Publications by authors named "Henry van den Brand"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Low Incubation Temperature During Late Incubation and Early Feeding Affect Broiler Resilience to Necrotic Enteritis in Later Life.

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:784869. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Resilient animals can cope with environmental disturbances in life with minimal loss of function. Resilience can be enhanced by optimizing early-life conditions. In poultry, eggshell temperature () during incubation and early feeding are two early-life conditions that are found to alter neonatal chick quality as well as immune response in later life. However, whether these early-life conditions affect disease resilience of chickens at later ages has never been studied yet. Hence, we studied the effects of EST [(37.8°C () or 36.7°C ()] during late incubation (≥embryonic days 17-19.5) and feeding strategy after hatch [immediately () or 51-54 h delayed ()] on later-life broiler resilience in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. At hatch, 960 broilers of both sexes from a 54-week-old Ross breeder flock were equally divided over 32 pens (eight replicate pens per treatment combination) and grown for 6 weeks. Necrotic enteritis was induced by a single inoculation of spp. at d 21 and repeated inoculation (3×/d) during d 21-25. Mortality and body weight (BW) gain were measured daily during d 21-35 as indicators of resilience. Additionally, disease morbidity was assessed (gut lesions, dysbacteriosis, shedding of oocysts, footpad dermatitis, and natural antibody levels in blood). Results showed a lack of interaction between EST and feeding strategy for the vast majority of the variables. A lower EST resulted in lower BW gain at d 5 and 8 post inoculation ( = 0.02) and more oocysts in feces at d 8 post inoculation compared to control EST ( < 0.01). Early feeding tended to lower mortality compared to delayed feeding ( = 0.06), but BW gain was not affected by feeding strategy. Morbidity characteristics were hardly affected by EST or feeding strategy. In conclusion, a few indications were found that a lower EST during late incubation as well as delayed feeding after hatch may each impair later-life resilience to necrotic enteritis. However, these findings were not manifested consistently in all parameters that were measured, and conclusions are drawn with some restraint.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.784869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713642PMC
December 2021

Maternal Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Lowers Incidence of Stillbirth in Hyper Prolific Sows under Commercial Circumstances.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Nov 24;11(12). Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The objective of the current experiment was to investigate whether or not maternal dietary nitrate supplementation, a nitric oxide (NO) precursor, could reduce piglet losses under commercial circumstances. In the current experiment, 120 hyper prolific gilts and sows (Landrace x Yorkshire: Danbred) on a commercial farm in Denmark received either a control lactation diet or a lactation diet containing 0.1% of calcium nitrate (containing 63.1% of nitrate) from approximately 5 days pre-farrowing until day 4 of lactation. The number of piglets born total, alive, and stillborn, as well as birth weights, weights after cross-fostering (approximately 1 day of age), 24 h after cross-fostering, day 3 of age, and at weaning was recorded. Placentas of sows were collected after expulsion and scored on redness. No effect of nitrate supplementation was found on piglet weight, piglet growth, placental redness score, and pre-weaning mortality during lactation. Maternal dietary nitrate supplementation decreased stillbirth percentage with 2.5% (9.9 vs. 7.4%; = 0.05). It can be concluded that maternal dietary nitrate supplementation shows the potential to decrease the incidence of stillbirth in hyper prolific sows.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11123364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698137PMC
November 2021

Effects of pen enrichment on leg health of fast and slower-growing broiler chickens.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(12):e0254462. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Gelderland, The Netherlands.

Pen enrichment for broiler chickens is one of the potential strategies to stimulate locomotion and consequently contribute to better leg health and welfare. This study was designed to evaluate effects of using a plethora of pen enrichments (barrier perches, angular ramps, horizontal platforms, large distance between feed and water and providing live Black Soldier fly larvae in a dustbathing area) on tibia characteristics, locomotion, leg health and home pen behaviour of fast and slower-growing broiler chickens. The experiment was set up as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with a total of 840 male broiler chickens in a complete randomized design (7 pens per treatment and 30 chickens per pen) with the following treatments: 1) pen enrichment (enriched pen or non-enriched pen); 2) broiler strain (fast-growing Ross 308 or slower-growing Hubbard JA 757). Home pen behaviour and use of enrichment were observed. At approximately 1400 and 2200 g body weight, two chickens per pen were randomly selected and slaughtered, to investigate tibia morphological, biophysical and mechanical characteristics and leg health. Pen enrichment positively affected tibia biophysical characteristics, e.g., osseous volume (Δ = 1.8 cm3, P = 0.003), total volume (Δ = 1.4 cm3, P = 0.03) and volume fraction (Δ = 0.02%, P = 0.002), in both fast and slower-growing chickens, suggesting that pen enrichment particularly affects ossification and mineralization mechanisms. Accordingly, locomotion and active behaviours were positively influenced by pen enrichment. However, pen enrichment resulted in lower body weight gain in both strains, which might be due to higher activity or lower feed intake as a result of difficulties of crossing the barrier perches. Regarding the strain, slower-growing chickens showed consistently more advanced tibia characteristics and more active behaviour than fast-growing chickens. It can be concluded that pen enrichment may lead to more activity and better bone development in both fast and slower-growing chickens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254462PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700046PMC
December 2021

