Publications by authors named "Henryk Wilczek"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Survival among solid organ transplant recipients diagnosed with cancer compared to nontransplanted cancer patients-A nationwide study.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 11;146(3):682-691. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) have an increased cancer risk but their survival once diagnosed with cancer has seldom been assessed. We therefore investigated cancer-specific survival among OTRs with a wide range of cancer forms nationally in Sweden. The study included 2,143 OTRs with cancer, and 946,089 nontransplanted cancer patients diagnosed 1992-2013. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex and calendar year. Median follow-up was 3.1 (range 0-22) years. Overall, OTRs diagnosed with any cancer had a 35% higher rate of cancer death compared to nontransplanted cancer patients (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.24-1.47). Specifically, higher rates of cancer-specific death were observed among OTRs diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma (HR: 15.0, 95% CI: 5.56-40.6), high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.90-3.77), malignant melanoma (HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.74-4.52) and urothelial (HR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.65-3.97), breast (HR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.38-3.25), head/neck (HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02-2.36) and colorectal (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07-1.88) cancer. The worse outcomes were not explained by differences in distribution of cancer stage or histologic subtypes. For other common cancer forms such as prostate, lung and kidney cancer, the prognosis was similar to that in nontransplanted cancer patients. In conclusion, several but not all types of posttransplantation cancer diagnoses are associated with worse outcomes than in the general population. Reasons for this should be further explored to optimize posttransplantation cancer management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32299DOI Listing
February 2020

Adding 3D automated breast ultrasound to mammography screening in women with heterogeneously and extremely dense breasts: Report from a hospital-based, high-volume, single-center breast cancer screening program.

Eur J Radiol 2016 Sep 7;85(9):1554-63. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

At the Time of the Study Department of Breast Imaging, Unilabs Capio S:t Göran Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 3D automated breast ultrasound (3D ABUS) when added to full field digital screening mammography (FFDSM), on breast cancer detection and recall rates in asymptomatic women with dense breasts examined in a high-volume breast cancer screening mammography center.

Methods And Material: 1668 asymptomatic women, age 40-74 years, with heterogeneously dense parenchyma (ACR3) or extremely dense breast (ACR4) were included in the study. FFDSM was performed using standard craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views followed by anteroposterior (AP); lateral (LAT) and medial (MED) acquisitions of 3D ABUS in both breasts. All mammograms were double read by two dedicated breast radiologists. The 3D ABUS was read by the first radiologist immediately after reading the mammograms. The second reader looked at the 3D ABUS only if there was a need for consensus discussion because of unclear or abnormal mammograms or 3D ABUS.

Results: The combined FFDSM and 3D ABUS generated a total of 6.6 cancers per 1000 women screened (95% CI: 3.0, 10.2; p<0.001) compared with 4.2 cancers per 1000 women screened (95% CI) for FFDSM alone. The difference in yield was an additional 2.4 detected cancers per 1000 women screened (95% CI: 0.6, 4.8; p<0.001). The corresponding recall rate per 1000 women screened was 13.8 (95% CI: 9.0, 19.8) for FFDSM alone and 22.8 for combined FFDSM and ABUS (95% CI: 16.2, 30.0), yielding a difference of an additional 9.0 recalls per 1000 women screened (95% CI: 3.0, 15.0; p=0.004).

Conclusion: The addition of 3D ABUS to FFDSM in women with ACR3 or ACR4 breast density significantly improved invasive breast cancer detection rate with an acceptable recall increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2016.06.004DOI Listing
September 2016

Survival After Transplantation in Patients With Mutations Other Than Val30Met: Extracts From the FAP World Transplant Registry.

Transplantation 2016 Feb;100(2):373-81

1 Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. 2 Division of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, CLINTEC, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Liver transplantation (LTx) has been performed for hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) since 1990. Outcomes for a relatively large series of LTx ATTR patients with the Val30Met (mutation are available, but for non-Val30Met patients, only a few reports with a small number of patients exist. Here, we present outcomes for non-Val30Met ATTR patients after LTx, as reported to the Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry (FAPWTR).

