Publications by authors named "Henrique Tria Bianco"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Performance of the Electrocardiogram in the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Older and Very Older Hypertensive Patients.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP - Brasil.

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important cardiovascular risk factor, regardless of arterial hypertension. Despite the evolution of imaging tests, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is still the most used in the initial evaluation, however, with low sensitivity.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of the main electrocardiographic criteria for LVH in elderly and very elderly hypertensive individuals.

Methods: In a cohort of hypertensive patients, ECGs and doppler echocardiographies (ECHO) were performed and separated into three age groups: <60 years, Group I; 60-79 years Group II; and ≥80 years, Group III. The most used electrocardiographic criteria were applied for the diagnosis of LVH: Perugia; Pegaro-Lo Presti; Gubner-Ungerleider; Narita; (Rm+Sm) x duration; Cornell voltage; Cornell voltage duration; Sokolow-Lyon voltage; R of aVL ≥11 mm; RaVL duration. In evaluating the performance of these criteria, in addition to sensitivity (Sen) and specificity (Esp), the "Diagnostic Odds Ratios" (DOR) were analyzed. We considered p-value <0.05 for the analyses, with two-tailed tests.

Results: In 2,458 patients, LVH was present by ECHO in 781 (31.7%). In Groups I and II, the best performances were for the criteria of Narita, Perugia, (Rm+Sm) x duration, with no statistical differences between them. In Group III (very elderly) the Perugia criteria and (Rm+Sm) x duration had the best performances: Perugia [44,7/89.3; (Sen/Esp)] and (Rm+Sm) duration [39.4%/91.3%; (Sen/Esp), p<0.05)], with the best PAIN results:6.8. This suggests that in this very elderly population, these criteria have greater discriminatory power to separate patients with LVH.

Conclusion: In very elderly hypertensive patients, the Perugia electrocardiographic criteria and (Rm+Sm) x duration showed the best diagnostic performance for LVH.
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August 2021

Accuracy of Post-thrombolysis ST-segment Reduction as an Adequate Reperfusion Predictor in the Pharmaco-Invasive Approach.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 07;117(1):15-25

Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, SP - Brasil.

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the "gold standard" for coronary reperfusion. However, when not available, the drug-invasive strategy is an alternative method and the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to identify reperfusion success.

Objectives: Our study aimed to assess ST-Segment changes in post-thrombolysis and their power to predict recanalization and using the angiographic scores TIMI-flow and Myocardial Blush Grade (MBG) as an ideal reperfusion criterion.

Methods: 2,215 patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing fibrinolysis [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] and referred to coronary angiography within 24 h post-fibrinolysis or immediately referred to rescue therapy were studied. The ECG was performed pre- and 60 min-post-TNK. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with ideal reperfusion (TIMI-3 and MBG-3) and those with inadequate reperfusion (TIMI and MBG <3). The ECG reperfusion criterion was defined by the reduction of the ST-Segment >50%. A p-value <0.05 was considered for the analyses, with bicaudal tests.

Results: The ECG reperfusion criterion showed a positive predictive value of 56%; negative predictive value of 66%; sensitivity of 79%; and specificity of 40%. There was a weak positive correlation between ST-Segment reduction and ideal reperfusion angiographic data (r = 0.21; p <0.001) and low diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.60 (95%CI: 0.57-0.62).

Conclusion: The ST-Segment reduction was not able to accurately identify patients with adequate angiographic reperfusion. Therefore, even patients with apparently successful reperfusion should be referred to angiography soon, to ensure adequate macro and microvascular coronary flow.
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July 2021

Early Changes in Circulating Interleukins and Residual Inflammatory Risk After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2020 12;115(6):1104-1111

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP - Brasil.

Background: Patients with acute myocardial infarction may have a large infarcted area and ventricular dysfunction despite early thrombolysis and revascularization.

Objective: To investigate the behavior of circulating cytokines in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and their relationship with ventricular function.

Methods: In the BATTLE-AMI (B and T Types of Lymphocytes Evaluation in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, patients with STEMI were treated with a pharmacoinvasive strategy. The plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after 30 days. Infarcted mass and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined by 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Compared to baseline, lower levels were detected for IL-1 β (p = 0.028) and IL-18 (p < 0.0001) 30 days after STEMI, whereas higher levels were observed for IL-4 (p = 0.001) and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) at that time point. Conversely, no changes were detected for IL-6 levels (p = 0.63). The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IL-6 correlated at baseline (rho = 0.45, p < 0.0001) and 30 days after STEMI (rho = 0.29, p = 0.009). At baseline, correlation between IL-6 levels and LVEF was also observed (rho = -0.50, p = 0.004).