Effects of pre-transport diet, transport duration and transport condition on immune cell subsets, haptoglobin, cortisol and bilirubin in young veal calves.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0246959. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Wageningen Livestock Research, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of pre-transport diets, transport durations and transport conditions on immune cell subsets, haptoglobin, cortisol and bilirubin of young calves upon arrival at the veal farm. An experiment was conducted with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 factors: 1) provision of rearing milk or electrolytes at the collection center (CC); 2) transport duration (6 or 18 hours) and 3) transport condition (open truck or conditioned truck). Holstein-Friesian and cross-bred calves were used (N = 368; 18 ± 4 days; 45.3 ± 3.3 kg). Blood samples were collected from calves (N = 128) at the collection center, immediately post-transport (T0) and 4, 24, 48 hours, week 1, 3 and 5 post-transport. Blood was analyzed for cortisol, bilirubin, haptoglobin, IgG and IgM. Moreover, cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils were measured in blood samples taken at the collection center and T0. In these same blood samples, different lymphocyte populations were characterized by flow cytometry, including CD14+ cells, NK cells, δγ+ T cells, CD8+ cells, CD4+ cells and CD21+ cells. Calves transported in the conditioned truck had higher amounts of white blood cell count (WBC) (Δ = 1.39 × 109/l; P = 0.01), monocytes (Δ = 0.21 × 109/l; P = 0.04), neutrophils (Δ = 0.93 × 109/l; P = 0.003), than calves transported in the open truck regardless, of pre-transport diet or transport duration. The study showed that transport condition and duration influenced parts of the innate immune system of young veal calves. Cortisol, bilirubin and WBC seemed to be connected by similar underlying mechanisms in relation to transport conditions. However, it is unclear which specific pathways in the immune system of young calves are affected by different transport conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, draught).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246959PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886138PMC
August 2021

Effects of hatching system on the welfare of broiler chickens in early and later life.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 23;100(3):100946. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands; Animals in Science and Society, Department of Population Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Broiler chicks usually hatch in the hatchery without access to feed and water until placement at the farm. This can affect their health and welfare negatively. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed, for instance providing chicks with early nutrition in the hatchery or hatching eggs directly on-farm. However, information on the physical and mental welfare of chicks hatched in these systems compared to conventionally hatched chicks is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alternative hatching systems on the welfare of broiler chickens in early and later life. A system comparison was performed with chickens that hatched conventionally in a hatchery (HH), in a system which provided light, feed, and water in a hatcher (hatchery-fed, HF), or on-farm (on-farm hatched, OH, where feed and water were available and transport of day-old chicks from the hatchery to the farm was not necessary). Chickens were reared in 3 batches, in 12 floor pens per batch (approximately 1,155 animals per pen), with a total of 12 replicates per treatment. Animal-based welfare indicators were assessed following standard protocols: plumage cleanliness, footpad dermatitis (FPD), hock burn, skin lesions (all at day 21 and 35 of age), and gait score (day 35). Furthermore, a set of behavioral tests was carried out: novel environment (day 1 and 21), tonic immobility, novel object, and avoidance distance test (day 4 and 35). Plumage cleanliness, hock burn, and skin lesions were affected by age but not by hatching system, with older broilers scoring worse than younger ones (P < 0.05). An effect of hatching system was only found for FPD, with the highest prevalence in HH chickens, followed by HF and OH chickens (P < 0.05). All responses measured in the behavioral tests were affected by age but not by hatching system. In later life, chickens were significantly less fearful than during the first days of life. The results indicate that conventionally hatched chickens scored significantly worse for FPD, whereas, in general, hatching system seemed to have minor effects on other broiler welfare indicators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.12.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936212PMC
March 2021

Day-old chicken quality and performance of broiler chickens from 3 different hatching systems.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 23;100(3):100953. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Wageningen Livestock Research, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen 6700 AH, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

In on-farm hatching systems, eggs are transported at d 18 of incubation to the broiler farm, where chickens have immediate access to feed and water after hatching. In hatchery-fed systems, newly hatched chickens have immediate access to feed and water in the hatchery and are transported to the farm thereafter. Conventionally hatched chickens can remain without access to feed and water up to 72 h after hatching until placement on the farm. The current study compared day-old chicken quality, performance, and slaughter yield of broiler chickens that were on-farm hatched (OH), hatchery-fed (HF), or conventionally hatchery-hatched (HH). The experiment was performed in 6 rooms in 1 house. Each room contained 2 duplicate pens with approximately 1,155 chickens per pen; 2 rooms with each 2 duplicate pens were assigned to 1 treatment. The experiment was repeated during 3 consecutive production cycles. Chickens originated from young parent stock flocks. Results showed that HF and OH chickens were heavier and longer than HH chickens at day (D) 1. Relative weight of stomach and intestines were highest for OH chickens. The OH chickens had worse day-old chicken quality in terms of navel condition and red hocks than HH and HF chickens. Treatments did not differ in first wk and total mortality. From D0 until slaughter age, body weight was highest for OH, followed by HF and HH. Furthermore, carcass weight at slaughter age (D40) was highest for OH chickens, followed by HF and HH chickens. Breast fillets showed a higher incidence of white striping and wooden breast in HF and OH chickens compared with HH chickens. In conclusion, the current study showed that both OH and HF chickens of young parent flocks had better growth performance, which could explain the higher prevalence of breast myopathies, compared with HH. The worse day-old chicken quality for OH compared with HH and HF does not seem to affect first wk mortality and later life performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.12.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936180PMC
March 2021

