Publications by authors named "Henrique Girão"

79 Publications

MYOC Gene Sequencing Analysis in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients from the Centre Region of Portugal.

Acta Med Port 2020 Dec 3. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR). Faculty of Medicine. University of Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal.

Introduction: Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most frequent subtype of glaucoma. Relatives of primary open-angle glaucoma patients have an increased risk of developing the disease, suggesting a genetic predisposition to the disease. MYOC was the first primary open-angle glaucoma-causing gene identified. This study aimed to identify sequence variations in the MYOC gene that may be responsible for the phenotype in a group of primary open-angle glaucoma patients from the Centre Region of Portugal.

Material And Methods: The three coding exons and the proximal splicing junctions of the MYOC gene were studied using a PCR sequencing approach in a group of 99 primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

Results: The sequencing analysis enabled the identification of 20 variants, including four in the promoter region, seven in the introns and nine in exons one and three, of which four were missense variants.

Discussion: Initially, all four missense sequence variations identified were considered candidates to glaucoma causing disease mutations. However, after literature review, only variant c.1334C>T (Ala445Val) remained as likely responsible for mild late-onset normal tension glaucoma.

Conclusion: This is the first study performed in a group of primary open-angle glaucoma patients from the Centre Region of Portugal, contributing to the identification of one genetic variant in the MYOC gene and reinforcing the hypothesis that normal tension glaucoma could be also due to MYOC gene mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20344/amp.14922DOI Listing
December 2020

A novel cardioprotective strategy targeting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production independent of antioxidant activity.

Rev Port Cardiol 2021 Apr 26;40(4):283-284. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

University of Coimbra, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Coimbra, Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), Coimbra, Portugal; Clinical Academic Centre of Coimbra (CACC), Coimbra, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2021.02.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio 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Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Micro-RNA Analysis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Current Knowledge and Challenges.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2020 Nov 23;5(11):1149-1162. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

University of Coimbra, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, chronic disease of the pulmonary vasculature that is associated with poor outcomes. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes micro-RNA (miRNA) deregulation. The understanding of the role of miRNAs in PAH is expanding quickly, and it is increasingly difficult to identify which miRNAs have the highest translational potential. This review summarizes the current knowledge of miRNA expression in PAH, discusses the challenges in miRNA analysis and interpretation, and highlights 4 promising miRNAs in this field (miR-29, miR-124, miR-140, and miR-204).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691282PMC
November 2020

Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Diffusion of MTA Cement into the Root Canal Dentin.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 1;13(23). Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal.

(1) Aim: This study aims to analyze the in vitro infiltration of a silicate root canal sealer into dentinal tubules after using different endodontic irrigating solutions. (2) Methods: Twenty-nine teeth with single roots were separated into three groups according to the final irrigation protocol: G1 = 10) = 17% EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) + 3.0% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2 ( = 10) = 17% EDTA + 2.0% chlorhexidine and G3 (Control group, = 9) = 17% EDTA + saline solution. Root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction technique with MTA Fillapex sealer and gutta-percha. The sealer was labeled with rhodamine B. The teeth were segmented at the middle and third apical sections, which were visualized using 10× confocal laser microscopy to determine the sealer penetration percentage. (3) Results: In the apical section, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding sealer penetration. In the middle section, Group 1 obtained the highest percentage, and Group 2 the lowest ( = 0.004). Group 1 also presented statistically significant differences in the Control Group ( = 0.031) and had close sealer penetration values. Meanwhile, the Control Group ( = 0.023) and Group 2 ( = 0.029) revealed a significant decrease of sealer penetration between the apical and middle sections. (4) Conclusion: The obtained results support that final irrigation with NaOCl promoted similar sealer penetration in the apical and middle sections. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the sealer penetration of the middle section was observed for the chlorhexidine and saline groups. Compared to other irrigant solutions, NaOCl promotes more uniform sealer penetration, which can correlate with better sealing and, consequently, higher endodontic treatment success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13235472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730380PMC
December 2020

Intercellular Communication in the Heart: Therapeutic Opportunities for Cardiac Ischemia.

