Publications by authors named "Henry Hing Cheong Lee"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Relevance in γ-Aminobutyric Acid Plasticity.

J Child Neurol 2021 Feb 24:883073821993000. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

FM Kirby Neurobiology Center, 1862Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD) is a rare inborn metabolic disorder caused by the functional impairment of SSADH (encoded by the gene), an enzyme essential for metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In SSADHD, pathologic accumulation of GABA and its metabolite γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) results in broad spectrum encephalopathy including developmental delay, ataxia, seizures, and a heightened risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Proof-of-concept systemic SSADH restoration via enzyme replacement therapy increased survival of SSADH knockout mice, suggesting that SSADH restoration might be a viable intervention for SSADHD. However, before testing enzyme replacement therapy or gene therapy in patients, we must consider its safety and feasibility in the context of early brain development and unique SSADHD pathophysiology. Specifically, a profound use-dependent downregulation of GABA receptors in SSADHD indicates a risk that any sudden SSADH restoration might diminish GABAergic tone and provoke seizures. In addition, the tight developmental regulation of GABA circuit plasticity might limit the age window when SSADH restoration is accomplished safely. Moreover, given SSADH expressions are cell type-specific, targeted instead of global restoration might be necessary. We therefore describe 3 key parameters for the clinical readiness of SSADH restoration: (1) rate, (2) timing, and (3) cell type specificity. Our work focuses on the construction of a novel SSADHD mouse model that allows "on-demand" SSADH restoration for the systematic investigation of these key parameters. We aim to understand the impacts of specific SSADH restoration protocols on brain physiology, accelerating bench-to-bedside development of enzyme replacement therapy or gene therapy for SSADHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073821993000DOI Listing
February 2021

Increase in Seizure Susceptibility After Repetitive Concussion Results from Oxidative Stress, Parvalbumin-Positive Interneuron Dysfunction and Biphasic Increases in Glutamate/GABA Ratio.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Nov;30(12):6108-6120

F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Department of Neurology.

Chronic symptoms indicating excess cortical excitability follow mild traumatic brain injury, particularly repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI). Yet mechanisms underlying post-traumatic excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio abnormalities may differ between the early and late post-traumatic phases. We therefore measured seizure threshold and cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) concentrations, 1 and 6 weeks after rmTBI in mice. We also analyzed the structure of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVIs), their perineuronal nets (PNNs), and their electroencephalography (EEG) signature (gamma frequency band power). For mechanistic insight, we measured cortical oxidative stress, reflected in the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. We found that seizure susceptibility increased both early and late after rmTBI. However, whereas increased Glu dominated the E/I 1 week after rmTBI, Glu concentration normalized and the E/I was instead characterized by depressed GABA, reduced per-PVI parvalbumin expression, and reduced gamma EEG power at the 6-week post-rmTBI time point. Oxidative stress was increased early after rmTBI, where transient PNN degradation was noted, and progressed throughout the monitoring period. We conclude that GSH depletion, perhaps triggered by early Glu-mediated excitotoxicity, leads to late post-rmTBI loss of PVI-dependent cortical inhibitory tone. We thus propose dampening of Glu signaling, maintenance of redox state, and preservation of PVI inhibitory capacity as therapeutic targets for post-rmTBI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa157DOI Listing
November 2020

Trajectory of Parvalbumin Cell Impairment and Loss of Cortical Inhibition in Traumatic Brain Injury.

Cereb Cortex 2017 12;27(12):5509-5524

Neuromodulation Program, Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats. ppTMS revealed a progressive loss of cortical inhibition as early as 2 weeks after FPI. This profile paralleled the increasing levels of cortical oxidative stress, which was accompanied by a gradual loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in perilesional cortex. Preceding the PV loss, we identified a degradation of the perineuronal net (PNN)-a specialized extracellular structure enwrapping cortical PV-positive (PV+) inhibitory interneurons which binds the PV+ cell maintenance factor, Otx2. The trajectory of these impairments underlies the reduced inhibitory tone, which can contribute to posttraumatic neurological conditions, such as PTE. Taken together, our results highlight the use of ppTMS as a biomarker to track the course of cortical inhibitory dysfunction post-TBI. Moreover, the neuroprotective role of PNNs on PV+ cell function suggests antioxidant treatment or Otx2 enhancement as a promising prophylaxis for post-TBI symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075565PMC
December 2017

Restoration of Visual Function by Enhancing Conduction in Regenerated Axons.

Cell 2016 Jan;164(1-2):219-232

F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Although a number of repair strategies have been shown to promote axon outgrowth following neuronal injury in the mammalian CNS, it remains unclear whether regenerated axons establish functional synapses and support behavior. Here, in both juvenile and adult mice, we show that either PTEN and SOCS3 co-deletion, or co-overexpression of osteopontin (OPN)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), induces regrowth of retinal axons and formation of functional synapses in the superior colliculus (SC) but not significant recovery of visual function. Further analyses suggest that regenerated axons fail to conduct action potentials from the eye to the SC due to lack of myelination. Consistent with this idea, administration of voltage-gated potassium channel blockers restores conduction and results in increased visual acuity. Thus, enhancing both regeneration and conduction effectively improves function after retinal axon injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863988PMC
January 2016