Conclusions: During the first month post-MI, we observed a marked improvement in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, except for IL-6. These findings suggest residual inflammatory risk. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).
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December 2020

Absence of Nocturnal Fall in Blood Pressure Detected by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Acute Chagas Disease Patients with Oral Infection.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2020 04 29;114(4):711-715. Epub 2020 May 29.

Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Background The involvement of the autonomic nervous system is one of the mechanisms proposed to explain the progression of myocardial lesion in Chagas disease. Evidences have shown changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system since the acute phase of the disease, and studies to clarify the pathophysiological and prognostic value of these changes are needed. Objetives To assess blood pressure profile by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in normotensive patients with acute Chagas disease (ACD) without apparent cardiac damage, and the influence of the infection on nocturnal blood pressure fall. Methods ABPM was performed with 54 patients with ACD and a control group composed of 54 age- and sex-matched normotensive individuals. The alpha level of significance (type I error rate) was set at 5%. Results In the total of 54 patients, 74.0% did not show nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure, 53.7% did not show nocturnal fall in diastolic blood pressure, and lack of both nocturnal fall in SBP and DBP was observed in 51.8% (*p<0.05). In 12.9% of patients, there was an increase in SBP and in 18.5% increase in DBP (p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with acute Chagas disease, a significant absence of the physiological fall in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed during sleep, and some of the patients showed nocturnal increase in these parameters. These findings suggest autonomic changes in the acute phase of Chagas disease. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(4):711-715).
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April 2020

Regional QT Interval Dispersion as an Early Predictor of Reperfusion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction after Fibrinolytic Therapy.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2019 01 17;112(1):20-29. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP - Brazil.

Background: Patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction attending primary care centers, treated with pharmaco-invasive strategy, are submitted to coronary angiography within 2-24 hours of fibrinolytic treatment. In this context, the knowledge about biomarkers of reperfusion, such as 50% ST-segment resolution is crucial.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of QT interval dispersion in addition to other classical criteria, as an early marker of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy.

Methods: Observational study including 104 patients treated with tenecteplase (TNK), referred for a tertiary hospital. Electrocardiographic analysis consisted of measurements of the QT interval and QT dispersion in the 12 leads or in the ST-segment elevation area prior to and 60 minutes after TNK administration. All patients underwent angiography, with determination of TIMI flow and Blush grade in the culprit artery. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: We found an increase in regional dispersion of the QT interval, corrected for heart rate (regional QTcD) 60 minutes after thrombolysis (p = 0.06) in anterior wall infarction in patients with TIMI flow 3 and Blush grade 3 [T3B3(+)]. When regional QTcD was added to the electrocardiographic criteria for reperfusion (i.e., > 50% ST-segment resolution), the area under the curve increased to 0.87 [(0.78-0.96). 95% IC. p < 0.001] in patients with coronary flow of T3B3(+). In patients with ST-segment resolution >50% and regional QTcD > 13 ms, we found a 93% sensitivity and 71% specificity for reperfusion in T3B3(+), and 6% of patients with successful reperfusion were reclassified.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that regional QTcD is a promising non-invasive instrument for detection of reperfusion in the culprit artery 60 minutes after thrombolysis.
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January 2019

Behavior of Blood Pressure Variables in Children and Adolescents with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2018 Jun;110(6):551-557

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP - Brazil.

Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-chromosome-linked genetic disorder (locus Xp21). Involvement of the cardiovascular system is characterized by fibrous degeneration/replacement of myocytes with consequent ventricular hypertrophy and arterial hypertension.

Objective: To assess, by using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the behavior of blood pressure variables in children and adolescents with a confirmed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Prospective observational cohort study, which selected 46 patients followed up on an outpatient basis, divided according to age groups. Blood pressure was classified according to the age percentile. The monitoring interpretation includes systolic and diastolic blood pressure means, systolic and diastolic blood pressure loads, and nocturnal dipping. The blood pressure means were calculated for the 24-hour, wakefulness and sleep periods. Nocturnal dipping was defined as a drop in blood pressure means during sleep greater than 10%. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05.

Results: Nocturnal dipping for systolic blood pressure was present in 29.9% of the participants. Approximately 53% of them had attenuated nocturnal dipping, and 15%, reverse nocturnal dipping. The age groups of 9-11 years and 6-8 years had the greatest percentage of attenuation, 19.1% and 14.9%, respectively. Regarding diastolic blood pressure, nocturnal dipping was identified in 53.2% of the children, being extreme in 27.7% of those in the age group of 6-11 years.

Conclusions: The early diagnosis of blood pressure changes can allow the appropriate and specific therapy, aimed at increasing the life expectancy of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
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June 2018

Association of Multiple Genetic Variants with the Extension and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2018 Jan 1;110(1):16-23. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP - Brazil.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition that, when associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular events, can be influenced by genetic variants and determine more severe coronary atherosclerosis.

