Publications by authors named "Henry Amrhein"

10 Publications

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The changing mouse embryo transcriptome at whole tissue and single-cell resolution.

Nature 2020 07 29;583(7818):760-767. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

During mammalian embryogenesis, differential gene expression gradually builds the identity and complexity of each tissue and organ system. Here we systematically quantified mouse polyA-RNA from day 10.5 of embryonic development to birth, sampling 17 tissues and organs. The resulting developmental transcriptome is globally structured by dynamic cytodifferentiation, body-axis and cell-proliferation gene sets that were further characterized by the transcription factor motif codes of their promoters. We decomposed the tissue-level transcriptome using single-cell RNA-seq (sequencing of RNA reverse transcribed into cDNA) and found that neurogenesis and haematopoiesis dominate at both the gene and cellular levels, jointly accounting for one-third of differential gene expression and more than 40% of identified cell types. By integrating promoter sequence motifs with companion ENCODE epigenomic profiles, we identified a prominent promoter de-repression mechanism in neuronal expression clusters that was attributable to known and novel repressors. Focusing on the developing limb, single-cell RNA data identified 25 candidate cell types that included progenitor and differentiating states with computationally inferred lineage relationships. We extracted cell-type transcription factor networks and complementary sets of candidate enhancer elements by using single-cell RNA-seq to decompose integrative cis-element (IDEAS) models that were derived from whole-tissue epigenome chromatin data. These ENCODE reference data, computed network components and IDEAS chromatin segmentations are companion resources to the matching epigenomic developmental matrix, and are available for researchers to further mine and integrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2536-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410830PMC
July 2020

Spatiotemporal DNA methylome dynamics of the developing mouse fetus.

Nature 2020 07 29;583(7818):752-759. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Cytosine DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development but understanding of its spatiotemporal distribution in the developing embryo remains limited. Here, as part of the mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, we profiled 168 methylomes from 12 mouse tissues or organs at 9 developmental stages from embryogenesis to adulthood. We identified 1,808,810 genomic regions that showed variations in CG methylation by comparing the methylomes of different tissues or organs from different developmental stages. These DNA elements predominantly lose CG methylation during fetal development, whereas the trend is reversed after birth. During late stages of fetal development, non-CG methylation accumulated within the bodies of key developmental transcription factor genes, coinciding with their transcriptional repression. Integration of genome-wide DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin accessibility data enabled us to predict 461,141 putative developmental tissue-specific enhancers, the human orthologues of which were enriched for disease-associated genetic variants. These spatiotemporal epigenome maps provide a resource for studies of gene regulation during tissue or organ progression, and a starting point for investigating regulatory elements that are involved in human developmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2119-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398276PMC
July 2020

An atlas of dynamic chromatin landscapes in mouse fetal development.

Nature 2020 07 29;583(7818):744-751. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Center for Epigenomics, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has established a genomic resource for mammalian development, profiling a diverse panel of mouse tissues at 8 developmental stages from 10.5 days after conception until birth, including transcriptomes, methylomes and chromatin states. Here we systematically examined the state and accessibility of chromatin in the developing mouse fetus. In total we performed 1,128 chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (ChIP-seq) assays for histone modifications and 132 assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) assays for chromatin accessibility across 72 distinct tissue-stages. We used integrative analysis to develop a unified set of chromatin state annotations, infer the identities of dynamic enhancers and key transcriptional regulators, and characterize the relationship between chromatin state and accessibility during developmental gene regulation. We also leveraged these data to link enhancers to putative target genes and demonstrate tissue-specific enrichments of sequence variants associated with disease in humans. The mouse ENCODE data sets provide a compendium of resources for biomedical researchers and achieve, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive view of chromatin dynamics during mammalian fetal development to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2093-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398618PMC
July 2020

A Developmental Program Truncates Long Transcripts to Temporally Regulate Cell Signaling.

Dev Cell 2018 12;47(6):773-784.e6

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Electronic address:

Rapid mitotic divisions and a fixed transcription rate limit the maximal length of transcripts in early Drosophila embryos. Previous studies suggested that transcription of long genes is initiated but aborted, as early nuclear divisions have short interphases. Here, we identify long genes that are expressed during short nuclear cycles as truncated transcripts. The RNA binding protein Sex-lethal physically associates with transcripts for these genes and is required to support early termination to specify shorter transcript isoforms in early embryos of both sexes. In addition, one truncated transcript for the gene short-gastrulation encodes a product in embryos that functionally relates to a previously characterized dominant-negative form, which maintains TGF-β signaling in the off-state. In summary, our results reveal a developmental program of short transcripts functioning to help temporally regulate Drosophila embryonic development, keeping cell signaling at early stages to a minimum in order to support its proper initiation at cellularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2018.11.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506262PMC
December 2018

Identification of Genes Uniquely Expressed in the Germ-Line Tissues of the Jewel Wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

G3 (Bethesda) 2015 Oct 13;5(12):2647-53. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside Center for Disease Vector Research, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521

The jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a rising model organism for the study of haplo-diploid reproduction characteristic of hymenopteran insects, which include all wasps, bees, and ants. We performed transcriptional profiling of the ovary, the female soma, and the male soma of N. vitripennis to complement a previously existing transcriptome of the wasp testis. These data were deposited into an open-access genome browser for visualization of transcripts relative to their gene models. We used these data to identify the assemblies of genes uniquely expressed in the germ-line tissues. We found that 156 protein-coding genes are expressed exclusively in the wasp testis compared with only 22 in the ovary. Of the testis-specific genes, eight are candidates for male-specific DNA packaging proteins known as protamines. We found very similar expression patterns of centrosome associated genes in the testis and ovary, arguing that de novo centrosome formation, a key process for development of unfertilized eggs into males, likely does not rely on large-scale transcriptional differences between these tissues. In contrast, a number of meiosis-related genes show a bias toward testis-specific expression, despite the lack of true meiosis in N. vitripennis males. These patterns may reflect an unexpected complexity of male gamete production in the haploid males of this organism. Broadly, these data add to the growing number of genomic and genetic tools available in N. vitripennis for addressing important biological questions in this rising insect model organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.115.021386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683638PMC
October 2015

A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome.

Nature 2014 Nov;515(7527):355-64

Bioinformatics and Genomics, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and UPF, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266106PMC
November 2014

The developmental transcriptome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, an invasive species and major arbovirus vector.

G3 (Bethesda) 2013 Sep 4;3(9):1493-509. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Division of Biology, MC 156-29, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125.

Mosquitoes are vectors of a number of important human and animal diseases. The development of novel vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of mosquito biology. To facilitate this, we used RNA-seq to identify novel genes and provide the first high-resolution view of the transcriptome throughout development and in response to blood feeding in a mosquito vector of human disease, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for Dengue and yellow fever. We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. We identify a total of 14,238 novel new transcribed regions corresponding to 12,597 new loci, as well as many novel transcript isoforms of previously annotated genes. Altogether these results increase the annotated fraction of the transcribed genome into long polyA+ RNAs by more than twofold. We also identified a number of patterns of shared gene expression, as well as genes and/or exons expressed sex-specifically or sex-differentially. Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes-specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. Genes of potential interest for transgene-based vector control strategies also are highlighted. Our data have been incorporated into a user-friendly genome browser located at www.Aedes.caltech.edu, with relevant links to Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.113.006742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755910PMC
September 2013

An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

Genome Biol 2012 Aug 13;13(8):418. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2012-13-8-418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491367PMC
August 2012
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