Trends Mol Med 2021 Mar 30;27(3):248-262. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Univ Coimbra, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal; Univ Coimbra, Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), Coimbra, Portugal; Clinical Academic Centre of Coimbra (CACC), Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

The maintenance of tissue, organ, and organism homeostasis relies on an intricate network of players and mechanisms that assist in the different forms of cell-cell communication. Myocardial infarction, following heart ischemia and reperfusion, is associated with profound changes in key processes of intercellular communication, involving gap junctions, extracellular vesicles, and tunneling nanotubes, some of which have been implicated in communication defects associated with cardiac injury, namely arrhythmogenesis and progression into heart failure. Therefore, intercellular communication players have emerged as attractive powerful therapeutic targets aimed at preserving a fine-tuned crosstalk between the different cardiac cells in order to prevent or repair some of harmful consequences of heart ischemia and reperfusion, re-establishing myocardial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.10.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Myocardial infarction affects Cx43 content of extracellular vesicles secreted by cardiomyocytes.

Life Sci Alliance 2020 12 23;3(12). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University of Coimbra, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal

Ischemic heart disease has been associated with an impairment on intercellular communication mediated by both gap junctions and extracellular vesicles. We have previously shown that connexin 43 (Cx43), the main ventricular gap junction protein, assembles into channels at the extracellular vesicle surface, mediating the release of vesicle content into target cells. Here, using a comprehensive strategy that included cell-based approaches, animal models and human patients, we demonstrate that myocardial ischemia impairs the secretion of Cx43 into circulating, intracardiac and cardiomyocyte-derived vesicles. In addition, we show that ubiquitin signals Cx43 release in basal conditions but appears to be dispensable during ischemia, suggesting an interplay between ischemia-induced Cx43 degradation and secretion. Overall, this study constitutes a step forward for the characterization of the signals and molecular players underlying vesicle protein sorting, with strong implications on long-range intercellular communication, paving the way towards the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.202000821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652393PMC
December 2020

Cx43 and Associated Cell Signaling Pathways Regulate Tunneling Nanotubes in Breast Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 29;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Patologia Molecular Translacional, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junctions that mediate the direct intercellular diffusion of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells. Cx43 displays both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties, but the mechanisms underlying these characteristics are not fully understood. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long and thin membrane projections that connect cells, facilitating the exchange of not only small molecules, but also larger proteins, organelles, bacteria, and viruses. Typically, TNTs exhibit increased formation under conditions of cellular stress and are more prominent in cancer cells, where they are generally thought to be pro-metastatic and to provide growth and survival advantages. Cx43 has been described in TNTs, where it is thought to regulate small molecule diffusion through gap junctions. Here, we developed a high-fidelity CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockout (KO) Cx43. We found that the loss of Cx43 expression was associated with significantly reduced TNT length and number in breast cancer cell lines. Notably, secreted factors present in conditioned medium stimulated TNTs more potently when derived from Cx43-expressing cells than from KO cells. Moreover, TNT formation was significantly induced by the inhibition of several key cancer signaling pathways that both regulate Cx43 and are regulated by Cx43, including RhoA kinase (ROCK), protein kinase A (PKA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and p38. Intriguingly, the drug-induced stimulation of TNTs was more potent in Cx43 KO cells than in wild-type (WT) cells. In conclusion, this work describes a novel non-canonical role for Cx43 in regulating TNTs, identifies key cancer signaling pathways that regulate TNTs in this setting, and provides mechanistic insight into a pro-tumorigenic role of Cx43 in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601615PMC
September 2020

Simple and Fast SEC-Based Protocol to Isolate Human Plasma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Transcriptional Research.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020 Sep 15;18:723-737. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures that protect RNAs from damage when circulating in complex biological fluids, such as plasma. RNAs are extremely specific to health and disease, being powerful tools for diagnosis, treatment response monitoring, and development of new therapeutic strategies for several diseases. In this context, EVs are potential sources of disease biomarkers and promising delivery vehicles. However, standardized and reproducible EV isolation protocols easy to implement in clinical practice are missing. Here, a size exclusion chromatography-based protocol for EV-isolation from human plasma was optimized. We propose a workflow to isolate EVs for transcriptional research that allows concomitant analysis of particle number and size, total protein, and quantification of a major plasma contaminant. This protocol yields 7.54 × 10 ± 1.22 × 10 particles, quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis, with a mean size of 115.7 ± 11.12 nm and a mode size of 83.13 ± 4.72 nm, in a ratio of 1.19 × 10 ± 7.38 × 10 particles/μg of protein, determined by Micro Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) Protein Assay, and 3.09 ± 0.7 ng RNA, assessed by fluorescence-based RNA-quantitation, from only 900 μL of plasma. The protocol is fast and easy to implement and has potential for application in biomarkers research, therapeutic strategies development, and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.07.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452272PMC
September 2020

Canonical and Non-Canonical Roles of Connexin43 in Cardioprotection.