Objectives: To examine the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the extension and severity of coronary disease in subjects with MS and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: Patients (n = 116, 68% males) aged 56 (9) years, with criteria for MS, were prospectively enrolled to the study during the hospitalization period after an ACS. Clinical and laboratory parameters, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, adiponectin, endothelial function, and the Gensini score were assessed. Polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), methylenotetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, followed by the identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP, and a genetic score was calculated. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used, as appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Polymorphisms of PON-1, MTHFR and ENOS were not in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The DD genotype of LPL was associated with higher severity and greater extension of coronary lesions. Genetic score tended to be higher in patients with Gensini score < P50 (13.7 ± 1.5 vs. 13.0 ± 1.6, p = 0.066), with an inverse correlation between genetic and Gensini scores (R = -0.194, p = 0.078).

Conclusions: The LPL polymorphism contributed to the severity of coronary disease in patients with MS and recent ACS. Combined polymorphisms were associated with the extension of coronary disease, and the lower the genetic score the more severe the disease.
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January 2018

Brazilian guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes: a position statement from the Brazilian Diabetes Society (SBD), the Brazilian Cardiology Society (SBC) and the Brazilian Endocrinology and Metabolism Society (SBEM).

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 14;9:53. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 44, São Paulo, SP 05403-000 Brazil.

Background: Since the first position statement on diabetes and cardiovascular prevention published in 2014 by the Brazilian Diabetes Society, the current view on primary and secondary prevention in diabetes has evolved as a result of new approaches on cardiovascular risk stratification, new cholesterol lowering drugs, and new anti-hyperglycemic drugs. Importantly, a pattern of risk heterogeneity has emerged, showing that not all diabetic patients are at high or very high risk. In fact, most younger patients who have no overt cardiovascular risk factors may be more adequately classified as being at intermediate or even low cardiovascular risk. Thus, there is a need for cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with diabetes. The present panel reviews the best current evidence and proposes a practical risk-based approach on treatment for patients with diabetes.

Main Body: The Brazilian Diabetes Society, the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, and the Brazilian Endocrinology and Metabolism Society gathered to form an expert panel including 28 cardiologists and endocrinologists to review the best available evidence and to draft up-to-date an evidence-based guideline with practical recommendations for risk stratification and prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. The guideline includes 59 recommendations covering: (1) the impact of new anti-hyperglycemic drugs and new lipid lowering drugs on cardiovascular risk; (2) a guide to statin use, including new definitions of LDL-cholesterol and in non-HDL-cholesterol targets; (3) evaluation of silent myocardial ischemia and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes; (4) hypertension treatment; and (5) the use of antiplatelet therapy.

Conclusions: Diabetes is a heterogeneous disease. Although cardiovascular risk is increased in most patients, those without risk factors or evidence of sub-clinical atherosclerosis are at a lower risk. Optimal management must rely on an approach that will cover both cardiovascular disease prevention in individuals in the highest risk as well as protection from overtreatment in those at lower risk. Thus, cardiovascular prevention strategies should be individualized according to cardiovascular risk while intensification of treatment should focus on those at higher risk.
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July 2017

Electrocardiogram Performance in the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2017 Jan 19;108(1):47-52. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events, and its detection usually begins with an electrocardiogram (ECG).

Objective: To evaluate the impact of complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) in hypertensive patients in the diagnostic performance of LVH by ECG.

Methods: A total of 2,240 hypertensive patients were studied. All of them were submitted to an ECG and an echocardiogram (ECHO). We evaluated the most frequently used electrocardiographic criteria for LVH diagnosis: Cornell voltage, Cornell voltage product, Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Sokolow-Lyon product, RaVL, RaVL+SV3, RV6/RV5 ratio, strain pattern, left atrial enlargement, and QT interval. LVH identification pattern was the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) obtained by ECHO in all participants.

Results: Mean age was 11.3 years ± 58.7 years, 684 (30.5%) were male and 1,556 (69.5%) were female. In patients without CLBBB, ECG sensitivity to the presence of LVH varied between 7.6 and 40.9%, and specificity varied between 70.2% and 99.2%. In participants with CLBBB, sensitivity to LVH varied between 11.9 and 95.2%, and specificity between 6.6 and 96.6%. Among the criteria with the best performance for LVH with CLBBB, Sokolow-Lyon, for a voltage of ≥ 3,0mV, stood out with a sensitivity of 22.2% (CI 95% 15.8 - 30.8) and specificity of 88.3% (CI 95% 77.8 - 94.2).