Transport of Young Veal Calves: Effects of Pre-transport Diet, Transport Duration and Type of Vehicle on Health, Behavior, Use of Medicines, and Slaughter Characteristics.

Front Vet Sci 2020 18;7:576469. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Wageningen Livestock Research, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of different early life transport-related factors on health, behavior, use of medicines and slaughter characteristics of veal calves. An experiment was conducted with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 factors: (1) provision of rearing milk or electrolytes before transport, (2) transport duration (6 or 18 h), and (3) type of vehicle (open truck or conditioned truck). The study included male Holstein-Friesian and cross-bred calves ( = 368; 18 ± 4 days; 45.3 ± 3.3 kg). Data on health status of calves were collected at the collection center and at the veal farm until week 27 post-transport. Behavior of calves was recorded during transport and at the veal farm until week 13 post-transport. Use of herd and individual medical treatments was recorded at the veal farm. The prevalence of loose or liquid manure at the veal farm from day 1 until week 3 post-transport was lower in electrolyte-fed calves transported in the conditioned truck compared to electrolytes-fed calves transported in the open truck or milk-fed calves transported in both the conditioned and open truck (Δ = 11% on average; = 0.02). In comparison with the open truck, calves transported in the conditioned truck had lower prevalence of navel inflammation in the first 3 weeks post-transport (Δ = 3 %; = 0.05). More milk-fed calves received individual antibiotic treatments compared to electrolyte-fed calves at the veal farm ( = 0.05). In conclusion, the transport-related factors examined in the present study affected health and behavior of calves in the short-term, but there was no evidence for long-term effects. It remains unknown why no long-term effects were found in this study. Perhaps this absence of transport-related effects was due to multiple use of medical treatments in the first weeks at the veal farm. Alternatively, it might be that the collective effects of the transition from the dairy farm to the veal farm, and of the husbandry conditions during the subsequent rearing period, on the adaptive capacity of calves were so large that effects of individual transport-related factors were overruled.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.576469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775590PMC
December 2020

Effects of heating laying hen houses between consecutive laying cycles on the survival of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

Vet Parasitol 2020 Dec 6;288:109307. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Wageningen University, Adaptation Physiology Group. P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The poultry red mite (PRM) Dermanyssus gallinae, the most common ectoparasite affecting laying hens worldwide, is difficult to control. During the period between consecutive laying cycles, when no hens are present in the layer house, the PRM population can be reduced drastically. Heating a layer house to temperatures above 45 °C for several days in order to kill PRM has been applied in Europe. The effect of such a heat treatment on the survival of PRM adults, nymphs and eggs, however, is largely unknown. To determine that effect, an experiment was executed in four layer houses. Nylon bags with ten PRM adults, nymphs or eggs were placed at five different locations, being a) inside the nest boxes, b) between two wooden boards, to simulate refugia, c) near an air inlet, d) on the floor, under approximately 1 cm of manure and e) on the floor without manure. Mite survival was measured in 6 replicates of each of these locations in each of four layer houses. After heating up the layer house, in this case with a wood pellet burning heater, the temperature of the layer house was maintained at ≥ 45 °C for at least 48 h. Thereafter, the bags were collected and the mites were assessed as being dead or alive. The eggs were assessed for hatchability. Despite a maximum temperature of only 44 °C being reached at one location, near an air inlet, all stages of PRM were dead after the heat treatment. It can be concluded that a heat treatment of layer houses between consecutive laying cycles appears to be an effective method to control PRM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109307DOI Listing
December 2020

Genome-Wide Assessment of DNA Methylation in Chicken Cardiac Tissue Exposed to Different Incubation Temperatures and CO Levels.