Biomolecules 2020 08 23;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Since the mid-20th century, ischemic heart disease has been the world's leading cause of death. Developing effective clinical cardioprotection strategies would make a significant impact in improving both quality of life and longevity in the worldwide population. Both ex vivo and in vivo animal models of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are robustly used in research. Connexin43 (Cx43), the predominant gap junction channel-forming protein in cardiomyocytes, has emerged as a cardioprotective target. Cx43 posttranslational modifications as well as cellular distribution are altered during cardiac reperfusion injury, inducing phosphorylation states and localization detrimental to maintaining intercellular communication and cardiac conduction. Pre- (before ischemia) and post- (after ischemia but before reperfusion) conditioning can abrogate this injury process, preserving Cx43 and reducing cell death. Pre-/post-conditioning has been shown to largely rely on the presence of Cx43, including mitochondrial Cx43, which is implicated to play a major role in pre-conditioning. Posttranslational modifications of Cx43 after injury alter the protein interactome, inducing negative protein cascades and altering protein trafficking, which then causes further damage post-I/R injury. Recently, several peptides based on the Cx43 sequence have been found to successfully diminish cardiac injury in pre-clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10091225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563275PMC
August 2020

A new predictive marker of ventricular remodeling associated with aortic stenosis.

Authors:
Henrique Girão

Rev Port Cardiol 2020 07 15;39(7):389-390. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), University of Coimbra, Portugal; Clinical Academic Centre of Coimbra, CACC, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2020.06.006DOI Listing
July 2020

Exosomes derived from microglia exposed to elevated pressure amplify the neuroinflammatory response in retinal cells.

Glia 2020 12 9;68(12):2705-2724. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Glaucoma is a degenerative disease that causes irreversible loss of vision and is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Others and we have demonstrated that chronic neuroinflammation mediated by reactive microglial cells plays a role in glaucomatous pathology. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by most cells, including microglia, that mediate intercellular communication. The role of microglial exosomes in glaucomatous degeneration remains unknown. Taking the prominent role of microglial exosomes in brain neurodegenerative diseases, we studied the contribution of microglial-derived exosomes to the inflammatory response in experimental glaucoma. Microglial cells were exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure (EHP), to mimic elevated intraocular pressure, the main risk factor for glaucoma. Naïve microglia (BV-2 cells or retinal microglia) were exposed to exosomes derived from BV-2 cells under EHP conditions (BV-Exo-EHP) or cultured in control pressure (BV-Exo-Control). We found that BV-Exo-EHP increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, promoted retinal microglia motility, phagocytic efficiency, and proliferation. Furthermore, the incubation of primary retinal neural cell cultures with BV-Exo-EHP increased cell death and the production of reactive oxygen species. Exosomes derived from retinal microglia (MG-Exo-Control or MG-Exo-EHP) were injected in the vitreous of C57BL/6J mice. MG-Exo-EHP sustained activation of retinal microglia, mediated cell death, and impacted RGC number. Herein, we show that exosomes derived from retinal microglia have an autocrine function and propagate the inflammatory signal in conditions of elevated pressure, contributing to retinal degeneration in glaucomatous conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23880DOI Listing
December 2020

Mitochondrial ion channels as targets for cardioprotection.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 07 3;24(13):7102-7114. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure (HF) that often result remain the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As such, new therapeutic targets need to be discovered to protect the myocardium against acute ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in order to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size, preserve left ventricular function and prevent the onset of HF. Mitochondrial dysfunction during acute I/R injury is a critical determinant of cell death following AMI, and therefore, ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which are known to influence cell death and survival, provide potential therapeutic targets for cardioprotection. In this article, we review the role of mitochondrial ion channels, which are known to modulate susceptibility to acute myocardial I/R injury, and we explore their potential roles as therapeutic targets for reducing MI size and preventing HF following AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339171PMC
July 2020

Improving translational research in sex-specific effects of comorbidities and risk factors in ischaemic heart disease and cardioprotection: position paper and recommendations of the ESC Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Jan;117(2):367-385