Methods: Data regarding outcome were extracted for all non-Val30Met patients reported to the registry. Survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.

Results: The total number of patients with a non-Val30Met mutation in the registry was 264 (174 men and 90 women), representing 57 mutations. The 10-year survival varied markedly for the 9 most common mutations, ranging from 21% for Ser50Arg to 85% for Val71Ala. Poor survival was noted for all mutations with leptomeningeal complications except for those with the Tyr114Cys mutation.

Conclusions: Large differences in survival were observed relative to different mutations and between mutations with similar phenotypes. Excellent survival was noted for mutations, such as Leu111Met, Val71Ala, and Leu58His. Patients with mutations other than Val30Met are not a homogeneous group, and the term non-Val30Met should be used with caution or avoided. Moreover, for several mutations, data are too limited to allow evaluation of the efficacy of LTx, and continuous international collaboration is important for obtaining treatment guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4732012PMC
February 2016

Liver Transplantation for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis: After 20 Years Still the Best Therapeutic Alternative?

Transplantation 2015 Sep;99(9):1847-54

1 Division of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. 2 Department of Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. 3 Liver Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 4 Liver Transplant Unit, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Lisbon, Portugal. 5 Unidade de Transplantação Hepática Pediátrica e de Adultos, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Portugal. 6 Liver Transplant Unit, Hospital de Santo António, Porto, Portugal. 7 AP-HP, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Centre Hépatobiliaire, Univ Paris-Sud, Villejuif, France. 8 Liver Transplant/Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN. 9 Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Lahey Medical Center, Burlington, MA. 10 Department of Liver Transplantation, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 11 Department of Neurology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 12 Grupo de Estudio de la PAF, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. 13 Liver Transplant Unit, University Hospital Bellvitge, Spain. 14 Third Department of Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan. 15 Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. 16 Liver Unit, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom. 17 Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, J Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany. 18 Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Until recently, liver transplantation (Ltx) was the only available treatment for hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis; today, however, several pharmacotherapies are tested. Herein, we present survival data from the largest available database on transplanted hereditary TTR patients to serve as a base for comparison.

Methods: Liver transplantation was evaluated in a 20-year retrospective analysis of the Familial Amyloidosis Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry.

Results: From April 1990 until December 2010, data were accumulated from 77 liver transplant centers. The Registry contains 1940 patients, and 1379 are alive. Eighty-eight Ltx were performed in combination with a heart and/or kidney transplantation. Overall, 20-year survival after Ltx was 55.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed modified body mass index, early onset of disease (<50 years of age), disease duration before Ltx, and TTR Val30Met versus non-TTR Val30Met mutations as independent significant survival factors. Early-onset patients had an expected mortality rate of 38% that of the late-onset group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Val30Met patients had an expected mortality rate of 61% that of non-TTR Val30Met patients (P < 0.001). With each year of duration of disease before Ltx, expected mortality increased by 11% (P < 0.001). With each 100-unit increase in modified body mass index at Ltx, the expected mortality decreased to 89% of the expected mortality (P < 0.001). Cardiovascular death was markedly more common than that observed in patients undergoing Ltx for end-stage liver disease.

Conclusions: Long-term survival after Ltx, especially for early-onset TTR Val30Met patients, is excellent. The risk of delaying Ltx by testing alternative treatments, especially in early-onset TTR Val30Met patients, requires consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000000574DOI Listing
September 2015

Overall and cause-specific mortality in transplant recipients with a pretransplantation cancer history.

Transplantation 2013 Aug;96(3):297-305

Division of Transplantation Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: It is unclear to what extent cancer history affects posttransplantation mortality in solid organ transplant recipients.

Methods: We identified a Swedish population-based cohort of solid organ transplant recipients in the National Patient Register 1970 to 2008 and linked it to the Cancer and Cause-of-Death Register. Overall and cause-specific mortality was estimated using Cox regression.