Front Genet 2020 28;11:558189. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Animal Breeding and Genomics, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Temperature and CO concentration during incubation have profound effects on broiler chick development, and numerous studies have identified significant effects on hatch heart weight (HW) as a result of differences in these parameters. Early life environment has also been shown to affect broiler performance later in life; it has thus been suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may mediate long-term physiological changes induced by environmental stimuli. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that can confer heritable changes in gene expression. Using reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), we assessed DNA methylation patterns in cardiac tissue of 84 broiler hatchlings incubated at two egg shell temperatures (EST; 37.8°C and 38.9°C) and three CO concentrations (0.1%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) from day 8 of incubation onward. We assessed differential methylation between EST treatments and identified 2,175 differentially methylated (DM) CpGs (1,121 hypermethylated, 1,054 hypomethylated at 38.9° vs. 37.8°) in 269 gene promoters and 949 intragenic regions. DM genes (DMGs) were associated with heart developmental processes, including cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation. We identified enriched binding motifs among DM loci, including those for transcription factors associated with cell proliferation and heart development among hypomethylated CpGs that suggest increased binding ability at higher EST. We identified 9,823 DM CpGs between at least two CO treatments, with the greatest difference observed between 0.8 and 0.1% CO that disproportionately impacted genes involved in cardiac muscle development and response to low oxygen levels. Using HW measurements from the same chicks, we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) for HW, and identified 23 significantly associated CpGs, nine of which were also DM between ESTs. We found corresponding differences in transcript abundance between ESTs in three DMGs (, , and ). Hypomethylation of an exonic CpG in at 38.9°C was associated with increased expression, and suggests increased cell proliferation in broiler hatchlings incubated at higher temperatures. Overall, these results identified numerous epigenetic associations between chick incubation factors and heart development that may manifest in long-term differences in animal performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.558189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655987PMC
October 2020

Interactions between Egg Storage Duration and Breeder Age on Selected Egg Quality, Hatching Results, and Chicken Quality.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Sep 23;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

National School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Manouba-Tunisia, Ariana, Sidi Thabet 2020, Tunisia.

Egg storage duration and breeder age are probably interacting to influence egg quality, hatchability, and hatchling quality. To evaluate this interaction, the impact of breeder age (31, 42, 66 weeks) and storage duration (2, 5, 12, 19 days) was investigated on broiler breeder eggs (Arbor Acres). Thick albumen diameter and pH increased, and yolk dry matter decreased between 2 and 19 days of storage. With the increase of breeder age from 31 to 66 weeks, albumen height, percentage and dry matter and shell percentage decreased and the egg weight and yolk percentage, dry matter and diameter increased. Prolonged egg storage increased the yolk pH in all breeder ages, but earlier and steeper in the oldest breeders. Prolonged egg storage resulted in a lower hatchability of set and fertile eggs due to a higher percentage of embryonic mortality. Early mortality increased earlier and steeper with prolonged egg storage in the oldest compared to younger breeders. Between 5 and 19 days of storage, yolk free body mass, liver and proventriculus + gizzard percentages decreased, as well as hatchling length and yolk efficiency (yolk absorption per initial yolk weight). The latter effects were most pronounced in the younger than in the older breeders. Therefore, eggs are preferably stored shorter than 7 d, but if long storage (≥12 days) cannot be avoided, we recommend to store eggs of older breeders when egg quality and hatchability are most important. In case hatchling quality is most important, it would be better to store eggs of younger breeders (31 weeks) for a prolonged period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10101719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597949PMC
September 2020

Interactions between egg storage duration and broiler breeder age on egg fat content, chicken organ weights, and growth performance.

Poult Sci 2020 Sep 23;99(9):4607-4615. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

National School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Manouba, Ariana, Sidi Thabet 2020, Tunisia.

Egg storage and breeder age are between the most important factors affecting egg lipids, chicken quality, and posthatch performance. To evaluate these factors, including their interaction, the impact of egg storage duration (5, 12, and 19 D), and breeder age (47 and 67 wk) was investigated in Arbor Acres broiler eggs and chickens. Total yolk fat content, chicken organ development at hatch and at 6 D of age, and posthatch performance (at 7 D and 35 D of age) were determined. Total fat content in fresh yolk was lower in 12 and 19 D stored eggs than in 5 D stored eggs (Δ = -2.42% on average). In hatchlings, the heart percentage was not affected by storage duration in the younger flock but was higher after 19 D than after 5 and 12 D of storage in the old flock (Δ = +0.09% on average). Residual yolk weight was higher after 12 D egg storage than after 5 D egg storage (Δ = +1.7 g), with 19 D egg storage in between. Liver and intestine percentage decreased with storage duration. Residual yolk weight (Δ = +1.09 g) and liver percentage (Δ = +0.18%) were higher in old breeders than in younger breeders. At day 6, chicken BW, yolk free body mass, liver percentage, and intestine percentage interacted between egg storage duration and breeder age with the strongest effects in chickens from older breeder after 19 D of storage. Heart percentage was lower after 19 D compared with 5 and 12 D of storage (Δ = -0.05% on average). Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were higher between day 0 to 7 and 0 to 35 after 19 D than after 5 D egg storage (Δ19-5 D = +12 g and +199 g; +0.11 points and +0.09 points, respectively). It can be concluded that when it is needed, eggs from younger breeders should be stored for a prolonged period (≥12 D) rather than those from older breeders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598128PMC
September 2020

A review on yolk sac utilization in poultry.