Department of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Hansine Hansens veg 18, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is a complex disorder and a leading cause of death and morbidity in both men and women. Sex, however, affects several aspects of IHD, including pathophysiology, incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as treatment and outcome. Several diseases or risk factors frequently associated with IHD can modify cellular signalling cascades, thus affecting ischaemia/reperfusion injury as well as responses to cardioprotective interventions. Importantly, the prevalence and impact of risk factors and several comorbidities differ between males and females, and their effects on IHD development and prognosis might differ according to sex. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these differences are still poorly understood, and their identification might have important translational implications in the prediction or prevention of risk of IHD in men and women. Despite this, most experimental studies on IHD are still undertaken in animal models in the absence of risk factors and comorbidities, and assessment of potential sex-specific differences are largely missing. This ESC WG Position Paper will discuss: (i) the importance of sex as a biological variable in cardiovascular research, (ii) major biological mechanisms underlying sex-related differences relevant to IHD risk factors and comorbidities, (iii) prospects and pitfalls of preclinical models to investigate these associations, and finally (iv) will provide recommendations to guide future research. Although gender differences also affect IHD risk in the clinical setting, they will not be discussed in detail here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820844PMC
January 2021

Targeting mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins for cardioprotection.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 06 14;24(12):6571-6585. Epub 2020 May 14.

National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

New treatments are needed to protect the myocardium against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in order to limit myocardial infarct (MI) size, preserve cardiac function and prevent the onset of heart failure (HF). Given the critical role of mitochondria in energy production for cardiac contractile function, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction during acute myocardial IRI may provide novel cardioprotective strategies. In this regard, the mitochondrial fusion and fissions proteins, which regulate changes in mitochondrial morphology, are known to impact on mitochondrial quality control by modulating mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. In this article, we review how targeting these inter-related processes may provide novel treatment targets and new therapeutic strategies for reducing MI size, preventing the onset of HF following AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299693PMC
June 2020

Caveolin-1 Modulation Increases Efficacy of a Galacto-Conjugated Phthalocyanine in Bladder Cancer Cells Resistant to Photodynamic Therapy.

Mol Pharm 2020 06 12;17(6):2145-2154. Epub 2020 May 12.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has demonstrated encouraging anticancer therapeutic results, but the current clinically approved photosensitizers (PSs) are not ideal in the treatment of bladder cancer. Conventional PSs have low selectivity to the bladder tumor tissue and induce toxicity or bystander effects on nontumor urothelium. Previous studies demonstrated that the use of galactose-photosensitizer (PS) conjugates is a more selective method of delivering PDT-mediated toxicity due to their ability to recognize carbohydrate-binding domains overexpressed in bladder tumors. Using patient-derived bladder tumor specimens cultured and bladder cancer cell lines with different PDT sensitivity, we find that a galactose-phthalocyanine (PcGal) accumulates in bladder tumors expressing galactose-binding proteins and internalizes through an endocytic process. The endocytosis mechanism is cell line-dependent. In HT-1376 bladder cancer lines resistant to PDT, depletion of caveolin-1-the main structural protein of caveolae structures-increased the amount of sugar-binding proteins, i.e. GLUT1, at the cell membrane resulting in an improved PcGal uptake and PDT efficacy. These data show the potential of cultures of bladder cancer, that ideally could mimic the original microenvironment, in screening galacto-PDT agents. Additionally, our studies demonstrate that PDT efficacy in bladder cancer depends on the endocytic mechanisms that regulate PS accumulation and internalization in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c00298DOI Listing
June 2020

The Role of Proteostasis in the Regulation of Cardiac Intercellular Communication.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1233:279-302

Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), Clinical Academic Centre of Coimbra (CACC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Given the low mitotic activity of cardiomyocytes, the contractile unit of the heart, these cells strongly rely on efficient and highly regulated mechanisms of protein degradation to eliminate unwanted potentially toxic proteins. This is particularly important in the context of disease, where an impairment of protein quality control mechanisms underlies the onset and development of diverse cardiovascular maladies. One of the biological processes which is tightly regulated by proteolysis mechanisms is intercellular communication. The different types of cells that form the heart, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages, can communicate directly, through gap junctions (GJ) or tunneling nanotubes (TNT), or at long distances, via extracellular vesicles (EV) or soluble factors.The direct communication between cardiomyocytes is vital to ensure the anisotropic propagation of the electrical impulse, which allows the heart to beat in a coordinated and synchronized manner, as a functional syncytium. The rapid and efficient propagation of the depolarization wave is mainly conducted by low resistance channels called GJ, formed by six subunits of a family of proteins named Cxs. Dysfunctional GJ intercellular communication, due to increased degradation and/or redistribution of connexin43 (Cx43), the main Cx present in the heart, has been associated with several cardiac disorders, such as myocardial ischemia, hypertrophy, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Besides electrical coupling, a fine-tuned exchange of information, namely proteins and microRNAs, conveyed by EV is important to ensure organ function and homeostasis. Disease-induced deregulation of EV-mediated communication between cardiac cells has been implicated in diverse processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby proteolysis modulates the cross talk between cardiac cells is of utmost importance to develop new strategies to tackle diseases caused by defects in intercellular communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38266-7_12DOI Listing
April 2020

A Conserved LIR Motif in Connexins Mediates Ubiquitin-Independent Binding to LC3/GABARAP Proteins.