Results: Of 10,448 eligible recipients, 416 (4%) had a prior malignancy unrelated to the indication for transplantation diagnosed 2 months or more before surgery (median, 5.7 years). Mortality among cancer history recipients was 30% increased after transplantation, compared with other recipients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.5; P<0.001), driven by cancer-specific death with no increase in cardiovascular, infectious, or other noncancer mortality. An increased rate of death due to cancer history was primarily observed among nonkidney recipients (adjusted HR(nonkidney), 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5; HR(kidney), 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4). Rates were greatest for patients with waiting times of 5 years or less but persisted with waiting times more than 10 years among kidney and nonkidney recipients with prior aggressive cancer types (gastrointestinal, breast, kidney/urothelial, and hematologic malignancies).

Conclusion: We conclude that organ transplant recipients with cancer history are at a moderately increased rate of death after transplantation, driven primarily by death due to cancer recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e31829854b7DOI Listing
August 2013

[Kidney transplanted persons with malignant tumors is a growing patient group].

Lakartidningen 2012 Sep 26-Oct 9;109(39-40):1766-9

Sektionen för transplantationskirurgi, kirurgiska kliniken, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.

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December 2012

Risk of skin cancer and other malignancies in kidney, liver, heart and lung transplant recipients 1970 to 2008--a Swedish population-based study.

Int J Cancer 2013 Mar 28;132(6):1429-38. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Department of Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden.

Organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of a wide range of malignancies, especially cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Few previous population-based studies have quantified and compared cancer risks according to graft type and with long-term follow-up. Using nationwide Swedish registers, we identified 10,476 recipients transplanted from 1970 to 2008 and followed them for cancer occurrence. Relative risks of cancer in comparison with the general population were expressed as standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and within the transplanted cohort as incidence rate ratios (IRR). During a total follow-up of 93,432 person-years, patients were diagnosed with 1,175 cancers excluding SCC, and with 2,231 SCC, SIR(cancer excl SCC) 2.4 (95% CI, 2.2-2.5); SIR(SCC) 121 (95% CI, 116-127). Cancer risks were most increased among heart and/or lung recipients SIR(cancer excl SCC) 3.3 (95% CI, 2.8-4.0); SIR(SCC) 198 (95% CI, 174-224), followed by kidney SIR(cancer excl SCC) 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1-2.4); SIR(SCC) 121 (95% CI, 116-127) and liver recipients SIR(cancer excl SCC) 2.3 (95% CI, 1.9-2.8); SIR(SCC) 32 (95% CI, 24-42). During follow-up, risk of cancer excluding SCC remained stable while risk of SCC tripled over 20 years irrespective of graft type, partly due to a subgroup of patients developing new SCCs at a rapidly increasing rate. In summary, post-transplant cancer risk varied by transplanted organ and by cancer site, with the bulk of the excess risk driven by an exceptionally high and accelerating risk of SCC. These findings underscore the importance of regular skin screening in organ transplant recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27765DOI Listing
March 2013

Solid organ transplantation for non-TTR hereditary amyloidosis: report from the 1st International Workshop on the Hereditary Renal Amyloidoses.

Amyloid 2012 Jun 27;19 Suppl 1:81-4. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

NHS Amyloidosis Transplant Programme, Liver Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Fibrinogen A α-chain (AFib) and apolipoprotein AI (AApoAI) amyloidosis due to variants in the AFib and ApoAI genes are the most common types of hereditary amyloidosis in Europe and the United States. Liver is the exclusive source of the aberrant amyloidogenic protein in AFib and responsible for supplying approximately half of the circulating variant ApoAI. Nephrotic syndrome and renal impairment due to renal amyloidosis are common disease manifestations; however, recent research provides evidence to support a more diverse and systemic disease phenotype, which in turn has implications in the management of the hereditary amyloidoses with solid organ transplantation and, in particular, liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13506129.2012.668503DOI Listing
June 2012

Population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in pediatric liver transplantation: early posttransplantation clearance.

Ther Drug Monit 2011 Dec;33(6):663-72

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window, with considerable pharmacokinetic variability. Getting sufficient concentrations in pediatric liver transplantation is imperative, but it has proven difficult in the immediate posttransplantation period in particular. A predictive pharmacokinetic model could be the basis for development of a novel initial dose schedule, and therapeutic drug monitoring with Bayesian methodology.