Poult Sci 2020 Apr 8;99(4):2162-2175. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

During incubation, embryonic growth and development are dependent on nutrients deposited in the egg. The content of the yolk can be transferred to the embryo in 2 ways: directly into the intestine via the yolk stalk or through the highly vascularized yolk sac membrane. It has been suggested that, as a result of genetic selection and improved management, the increase in posthatch growth rate and concurrently the increase in metabolic rate of broiler chickens during the last 50 yr has also increased embryonic metabolism. A higher metabolic rate during incubation would imply a lower residual yolk weight and possibly lower energy reserve for the hatchling. This might affect posthatch development and performance. This review examined scientific publications published between 1930 and 2018 to compare residual yolk weight at hatch, metabolic heat production, and yolk utilization throughout incubation. This review aimed to investigate 1) whether or not residual yolk weight and composition has been changed during the 88-yr period considered and 2) which abiotic and biotic factors affect yolk utilization in poultry during incubation and the early posthatch period. It can be concluded that 1) residual yolk weight and the total solid amount of the residual yolk at hatch seem to be decreased in the recent decades. It cannot be concluded whether the (lack of) differences between old and modern strains are due to genetic selection, changed management and incubation conditions, or moment of sampling (immediately after hatch or at pulling). It is remarkable that with the genetic progress and improved management and incubation conditions over the last 88 yr, effects on yolk utilization efficiency and embryonic metabolic heat production are limited; 2) factors specially affecting residual yolk weight at hatch include egg size and incubation temperature, whereas breeder age has more influence on nutrient composition of the residual yolk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.11.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587635PMC
April 2020

Egg storage and breeder age impact on egg quality and embryo development.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Jan 6;104(1):257-268. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Animal Production, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, Tunis, Tunisia.

Prolonged hatching egg storage (>7 days) influences internal egg quality and embryo survival during both storage and subsequent incubation. Moreover, effects of storage of hatching eggs interact with the breeder age. The aim of this review was to investigate how this interaction between storage duration and breeder age affects egg, embryo, hatchling and chicken characteristics. Prolonged storage resulted in a reduction in egg quality in both young and old breeders. This reduction was more pronounced in young flocks than in older flocks. For example, albumen pH increased more after 8 days of storage in younger flocks than in older flocks. Additionally, the embryonic morphological stage appears to increase as well with storage duration, but this increase is again more pronounced in younger flocks than in older flocks. Short storage (<7 days) seems to increase hatchability of eggs from young breeders, probably as a result of albumen liquefaction with consequently better oxygen availability for the embryo. However, long storage (>7 days) resulted in a decline in hatchability, which was stronger in older breeders than in younger breeders. Prolonged storage duration resulted in lower chicken quality in both young and old breeders, but interaction between storage duration and breeder age on multiple chicken quality parameters is not clear. Based on this review, it can be concluded that (a) Short storage can improve hatchability of eggs from young breeders, but not from older breeders. (b) Negative impact of long storage appears to be lower with young breeders than with old breeders. (c) Adapted storage conditions related to the age of breeders might be an option to reduce negative effects of prolonged storage on hatching egg quality and chicken quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13240DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of lighting schedule during incubation of broiler chicken embryos on leg bone development at hatch and related physiological characteristics.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(8):e0221083. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Providing a broiler chicken embryo with a lighting schedule during incubation may stimulate leg bone development. Bone development may be stimulated through melatonin, a hormone released in darkness that stimulates bone development, or increased activity in embryos exposed to a light-dark rhythm. Aim was to investigate lighting conditions during incubation and leg bone development in broiler embryos, and to reveal the involved mechanisms. Embryos were incubated under continuous cool white 500 lux LED light (24L), continuous darkness (24D), or 16h of light, followed by 8h of darkness (16L:8D) from the start of incubation until hatching. Embryonic bone development largely takes place through cartilage formation (of which collagen is an important component) and ossification. Expression of genes involved in cartilage formation (col1α2, col2α1, and col10α1) and ossification (spp1, sparc, bglap, and alpl) in the tibia on embryonic day (ED)13, ED17, and at hatching were measured through qPCR. Femur and tibia dimensions were determined at hatch. Plasma growth hormone and corticosterone and pineal melatonin concentrations were determined every 4h between ED18.75 and ED19.5. Embryonic heart rate was measured twice daily from ED12 till ED19 as a reflection of activity. No difference between lighting treatments on gene expression was found. 24D resulted in higher femur length and higher femur and tibia weight, width, and depth at hatch than 16L:8D. 24D furthermore resulted in higher femur length and width and tibia depth than 24L. Embryonic heart rate was higher for 24D and 16L:8D in both its light and dark period than for 24L, suggesting that 24L embryos may have been less active. Melatonin and growth hormone showed different release patterns between treatments, but the biological significance was hard to interpret. To conclude, 24D resulted in larger leg bones at hatch than light during incubation, but the underlying pathways were not clear from present data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695123PMC
March 2020

Effects of maternal dietary nitrate supplementation during the perinatal period on piglet survival, body weight, and litter uniformity.

