32. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

The concept of anaerobic threshold (AT) was introduced during the nineteen sixties. Since then, several methods to identify the anaerobic threshold (AT) have been studied and suggested as novel 'thresholds' based upon the variable used for its detection (i.e. lactate threshold, ventilatory threshold, glucose threshold). These different techniques have brought some confusion about how we should name this parameter, for instance, anaerobic threshold or the physiological measure used (i.e. lactate, ventilation). On the other hand, the modernization of scientific methods and apparatus to detect AT, as well as the body of literature formed in the past decades, could provide a more cohesive understanding over the AT and the multiple physiological systems involved. Thus, the purpose of this review was to provide an integrative perspective of the methods to determine AT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.12.015DOI Listing
June 2019

Longer Telomere Length in Elite Master Sprinters: Relationship to Performance and Body Composition.

Int J Sports Med 2017 Dec 3;38(14):1111-1116. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Universidade Católica de Brasília - UCB, Graduate Program in Genomic Science and Biotechnology, Brasília, Brazil.

Emergent evidence suggests that the long-term healthy lifestyle of master athletes may attenuate aging. We compared telomere length (TL) of high-level master sprinters and non-athlete age-matched controls, and analyzed the relationships of TL with performance and body fat. Elite master sprinters (n=11; aged 50.1±9.2yrs) and healthy untrained controls (n=10; aged 45.4±10.9yrs) had blood samples collected for biochemical and biomolecular analyses. Master sprinters had longer TL, lower body fat and BMI, and a better lipid profile than age-matched controls (p<0.05). A large effect size was verified comparing TL between athletes vs. controls (Cohen's d=1.039), with a significant negative correlation between TL and performance decline per decade (r=-0.624, p<0.01) and a positive correlation of TL and actual performance level (r=0.641, p<0.01). In conclusion, TL of elite master sprinters was longer than their untrained peers, and seems to be not only a marker of health status, but also an indicator of sports longevity since both actual performance level and its decrease over years were related to TL. Further research might assess the TL of elite master endurance athletes for comparison with sprinters, and also investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the attenuation of telomere shortening occurs in master athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120345DOI Listing
December 2017

Effects of short-term plyometric training on physical fitness parameters in female futsal athletes.

J Phys Ther Sci 2017 May 16;29(5):783-788. Epub 2017 May 16.

Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brazil.

[Purpose] To verify the effects of short-term plyometric training (PM) on body composition, flexibility and muscle power output in female Futsal athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female Futsal athletes (19.5 ± 1.29 years) equally and randomly divided into control and experimental groups were submitted to a sit-and-reach flexibility test, body composition measures and horizontal jump, at baseline and one day after the final training session. Both groups retained their training routines while only the experimental group participated in an additional 25 minutes of PM 2 times a week over 4 weeks. [Results] The experimental group showed higher values of flexibility and muscle power and lower body fat after the intervention in comparison to the baseline and control group. In addition, the effect size within-group after intervention indicated a moderate, large and very large effect for body fat, flexibility and muscle power, respectively. [Conclusion] These results show that plyometric training may be effective in reducing body fat and increasing flexibility and muscle power in female Futsal athletes. Thus, it may suggest that PM can be applied in the field of preventive physical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.29.783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462672PMC
May 2017

Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males.

Asian J Sports Med 2016 Sep 28;7(3):e33850. Epub 2016 May 28.

Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP) control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals.

Objectives: The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK) session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults.

Patients And Methods: Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm) and underwent one CK session (50 minutes) and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions), as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery.

Results: The systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05), with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg); DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg)] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session.

Conclusions: A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.33850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098111PMC
September 2016

Estimation of the Maximal Lactate Steady State Intensity by the Rating of Perceived Exertion.

Percept Mot Skills 2016 02 1;122(1):136-49. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Taguatinga DF, Brazil.

The maximal lactate steady state is the gold standard for evaluating aerobic capacity; however, it is time-consuming. The lactate minimum protocol is an easier alternative, but is not feasible and still expensive. This study investigated whether the rating of perceived exertion of 13 is an accurate predictor of lactate minimum and maximal lactate steady state intensities. Eleven physically active men performed three tests: (1) incremental exercise with workloads based on rating of perceived exertion of 10, 13, and 16 (experimental protocol - denominated RPE-13 test), (2) lactate minimum, and (3) maximal lactate steady state. No differences were observed among participants' workloads corresponding to rating of perceived exertion 13, lactate minimum, and maximal lactate steady state intensities. Thus, the workload associated with the rating of perceived exertion of 13 was equivalent to the other two protocols investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0031512516631070DOI Listing
February 2016