Cells 2020 04 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

Gap junctions (GJ) are specialized cell-cell contacts formed by connexins (Cxs), which provide direct communication between adjacent cells. Cx43 ubiquitination has been suggested to induce the internalization of GJs, as well as the recruitment of the autophagy receptor p62 to mediate binding to LC3B and degradation by macroautophagy. In this report, we describe a functional LC3 interacting region (LIR), present in the amino terminal of most Cx protein family members, which can mediate the autophagy degradation of Cx43 without the need of ubiquitin. Mutation of the LIR motif on Cx37, Cx43, Cx46 and Cx50 impairs interaction with LC3B and GABARAP without compromising protein ubiquitination. Through in vitro protein-protein interaction assays, we demonstrate that this LIR motif is required for the binding of Cx43 to LC3B and GABARAP. Overall, our findings describe an alternative mechanism whereby Cxs interact with LC3/GABARAP proteins, envisioning a new model for the autophagy degradation of connexins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9040902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226732PMC
April 2020

EHD1 Modulates Cx43 Gap Junction Remodeling Associated With Cardiac Diseases.

Circ Res 2020 05 5;126(10):e97-e113. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

From the Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine (T.M.-M., S.C., L.C., P.A., G.C., H.G.), University of Coimbra, Portugal.

Rationale: Efficient communication between heart cells is vital to ensure the anisotropic propagation of electrical impulses, a function mainly accomplished by gap junctions (GJ) composed of Cx43 (connexin 43). Although the molecular mechanisms remain unclear, altered distribution and function of gap junctions have been associated with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure.

Objective: A recent proteomic study from our laboratory identified EHD1 (Eps15 [endocytic adaptor epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15] homology domain-containing protein 1) as a novel interactor of Cx43 in the heart.

Methods And Results: In the present work, we demonstrate that knockdown of EHD1 impaired the internalization of Cx43, preserving gap junction-intercellular coupling in cardiomyocytes. Interaction of Cx43 with EHD1 was mediated by Eps15 and promoted by phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Cx43. Overexpression of wild-type EHD1 accelerated internalization of Cx43 and exacerbated ischemia-induced lateralization of Cx43 in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. In addition, we show that EHDs associate with Cx43 in human and murine failing hearts.

Conclusions: Overall, we identified EHDs as novel regulators of endocytic trafficking of Cx43, participating in the pathological remodeling of gap junctions, paving the way to innovative therapeutic strategies aiming at preserving intercellular communication in the heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316502DOI Listing
May 2020

RyR2 regulates Cx43 hemichannel intracellular Ca2+-dependent activation in cardiomyocytes.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Jan;117(1):123-136

Department of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences-Physiology Group, Ghent University, Ghent 9000, Belgium.

Aims: Connexin-based gap junctions are crucial for electrical communication in the heart; they are each composed of two docked hemichannels (HCs), supplied as unpaired channels via the sarcolemma. When open, an unpaired HC forms a large pore, high-conductance and Ca2+-permeable membrane shunt pathway that may disturb cardiomyocyte function. HCs composed of connexin 43 (Cx43), a major cardiac connexin, can be opened by electrical stimulation but only by very positive membrane potentials. Here, we investigated the activation of Cx43 HCs in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes voltage-clamped at -70 mV.

Methods And Results: Using whole-cell patch-clamp, co-immunoprecipitation, western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, proximity ligation assays, and protein docking studies, we found that stimulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) triggered unitary currents with a single-channel conductance of ∼220 pS, which were strongly reduced by Cx43 knockdown. Recordings under Ca2+-clamp conditions showed that both RyR activation and intracellular Ca2+ elevation were necessary for HC opening. Proximity ligation studies indicated close Cx43-RyR2 apposition (<40 nm), and both proteins co-immunoprecipitated indicating physical interaction. Molecular modelling suggested a strongly conserved RyR-mimicking peptide sequence (RyRHCIp), which inhibited RyR/Ca2+ HC activation but not voltage-triggered activation. The peptide also slowed down action potential repolarization. Interestingly, alterations in the concerned RyR sequence are known to be associated with primary familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that Cx43 HCs are intimately linked to RyRs, allowing them to open at negative diastolic membrane potential in response to RyR activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvz340DOI Listing
January 2021

Exosomes and STUB1/CHIP cooperate to maintain intracellular proteostasis.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(10):e0223790. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, NOVA Medical School|Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, Lisboa, Portugal.