Methods: The predictive capacity of 2 previously developed population pharmacokinetic models of tacrolimus in pediatric liver transplant recipients was tested in 20 new patients using Bayesian forecasting. Predictive performance was poor in the immediate posttransplant period with tacrolimus pharmacokinetics changing rapidly. A new population pharmacokinetic model, focusing on the immediate posttransplant period, was subsequently developed in 73 patients.

Results: An increase in the apparent clearance of tacrolimus in the first few weeks after transplant was evident. Typical apparent clearance of tacrolimus was 0.148 L·h(-1)·kg(-0.75) immediately after transplantation, increasing to a maximum of 1.37 L·h(-1)·kg(-0.75). Typical apparent distribution volume was 27.2 L/kg. Internal and external validation studies confirmed the predictive capabilities of the developed model. Simulation studies reveal that in 60% of subjects the current initial standard dose without subsequent dosage adjustments overshoot the desired trough concentration range of 10-20 ng/mL. An alternative dosing schedule was developed based on allometric scaling with an initial loading dose followed by a maintenance dose increasing with time.

Conclusions: A population pharmacokinetic model for tacrolimus was developed, to better describe the early posttransplantation phase. This model has the potential to aid therapeutic drug monitoring and was also used to suggest a revised dosing scheme in the intended population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e31823415ccDOI Listing
December 2011

Domino liver transplantation.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2008 6;15(2):139-48. Epub 2008 Apr 6.

Division of Transplantation Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Orthotopic liver transplantation is today an established treatment for end stage liver diseases. However, the ongoing shortage of suitable livers together with progressively longer waiting lists prevents many patients from being transplanted, and many patients die while being on the waiting list. Using livers from living donors is one way to increase the supply of liver grafts. Another group of potential living liver donors are some selected liver recipients, whose native explanted liver in turn can be considered for transplantation into another patient. This unorthodox procedure have been named domino liver transplantation (DLT). The domino approach can be considered in patients with some genetic or biochemical disorders that today are treated by liver transplantation. The underlying rationale is that such livers ultimately cause severe systemic disease but are otherwise normal. In this review we present the current world status of DLT as well as updated results from the Domino Liver World Transplant Register (DLTR) and our own experience at the Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge with the DLT procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00534-007-1299-1DOI Listing
October 2008

Long-term consequences of domino liver transplantation using familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy grafts.

Transpl Int 2007 Nov 9;20(11):926-33. Epub 2007 Jul 9.

Division of Transplantation surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Domino liver transplantation (DLT) using grafts from patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an established procedure at many transplantation centers. However, data evaluating the long-term outcome of DLT are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk of de novo polyneuropathy, possibly because of amyloidosis, and the patient survival after DLT. At our department, 28 DLT using FAP grafts were conducted between January 1997 and December 2005. One patient was twice subjected to DLT. Postoperative neurological monitoring of peripheral nerve function was performed with electroneurography (ENeG) in 20 cases. An ENeG index based on 12 parameters was calculated and correlated to age and/or height. Three patients developed ENeG signs of polyneuropathy 2-5 years after the DLT, but with no clinical symptoms. The 1-, 3- and 5-year actuarial patient survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients (n = 12) and non-HCC patients (n = 15) was 67%, 15%, 15% and 93%, 93%, 80%, respectively (P = 0.001). Development of impaired nerve conduction in a proportion of patients may indicate that de novo amyloidosis occurs earlier than previously expected. Survival after DLT was excellent except in patients with advanced HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2007.00516.xDOI Listing
November 2007

The long-term impact of liver transplantation on kidney function in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy patients.