Transl Anim Sci 2019 Jan 7;3(1):464-472. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different dosages of dietary nitrate supplementation to sows from d 108 of gestation until d 5 of lactation on reproductive performance of sows and piglet performance from birth until weaning. Dietary nitrate supplementation leads to nitric oxide (NO) formation that can potentially increase blood flow to the fetuses (by the vasodilative effect of NO), leading to a decrease in the loss of potential viable piglets in the form of stillbirth and preweaning mortality. Three hundred and five gilts and sows were allocated to one of six diets from d 108 of gestation until d 5 of lactation, containing 0.00% (Control), 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.09%, 0.12%, or 0.15% of dietary nitrate. The source of nitrate used was calcium nitrate double salt. Calcium levels were kept the same among diets by using limestone. Gilts and sows were weighed and backfat was measured at arrival to the farrowing room (d 108 of gestation) and at weaning (d 27 of age). Data included number of piglets born alive, born dead, and weaned, as well as individual piglet weights at d 0, 72 h of age and weaning. Preweaning mortality was determined throughout lactation. Body weight d 0 ( = 0.04) as well as BW at 72 h of age ( < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing dosages of nitrate in the maternal diet. Litter uniformity (SD) at birth was not affected by maternal nitrate supplementation level ( > 0.10), but tended to be higher at 72 h of age in the control treatment than in all nitrate-supplemented treatments ( = 0.07), and SD decreased linearly (increased uniformity) at weaning with increasing dosages of nitrate ( = 0.05). BW at weaning ( > 0.05) and average daily gain of piglets during lactation ( > 0.05) were not affected by maternal nitrate supplementation. A tendency for a quadratic effect ( = 0.10) of the dosage of maternal dietary nitrate was found on preweaning mortality of piglets with the lowest level of mortality found at 0.09% to 0.12% of maternal nitrate supplementation. We conclude that the use of nitrate in the maternal diet of sows during the perinatal period might stimulate preweaning piglet vitality. Exact mode of action and optimal dose of nitrate still need to be elucidated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txy137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200544PMC
January 2019

Light-dark rhythms during incubation of broiler chicken embryos and their effects on embryonic and post hatch leg bone development.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0210886. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

There are indications that lighting schedules applied during incubation can affect leg health at hatching and during rearing. The current experiment studied effects of lighting schedule: continuous light (24L), 12 hours of light, followed by 12 hours of darkness (12L:12D), or continuous darkness (24D) throughout incubation of broiler chicken eggs on the development and strength of leg bones, and the role of selected hormones in bone development. In the tibiatarsus and femur, growth and ossification during incubation and size and microstructure at day (D)0, D21, and D35 post hatching were measured. Plasma melatonin, growth hormone, and IGF-I were determined perinatally. Incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia, a leg pathology resulting from poor ossification at the bone's epiphyseal plates, was determined at slaughter on D35. 24L resulted in lower embryonic ossification at embryonic day (E)13 and E14, and lower femur length, and lower tibiatarsus weight, length, cortical area, second moment of area around the minor axis, and mean cortical thickness at hatching on D0 compared to 12L:12D especially. Results were long term, with lower femur weight and tibiatarsus length, cortical and medullary area of the tibiatarsus, and second moment of area around the minor axis, and a higher incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia for 24L. Growth hormone at D0 was higher for 24D than for 12L:12D, with 24L intermediate, but plasma melatonin and IGF-I did not differ between treatments, and the role of plasma melatonin, IGF-I, and growth hormone in this process was therefore not clear. To conclude, in the current experiment, 24L during incubation of chicken eggs had a detrimental effect on embryonic leg bone development and later life leg bone strength compared to 24D and 12L:12D, while the light-dark rhythm of 12L:12D may have a stimulating effect on leg health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210886PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347197PMC
November 2019

Evaluating Potential Biomarkers of Health and Performance in Veal Calves.

Front Vet Sci 2018 21;5:133. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Animal Production Systems Group, Livestock Research, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Veal calves undergo many challenges in the early stages of their life. Such challenges, including mixing procedures and transportation of calves to the veal farm, may have a negative influence on growth rate, feed intake, metabolism, immunity and disease susceptibility of calves. As a consequence, many hematological, physiological, metabolic and immunological parameters of stressed calves might be altered on arrival at the veal farm. Some of these response variables might be useful as biomarkers of performance of calves at the veal farm as they might provide information about an ongoing disease process, or may predict future diseases. Biomarkers might be helpful to group and manage calves in different risk categories after arrival. By adopting treatment decisions and protocols on a risk-group or individual basis, it would be possible to improve animal health and reduce both disease incidence and antibiotic use. Moreover, the use of biomarkers might be an economically feasible approach as some of them do not need invasive techniques and others can be measured in blood already taken during routine checks. Previous literature mainly assessed the physiological responses of calves to transportation. However, information on the link between on-farm arrival data and future health and performance of veal calves is limited. This review, therefore, examined a wide range of papers and aimed to identify potential biomarkers of future health and performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021515PMC
June 2018

A 'meta-analysis' of effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation on development, performance and welfare of chickens.

PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189350. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Adaptation Physiology Group,Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

A 'meta-analysis' was performed to determine effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation (PHFWD) on chicken development, performance and welfare (including health). Two types of meta-analysis were performed on peer-reviewed scientific publications: a quantitative 'meta-analysis' (MA) and a qualitative analysis (QA). Previously reported effects of PHFWD were quantified in the MA, for variables related to performance, mortality and relative yolk sac weight. The QA counted the number of studies reporting (non-)significant effects when five or more records were available in the data set (i.e. relative heart, liver and pancreas weight; plasma T3, T4 and glucose concentrations; relative duodenum, jejunum and ileum weight; duodenum, jejunum and ileum length; and villus height and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum). MA results indicated that 24 hours of PHFWD (i.e. ≥12-36 hours) or more resulted in significantly lower body weights compared to early-fed chickens up to six weeks of age. Body weights and food intake were more reduced as durations of PHFWD (24, 48, 72, ≥84 hours) increased. Feed conversion rate increased in chickens up to 21 and 42 days of age after ≥84 hours PHFWD in comparison with chickens fed earlier. Total mortality at day 42 was higher in chickens after 48 hours PHFWD compared to early fed chickens or chickens after 24 hours PHFWD. First week mortality was higher in chickens after ≥84 hours PHFWD than in early fed chickens. The MA for relative yolk sac weight was inconclusive for PHFWD. The QA for plasma T3, T4 and glucose concentrations indicated mainly short-term decreases in T3 and glucose in PHFWD chickens compared to early fed chickens, and no effects of PHFWD on T4 concentrations. Relative weights of liver, pancreas and heart were lower after PHFWD, but only in the first week of life. A retarded development of gut segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) was found in the first week of life, measured as shorter, lower relative weight, and lower villus height and crypt depth. It is concluded that 48 hours (≥36-60 hours) PHFWD leads to lower body weights and higher total mortality in chickens up to six weeks of age, the latter suggesting compromised chicken welfare, but effects of PHFWD on organ development and physiological status appear to be mainly short-term.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189350PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728577PMC
January 2018

Incubation lighting schedules and their interaction with matched or mismatched post hatch lighting schedules: Effects on broiler bone development and leg health at slaughter age.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Oct 17;114:416-422. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The incidence of leg pathologies in broiler chickens with a developmental origin may be decreased by stimulating embryonic bone development through lighting schedules during incubation, but this may depend on post hatch lighting conditions. Aim was to investigate how lighting schedules during incubation and their interactions with matched or mismatched lighting schedules post hatch affected bone development and leg health at slaughter age. In a 3×2 factorial designed experiment, eggs were incubated under continuous cool white LED light (Inc), 16h of light, 8h of darkness (Inc), or continuous darkness (Inc) from set till hatch. After hatch, broilers were housed under continuous light (PH, to match Inc and Inc) or 16h of light, 8h of darkness (PH, to match Inc). Gait scores were determined on D21, D28, and D34. After slaughter on D35, legs were scored for varus-valgus deformities, rotated tibia, tibial dyschondroplasia, bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), epiphyseolysis, and epiphyseal plate abnormalities from 1=absent to 4=severe. Femur and tibia dimensions and mineral density were determined. Inc led to more epiphyseal plate abnormalities than Inc or Inc. Inc led to more BCO than Inc. Gait scores on D21, D28, and D34, and bone dimensions did not differ between treatments. Inc led to higher femur mineral density than Inc with Inc intermediate. Providing a chicken with a matched post hatch lighting schedule did not affect most measurements of bone development and health. It can be concluded that a circadian incubation lighting schedule may improve leg health in broilers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.07.013DOI Listing
October 2017

Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Jun 4;112:201-207. Epub 2017 May 4.

Vencomatic Group BV, PO Box 160, 5520 AD, Eersel, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.04.021DOI Listing
June 2017

Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings.

PLoS One 2016 16;11(5):e0154928. Epub 2016 May 16.

Department of Animal Morphology and Physiology, Sao Paulo State University, Access road Professor Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, 14884-900, Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C), control (37.5°C), or high (39°C) temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively) from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C) was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C) and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C). The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to increased temperature during incubation is an environmental factor that can exert early-life influence on ambient temperature preference of broiler hatchlings in later life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154928PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4868306PMC
July 2017

Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

Poult Sci 2015 Dec 13;94(12):2980-8. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming treatment suggested lower environmental stress than for the abrupt light-dark transition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev276DOI Listing
December 2015

High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

PLoS One 2013 1;8(4):e59637. Epub 2013 Apr 1.

HatchTech B.V., Veenendaal, The Netherlands.

Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST) on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C) or normal (37.8°C) EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13)C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13)C]glucose administration, (13)C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13)CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C) increased (13)C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13)C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g) and 21.7 (-3.81 g) of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g) and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g) of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43%) at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059637PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613386PMC
September 2013

Perinatal flavour learning and adaptation to being weaned: all the pig needs is smell.

PLoS One 2011 19;6(10):e25318. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Perinatal flavour learning through the maternal diet is known to enhance flavour preference and acceptance of flavoured food in many species, yet still little is known about the mechanism underlying perinatal flavour learning. Previously we found positive effects of perinatal flavour learning on food intake, growth and behaviour of piglets postweaning, but no increased preference for the flavour. This suggests that flavour learning in pigs works through a reduction of weaning stress by the presence of the familiar flavour instead. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perinatal flavour learning reduces stress at weaning, and whether the effect is stronger when the familiar flavour is present in the food. Sows were offered an anethol-flavoured diet (Flavour treatment) or control diet (Control treatment) during late gestation and lactation. Flavour and Control piglets were provided with anethol either in their food (Food treatment) or in the air (Air treatment) after weaning. Preweaning and postweaning treatments did not affect food intake, preference or growth in the first two weeks postweaning but flavour treatment reduced the latency to eat (24 versus 35 hours, P = 0.02) and within-pen variation in growth (SD within-pen: 0.7 versus 1.2 kg, P<0.001). Salivary cortisol levels tended to be lower four and seven hours postweaning for Flavour piglets compared to Control piglets (4 hours: 2.5 versus 3.0 ng/ml, P = 0.05, 7 hours: 3.1 versus 3.4 ng/ml, P = 0.08). Flavour piglets played more and showed less damaging behaviours than Control piglets, indicating that the familiar flavour reduced stress around weaning. Few interaction effects were found between preweaning and postweaning treatment, and no effects of postweaning treatment. We conclude that in the newly weaned pig, perinatal flavour learning results in a reduction of stress when the familiar flavour is present, regardless of providing the flavour in the food or in the air.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0025318PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198439PMC
February 2012

An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

PLoS One 2010 Dec 29;5(12):e14445. Epub 2010 Dec 29.

Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered.

Methodology/principal Findings: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock.

Conclusions/significance: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014445PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3012052PMC
December 2010

Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

Biol Lett 2011 Feb 16;7(1):19-22. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Marijkeweg 40, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2010.0430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030865PMC
February 2011

Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets.

Physiol Behav 2010 Apr 4;99(5):579-86. Epub 2010 Feb 4.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Marijkeweg 40, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently show a period of anorexia, reduced health, and stress-induced behaviors. We investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure through the maternal diet on acceptance of a similarly flavored food and subsequent growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. Sows were offered anise-flavored (F) or control (C) food during late gestation. Piglets were cross-fostered after birth, with each sow fostering 5 piglets from an F sow and 5 from a C sow. During lactation, sows were offered F or C food, resulting in FF, CF, FC and CC piglets. Piglets were weaned on day 25 and were given both control and flavored food for two weeks using a double food choice approach. The flavored food was not preferred. Yet, prenatally exposed animals showed a higher food intake and a higher body weight in the first days after weaning, and a lower occurrence of diarrhoea than non-exposed piglets. Prenatal exposure also increased the latency to fight, and reduced oral manipulation of pen mates and mounting during the first two weeks after weaning. Prenatal exposure, but not postnatal exposure alone, to anisic flavor through the maternal diet reduced weaning-associated problems in piglets and enhanced their health and welfare in the period after weaning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.031DOI Listing
April 2010

Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

Chem Senses 2009 Nov 8;34(9):775-87. Epub 2009 Oct 8.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Marijkeweg 40, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjp063DOI Listing
November 2009

Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle.

Reprod Nutr Dev 2005 Nov-Dec;45(6):665-88

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3 products required for milk production. This review compares studies which manipulated dietary energy source and shows that dietary energy source can affect the balance of the C2/C3 ratio, as indicated by plasma NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose levels. It is shown that glycogenic nutrients increase glucose and insulin concentrations and decrease NEFA and BHBA plasma levels. Extra lipogenic nutrients elevate NEFA and BHBA and decrease plasma glucose concentrations. Lipogenic nutrients generally increase milk fat percentage and decrease milk protein percentage, suggesting a surplus of C2 compounds. The inverse is the case for feeding extra glycogenic nutrients, implying reduced deamination and oxidation of glycogenic amino acids. Feeding extra glycogenic nutrients improved the energy balance (EB), in contrast to ambiguous results of lipogenic nutrients on EB. Moreover, glycogenic feed may reduce the severity of ketosis and fatty liver, but increased the incidence of (sub)clinical acidosis. Since studies are scarce, it seems difficult to draw conclusions on the effects of dietary energy source on reproduction. However, lipogenic nutrients decrease glucose and increase NEFA and BHBA plasma levels. High plasma NEFA and BHBA and low plasma glucose levels are associated with decreased reproductive performance, which might imply the C2/C3 compound balance to be important for reproductive function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2005059DOI Listing
January 2006
-->