Deregulation of proteostasis is a main feature of many age-related diseases, often leading to the accumulation of toxic oligomers and insoluble protein aggregates that accumulate intracellularly or in the extracellular space. To understand the mechanisms whereby toxic or otherwise unwanted proteins are secreted to the extracellular space, we inactivated the quality-control and proteostasis regulator ubiquitin ligase STUB1/CHIP. Data indicated that STUB1 deficiency leads both to the intracellular accumulation of protein aggregates and to an increase in the secretion of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes. Secreted sEVs are enriched in ubiquitinated and/or undegraded proteins and protein oligomers. Data also indicates that oxidative stress induces an increase in the release of sEVs in cells depleted from STUB1. Overall, the results presented here suggest that cells use exosomes to dispose of damaged and/or undegraded proteins as a means to reduce intracellular accumulation of proteotoxic material.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223790PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794069PMC
March 2020

Biological Functions of Connexin43 Beyond Intercellular Communication.

Trends Cell Biol 2019 10 26;29(10):835-847. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; CNC.IBILI, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Connexin43 (Cx43) is commonly associated with direct cell-cell communication through gap junctions (GJs). However, recent groundbreaking studies have challenged this dogma, implicating Cx43 in other biological processes, such as transcription, metabolism, autophagy, and ion channel trafficking. How Cx43 participates in these processes remains largely unknown, although its high turnover rate, capacity to bind to myriad proteins, and the discovery of truncated isoforms of Cx43, ascribe to this protein unanticipated roles in chief processes that require fine-tuned regulation. Accordingly, Cx43 can be regarded as a central integrative hub to which diverse cues converge to be processed in a concerted manner. In this review, we examine the noncanonical roles of Cx43 and discuss the implications of these functions in human diseases and future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2019.07.001DOI Listing
October 2019

Protective Effects of Phenylpropanoids and Phenylpropanoid-rich Essential Oils on the Cardiovascular System.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2019 ;19(17):1459-1471

CIEPQPF and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of global mortality with a tendency to increase due to population ageing as well as an increase in associated risk factors. Although current therapies improve survival rates, they are associated with several side effects, thus justifying the development of novel preventive and/or therapeutic approaches. In this way, plant metabolites such as essential oils have emerged as promising agents due to their biological effects.

Objective: Bearing in mind that several essential oils are characterized by high amounts of phenylpropanoids, which may play a crucial role in the activity of these volatile extracts, a comprehensive and systematic review focusing on the cardiovascular effects of phenylpropanoid-rich essential oils is presented.

Methods: Popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar were consulted and papers from 2000 onwards were selected. Non-volatile phenylpropanoids were not considered in this review.

Results: A compilation of the current knowledge on this thematic pointed out beneficial effects for volatile phenylpropanoids namely hypotensive, vasorelaxant, antiplatelet aggregation, antidyslipidaemic and antidiabetic, as well as protective properties against ischemia/reperfusion injury and heart hypertrophy.

Conclusion: A better understanding of the protective effects of phenylpropanoids on the cardiovascular system is presented, thus paving the way towards future research on plant-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557519666190620091915DOI Listing
November 2019

Circulating blood cells and extracellular vesicles in acute cardioprotection.

Cardiovasc Res 2019 06;115(7):1156-1166

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Nagyvárad tér 4, Budapest 1089, Hungary.