Transpl Int 2005 Jan;18(1):111-5

Department of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

The aim of the study is to evaluate the long-term kidney function after liver transplantation (LTx) in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) Portuguese type patients and compare the findings with patients transplanted for chronic liver disease of other origin. We analysed the medical records of 32 FAP patients who underwent transplantation between 1990 and 1999 with a follow-up of more than 1 year after LTx. The control group consisted of 61 patients who had undergone LTx for chronic liver disease. Kidney function was measured by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum creatinine and urea. There were no differences between the groups in creatinine and urea levels during the follow-up. However, during the first year after transplantation, the increase in creatinine and urea was significantly higher in the control group (P < 0.01). The decline in GFR after transplantation was also more pronounced in the controls (P < 0.01). Initially after LTx, kidney function deteriorated in both FAP and control patients, but the deterioration was more pronounced in the controls. The decline of the FAP patients' kidney function after LTx was not more pronounced than that observed in control patients, although many FAP patients' kidney function was impaired before the procedure, suggesting that LTx may halt the progression of kidney damage caused by amyloid deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2004.00015.xDOI Listing
January 2005

Hepatitis C infection, time in renal-replacement therapy, and outcome after kidney transplantation.

Transplantation 2004 Sep;78(5):745-50

Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Center for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute and Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in kidney transplantation and is known to affect long-term patient and graft survival, as is time in renal-replacement therapy (RRT). The aim of this study was to investigate HCV in relation to time in RRT and its impact on outcome after transplantation.

Methods: A follow-up cohort study using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model was performed in 545 kidney and 26 kidney-pancreas transplant recipients receiving transplants between 1989 and 1997, with last follow-up on December 31, 2002. HCV status at transplantation and time in RRT were analyzed.

Results: Time in RRT was significantly longer (P<0.0001), and previous transplantations were more common (P=0.04) in the HCV-positive group. HCV significantly reduced patient (P=0.0012) and graft survival (P=0.0003) after transplantation. Adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, previous transplantations, type of transplant, and time in RRT resulted in a relative risk (RR) for death of 2.23, 1.92, and 1.07 for HCV, diabetes, and age, respectively. The RR for graft loss was 1.96 and 1.03 for HCV and age. Sex, previous transplants, and time in RRT did not affect HCV as an independent risk factor for patient or graft survival. The leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease in both groups.

Conclusions: HCV was, in our series, more important than time in RRT for patient death and graft loss posttransplant. Successful pretransplant antiviral therapy could be more beneficial for HCV-infected patients rather than early transplantation for long-term outcome, but this needs to be studied prospectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000131948.29742.24DOI Listing
September 2004

Ten years of international experience with liver transplantation for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: results from the Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry.

Transplantation 2004 Jan;77(1):64-71

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis is a group of systemic amyloidoses disorders caused by an amyloidogenic TTR variant. Untreated, it slowly leads to severely disabling symptoms that relentlessly progress until the death of the patient. Because the mutant form of TTR is produced mainly in the liver, successful orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) results in the elimination of the source of the variant TTR molecule and is presently the only known curative treatment. OLT in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) was first performed in 1990 at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, and because the results were promising other centers took up the procedure.

Methods: To gain as great an experience as possible regarding this treatment, the Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry (FAPWTR) was initiated in 1995, and this article presents the 10-year registry results.

Results: A total of 54 centers in 16 countries have performed OLT for FAP, and today approximately 60 OLTs are performed annually worldwide. During the last decade, a total of 539 patients have undergone 579 OLTs. Patient survival is excellent (overall 5-year patient survival 77%) and comparable to the survival with OLT performed for other chronic liver disorders, but longer follow-up is needed to compare the outcome after OLT with the natural course of the disease. The main cause of death was cardiac related (39%).

Conclusions: We believe that the FAPWTR has become a valuable tool that will help to accurately evaluate the potential risks and benefits of OLT in patients with FAP and promote a fruitful collaboration between centers engaged in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000092307.98347.CBDOI Listing
January 2004

Report from the Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry (FAPWTR) and the Domino Liver Transplant Registry (DLTR).