Conclusion: In hypertensive patients with CLBBB, the most often used criteria for the detection of LVH with ECG showed significant decrease in performance with regards to sensitivity and specificity. In this scenario, Sokolow-Lyon criteria with voltage ≥3,0mV presented the best performance.
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January 2017

Effects of High-Intensity Training of Professional Runners on Myocardial Hypertrophy and Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(11):e0166009. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Cardiology Division, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

To evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to high-intensity training among professional runners on cardiac hypertrophy and subclinical atherosclerosis. Prospective study included runners of both sexes (n = 52) and age and gender matched controls (n = 57), without classical cardiovascular risk factors. Ventricular hypertrophy was quantified by echocardiography by linear method and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by 2-D images obtained by ultrasonography. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Steroid hormones were quantified by HPLC followed by LC-MS/MS. Higher left ventricular (LV) mass index was found in male athletes (p<0.0001 vs. other groups). When adjusted for gender, the degree of left ventricular mass index classified as mildly, moderately or severely abnormal was obtained in 26%, 35%, and 30%, respectively, of female athletes, and in 39%, 14%, and 21%, respectively, of male athletes. Higher ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities was found in athletes of both genders. Male athletes presented lower cIMT in the right (p = 0.012 vs. male controls) and left (p<0.0001 vs. male controls) common carotid arteries, without differences in cIMT between female athletes and controls. FMD results were similar among groups. Higher serum testosterone levels were found in male athletes (p<0.0001 vs. other groups) and they were correlated with LV mass (r = 0.50, p<0.0001). The chronic exposure of high-intensity training among professional runners of both genders was associated with increased ventricular mass and adaptive remodeling. Less subclinical atherosclerosis was found in male athletes. Differences in steroid hormones may account in part for these findings.
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June 2017

Relevance of target-organ lesions as predictors of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2014 Oct 1;103(4):272-81. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Patients with diabetes are in extract higher risk for fatal cardiovascular events.

Objective: To evaluate major predictors of mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A cohort of 323 individuals with type 2 diabetes from several regions of Brazil was followed for a long period. Baseline electrocardiograms, clinical and laboratory data obtained were used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and confidence interval (CI) related to cardiovascular and total mortality.

Results: After 9.2 years of follow-up (median), 33 subjects died (17 from cardiovascular causes). Cardiovascular mortality was associated with male gender; smoking; prior myocardial infarction; long QTc interval; left ventricular hypertrophy; and eGFR <60 mL/min. These factors, in addition to obesity, were predictors of total mortality. Cardiovascular mortality was adjusted for age and gender, but remained associated with: smoking (HR = 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.8; p = 0.019); prior myocardial infarction (HR = 8.5; 95% CI 1.8-39.9; p = 0.007); eGFR < 60 mL/min (HR = 9.5; 95% CI 2.7-33.7; p = 0.001); long QTc interval (HR = 5.1; 95% CI 1.7-15.2; p = 0.004); and left ventricular hypertrophy (HR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.7; p = 0.002). Total mortality was associated with obesity (HR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-5.1; p = 0.030); smoking (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-6.1; p = 0.046); prior myocardial infarction (HR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.4-6.1; p = 0.005), and long QTc interval (HR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.4-6.1; p = 0.017).

Conclusions: Biomarkers of simple measurement, particularly those related to target-organ lesions, were predictors of mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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October 2014

Effects of ezetimibe on endothelial progenitor cells and microparticles in high-risk patients.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2014 Sep;70(1):687-96

Lipids, Atherosclerosis and Vascular Biology Section, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 276, São Paulo, SP, 04039030, Brazil.

Imbalance on endothelial turnover can predict cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed at evaluating the effects of lipid-modifying therapies on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and platelet microparticles (PMPs) in high cardiovascular risk subjects with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty-three individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk equivalent on stable statin therapy, with LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dL and CRP ≥ 2.0 mg/L were selected. After a 4-week run-in period with atorvastatin 10 mg, those with persistent CRP ≥ 2.0 mg/L were randomized to another 4-week treatment period with atorvastatin 40 mg, ezetimibe 10 mg or atorvastatin 40 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg. EPC (CD34(+)/CD133(+)/KDR(+)), EMP (CD51(+)), and PMP (CD42(+)/CD31(+)) were quantified by flow cytometry. Atorvastatin 40 mg and atorvastatin 40 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg reduced LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001, paired T test, vs. baseline). Combined therapy, but not ezetimibe reduced CRP. CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPC were reduced after ezetimibe alone (P = 0.011 vs. baseline, Wilcoxon test) or combined with atorvastatin (P = 0.016 vs. baseline, Wilcoxon test). In addition, ezetimibe increased CD51(+) EMP (P = 0.017 vs. baseline, Wilcoxon test). No correlations between these markers and LDL-cholesterol or CRP were observed. These results contribute to understand the link between inflammation and vascular homeostasis and highlight the broader benefit of statins decreasing inflammation and preventing microparticles release, an effect not observed with ezetimibe alone.
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September 2014