During an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the myocardium undergoes a prolonged period of ischaemia. Reperfusion therapy is essential to minimize cardiac injury but can paradoxically cause further damage. Experimental procedures to limit ischaemia and reperfusion (IR) injury have tended to focus on the cardiomyocytes since they are crucial for cardiac function. However, there is increasing evidence that non-cardiomyocyte resident cells in the heart (as discussed in a separate review in this Spotlight series) as well as circulating cells and factors play important roles in this pathology. For example, erythrocytes, in addition to their main oxygen-ferrying role, can protect the heart from IR injury via the export of nitric oxide bioactivity. Platelets are well-known to be involved in haemostasis and thrombosis, but beyond these roles, they secrete numerous factors including sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P), platelet activating factor, and cytokines that can all strongly influence the development of IR injury. This is particularly relevant given that most STEMI patients receive at least one type of platelet inhibitor. Moreover, there are large numbers of circulating vesicles in the blood, including microvesicles and exosomes, which can exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on IR injury. Some of these effects are mediated by the transfer of microRNA (miRNA) to the heart. Synthetic miRNA molecules may offer an alternative approach to limiting the response to IR injury. We discuss these and other circulating factors, focussing on potential therapeutic targets relevant to IR injury. Given the prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes in the target patient population, their influence will also be discussed. This article is part of a Cardiovascular Research Spotlight Issue entitled 'Cardioprotection Beyond the Cardiomyocyte', and emerged as part of the discussions of the European Union (EU)-CARDIOPROTECTION Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, CA16225.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529916PMC
June 2019

Ischaemia alters the effects of cardiomyocyte-derived extracellular vesicles on macrophage activation.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 02 4;23(2):1137-1151. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Myocardial ischaemia is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response, as well as with a deregulation of intercellular communication systems. Macrophages have been implicated in the maintenance of heart homeostasis and in the progression and resolution of the ischaemic injury. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between cardiomyocytes and macrophages remain largely underexplored. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key players of cell-cell communication in cardiac health and disease. Hence, the main objective of this study was to characterize the impact of cardiomyocyte-derived EVs upon macrophage activation. Results obtained demonstrate that EVs released by H9c2 cells induced a pro-inflammatory profile in macrophages, via p38MAPK activation and increased expression of iNOS, IL-1β and IL-6, being these effects less pronounced with ischaemic EVs. EVs derived from neonatal cardiomyocytes, maintained either in control or ischaemia, induced a similar pattern of p38MAPK activation, expression of iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα. Importantly, adhesion of macrophages to fibronectin was enhanced by EVs released by cardiomyocytes under ischaemia, whereas phagocytic capacity and adhesion to cardiomyocytes were higher in macrophages incubated with control EVs. Additionally, serum-circulating EVs isolated from human controls or acute myocardial infarction patients induce macrophage activation. According to our model, in basal conditions, cardiomyocyte-derived EVs maintain a macrophage profile that ensure heart homeostasis, whereas during ischaemia, this crosstalk is affected, likely impacting healing and post-infarction remodelling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349194PMC
February 2019

Signalling mechanisms that regulate metabolic profile and autophagy of acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 10 17;22(10):4807-4817. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) comprises a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms characterized by diverse combinations of genetic, phenotypic and clinical features representing a major challenge for the development of targeted therapies. Metabolic reprogramming, mainly driven by deregulation of the nutrient-sensing pathways as AMPK, mTOR and PI3K/AKT, has been associated with cancer cells, including AML cells, survival and proliferation. Nevertheless, the role of these metabolic adaptations on the AML pathogenesis is still controversial. In this work, the metabolic status and the respective metabolic networks operating in different AML cells (NB-4, HL-60 and KG-1) and their impact on autophagy and survival was characterized. Data show that whereas KG-1 cells exhibited preferential mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation metabolism with constitutive co-activation of AMPK and mTORC1 associated with increased autophagy, NB-4 and HL-60 cells displayed a dependent glycolytic profile mainly associated with AKT/mTORC1 activation and low autophagy flux. Inhibition of AKT is disclosed as a promising therapeutical target in some scenarios while inhibition of AMPK and mTORC1 has no major impact on KG-1 cells' survival. The results highlight an exclusive metabolic profile for each tested AML cells and its impact on determination of the anti-leukaemia efficacy and on personalized combinatory therapy with conventional and targeted agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156238PMC
October 2018

Intravascular imaging, histopathological analysis, and catecholamine quantification following catheter-based renal denervation in a swine model: the impact of prebifurcation energy delivery.