Amyloid 2003 Aug;10 Suppl 1:67-76

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a fatal disease, belonging to a group of systemic disorders caused by an amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR) variant. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) eliminates the source of the variant TTR molecule, and is presently the only known curative treatment. A fascinating consequence of this treatment is the possibility of retransplanting the removed FAP liver into another non-FAP patient, which created the so-called domino liver transplantation (DLT) procedure. The Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry (FAPWTR) was initiated in 1995, and in 1999 a Domino Liver Transplantation Registry (DLTR) was created. Herein data from these Registries are presented. A total number of 56 centers in 16 countries have performed OLT for FAP, and, today, approximately 65-70 OLTs are performed annually worldwide. During the last decade, a total of 623 patients have undergone 660 OLTs. Patient survival is excellent and comparable to the survival with OLT performed for other chronic liver disorders. Twenty-six centers in 12 countries have reported recipients of DLT grafts and presently 30-35 DLTs are performed annually. The FAPWTR and DLTR have become useful tools in evaluating the potential risks and benefits of these relatively new therapeutic options, in addition to encouraging a rewarding collaboration between centers involved in the management of these patients.
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August 2003

Renal transplantation in a case of acute intermittent porphyria.

J Clin Pharmacol 2003 Oct;43(10):1158-60

Karolinska Institute, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Danderyd, Sweden.

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) results from a deficiency of the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme of heme biosynthesis. The disease is exacerbated by a wide variety of drugs. Only steroids and azathioprine (Aza) have so far been considered safe in patients with AIP, and cyclosporine is listed as contraindicated. From the transplantation point of view, it is well known that cyclosporine (CsA) is a superior immunosuppressive agent compared to azathioprine. This case report presents a female patient evaluated for renal transplantation. A test dose of CsA was given, and no symptoms of AIP occurred. Renal transplantation with a cadaveric donor was performed, and the patient was immunosuppressed with CsA, Aza, and prednisolone. Following three acute rejections, Aza was replaced by mycophenolate mofetil. Nevertheless, graft function deteriorated slowly, necessitating return to dialysis 3 years after transplantation. No symptoms of AIP were observed while the patient was on cyclosporine and/or mycophenolate mofetil therapy, and the authors conclude that these drugs can be safely administered to at least some patients with AIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270003257223DOI Listing
October 2003

Long-term improvement in renal function with sirolimus after early cyclosporine withdrawal in renal transplant recipients: 2-year results of the Rapamune Maintenance Regimen Study.

Transplantation 2003 Jul;76(2):364-70

Innere Medizin III-Nephrologie, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate early cyclosporine (CsA) withdrawal from a sirolimus (SRL)-CsA-steroid (ST) regimen.

Methods: Within 48 hr after transplantation, 525 primary (90%) or secondary (10%) renal allograft recipients with cadaveric (89%) or living (11%) donors received 2 mg of SRL (troughs >5 ng/mL; immunoassay), CsA, and ST. Those eligible (430) were randomly assigned (1:1) at 3 months +/- 2 weeks to remain on triple-drug therapy (SRL-CsA-ST group) or to have CsA withdrawn and SRL trough concentrations targeted to 20 to 30 ng/mL (SRL-ST group) until month 12, and 15 to 25 ng/mL thereafter.

Results: At 24 months, there were no statistically significant differences in patient survival (94.0% vs. 95.3%), graft survival (91.2% vs. 93.5%), acute rejection after randomization (5.1% vs. 9.8%) or discontinuations (34% vs. 33%) for SRL-CsA-ST versus SRL-ST, respectively. Serum creatinine level was significantly better in patients who had CsA withdrawn (167 vs. 128 micromol/L, P<0.001), as was the slope of 1/creatinine. Similarly, systolic blood pressure was lower in patients who had CsA withdrawn (141 vs. 134 mm Hg, P<0.001). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher in the SRL-ST group, whereas total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were not significantly different. Hypertension, creatinine increase, abnormal kidney function, toxic nephropathy, edema, hyperuricemia, cataracts, Herpes zoster, and malignancy were reported significantly more often in patients continuing CsA. Thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, abnormal liver function tests, abnormal wound healing, ileus, and pneumonia were reported significantly more frequently with SRL-ST.

Conclusion: Data at 2 years confirm that early CsA withdrawal followed by an SRL-ST maintenance regimen results in long-term improvement in both renal function and blood pressure, without increased risk of graft loss or late acute rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000074360.62032.39DOI Listing
July 2003
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