Hypertens Res 2018 Sep 13;41(9):708-717. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Cardiology Department, Coimbra's Hospital and University Centre - General Hospital, Coimbra, Portugal.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of prebifurcation renal denervation in a swine model and assess its safety through optical coherence tomography (OCT). Prebifurcation renal denervation with a multi-electrode catheter was performed in one renal artery of 12 healthy pigs, with the contralateral artery and kidney being used as controls. Angiograms and OCT pullbacks were obtained peri-procedurally and 1 month post procedure. Renal tissue catecholamines were quantified, and the arterial wall and peri-adventitial tissue were analyzed histologically. Intraluminal changes (endothelial swelling, spasm, and thrombus formation) were observed acutely by OCT in most of the treated arteries and were no longer visible at follow-up. Histology revealed a statistically significant accumulation of collagen (fibrosis) and a near absence of tyrosine hydroxylase labeling in the denervated artery, suggesting a clear reduction in nervous terminals. Renal tissue catecholamine levels were similar between both sides, probably due to the low number of ablation points and the renorenal reflex. The present study demonstrates that renal denervation is associated with acute intimal disruptions, areas of fibrosis, and a reduction in nervous terminals. The lack of difference in renal tissue catecholamine levels is indicative of the need to perform the highest and safest number of ablation points in both renal arteries. These findings are important because they demonstrate the histological consequences of radiofrequency energy application and its medium-term safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-018-0072-yDOI Listing
September 2018

Disclosing the functional changes of two genetic alterations in a patient with Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia: Report of the novel mtDNA m.7486G>A variant.

Neuromuscul Disord 2018 04 23;28(4):350-360. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

FMUC - Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is characterized by ptosis and ophthalmoplegia and is usually caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions or mt-tRNA mutations. The aim of the present work was to clarify the genetic defect in a patient presenting with CPEO and elucidate the underlying pathogenic mechanism. This 62-year-old female first developed ptosis of the right eye at the age of 12 and subsequently the left eye at 45 years, and was found to have external ophthalmoplegia at the age of 55 years. Histopathological abnormalities were detected in the patient's muscle, including ragged-red fibres, a mosaic pattern of COX-deficient muscle fibres and combined deficiency of respiratory chain complexes I and IV. Genetic investigation revealed the "common deletion" in the patient's muscle and fibroblasts. Moreover, a novel, heteroplasmic mt-tRNA variant (m.7486G>A) in the anticodon loop was detected in muscle homogenate (50%), fibroblasts (11%) and blood (4%). Single-fibre analysis showed segregation with COX-deficient fibres for both genetic alterations. Assembly defects of mtDNA-encoded complexes were demonstrated in fibroblasts. Functional analyses showed significant bioenergetic dysfunction, reduction in respiration rate and ATP production and mitochondrial depolarization. Multilamellar bodies were detected by electron microscopy, suggesting disturbance in autophagy. In conclusion, we report a CPEO patient with two possible genetic origins, both segregating with biochemical and histochemical defect. The "common mtDNA deletion" is the most likely cause, yet the potential pathogenic effect of a novel mt-tRNA variant cannot be fully excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2017.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952895PMC
April 2018

Molecular control of chaperone-mediated autophagy.

Essays Biochem 2017 12 12;61(6):663-674. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (IBILI), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective form of autophagy in which cytosolic proteins bearing a pentapeptide motif biochemically related to the KFERQ sequence, are recognized by the heat shock protein family A member 8 (HSPA8) chaperone, delivered to the lysomal membrane, and directly translocated across the lysosomal membrane by a protein complex containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a (Lamp2a). Since its discovery over two decades ago, the importance of this pathway in cell proteostasis has been made increasingly apparent. Deregulation of this pathway has been implicated in a variety of diseases and conditions, including lysosomal storage diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration and even aging. Here, we describe the main molecular features of the pathway, its regulation, cross-talk with other degradation pathways and importance in disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/EBC20170057DOI Listing
December 2017

Role of connexin 43 in different forms of intercellular communication - gap junctions, extracellular vesicles and tunnelling nanotubes.

J Cell Sci 2017 Nov 12;130(21):3619-3630. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (IBILI), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal

Communication is important to ensure the correct and efficient flow of information, which is required to sustain active social networks. A fine-tuned communication between cells is vital to maintain the homeostasis and function of multicellular or unicellular organisms in a community environment. Although there are different levels of complexity, intercellular communication, in prokaryotes to mammalians, can occur through secreted molecules (either soluble or encapsulated in vesicles), tubular structures connecting close cells or intercellular channels that link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. In mammals, these different types of communication serve different purposes, may involve distinct factors and are mediated by extracellular vesicles, tunnelling nanotubes or gap junctions. Recent studies have shown that connexin 43 (Cx43, also known as GJA1), a transmembrane protein initially described as a gap junction protein, participates in all these forms of communication; this emphasizes the concept of adopting strategies to maximize the potential of available resources by reutilizing the same factor in different scenarios. In this Review, we provide an overview of the most recent advances regarding the role of Cx43 in intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles, tunnelling nanotubes and gap junctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.200667DOI Listing
November 2017