Publications by authors named "Henrik Kylin"

47 Publications

The Wasp as a Terrestrial Indicator of Environmental Metal Composition: Evidence from Zimbabwe.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

We explored metal concentrations in wasps from 4 sites near Harare, Zimbabwe, on a 106 km west-east transect. We found elevated concentrations at 2 presumed-polluted sites (a platinum [Pt] mine and a known polluted lake) located near a metal-enriched geological feature (the Great Dyke). A site in urban Harare and a nature reserve served as reference. Only wasps from the 2 presumed-polluted sites had quantifiable Pt. For Cr, Ni, Mg, Se, Fe, Mn, and V, we report the highest concentrations in wasps yet published. Wasps from the presumed-polluted sites had significantly higher concentrations of most metals when compared with wasps from the reference sites, suggesting pollution as a source. Geology, however, differs between the sites. It is probable, therefore, that both geology and pollution contributed to the differences in metal concentrations. Because of its long and narrow dimensions (550 km long and 4-11 km wide), the Great Dyke offers opportunities for comparative studies. Because wasps form a complex part of the food web and ecology, studies on the transfer of metals to wasps' predators are needed, especially given that some birds specialize in feeding on hymenopterans. The rich diversity of wasps (>145 000 species worldwide) occupying multiple different trophic levels is a good indicator, and wasps have a rich potential to join other invertebrates as terrestrial indicators. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;00:1-14. © 2021 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5029DOI Listing
March 2021

Persistent organic pollutants in sea bird eggs from the Indian Ocean's Mascarene Basin.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 22;771:145348. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Research Unit, Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

We report the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in seabird eggs from St. Brandon's Atoll, a tropical island system in the western Indian Ocean. Ten eggs each of sooty terns (Onychoprion fuscatus), fairy terns (Gygis alba), and common noddies (Anous stolidus) were collected from the atoll. For a terrestrial reference, we analysed three feral chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) eggs from the same location. Sooty tern eggs contained the highest mean concentrations of three chemical classes: ƩCHL (0.21 ng/g wm; wet mass), ƩPCB (1.5 ng/g wm), and ƩPBDE (1.1 ng/g wm). Fairy tern eggs contained the highest mean concentrations of HCB (0.68 ng/g wm) and ƩCHB (0.83 ng/g wm). The chicken eggs contained the highest mean concentrations of ƩDDT (2.6 ng/g wm), while common noddy eggs contained the highest mean concentrations of ƩHCH (0.5 ng/g wm). We surmise that the differences in chemical composition between species reflect different pollutant compositions in prey from the bird's different foraging ranges. The sooty terns foraging offshore contained higher POPs concentrations than the nearshore-foraging common noddies. Fairy tern eggs contained intermediate concentrations, commensurate with their intermediate foraging. Inter-island differences in contaminant concentrations were seen between eggs of the common noddies from St. Brandon's Atoll and Rodrigues Island, 520 km to the south-east. Concentrations of contaminants found in this study were lower than values quantified by other studies, making St. Brandon's Atoll an ideal reference site to monitor background concentrations of POPs in the tropical Indian Ocean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145348DOI Listing
June 2021

Chlorine cycling and the fate of Cl in terrestrial environments.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 5;28(7):7691-7709. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linkoping, Sweden.

Chlorine (Cl) in the terrestrial environment is of interest from multiple perspectives, including the use of chloride as a tracer for water flow and contaminant transport, organochlorine pollutants, Cl cycling, radioactive waste (radioecology; Cl is of large concern) and plant science (Cl as essential element for living plants). During the past decades, there has been a rapid development towards improved understanding of the terrestrial Cl cycle. There is a ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems where naturally formed chlorinated organic compounds (Cl) in soil frequently exceed the abundance of chloride. Chloride dominates import and export from terrestrial ecosystems while soil Cl and biomass Cl can dominate the standing stock Cl. This has important implications for Cl transport, as chloride will enter the Cl pools resulting in prolonged residence times. Clearly, these pools must be considered separately in future monitoring programs addressing Cl cycling. Moreover, there are indications that (1) large amounts of Cl can accumulate in biomass, in some cases representing the main Cl pool; (2) emissions of volatile organic chlorines could be a significant export pathway of Cl and (3) that there is a production of Cl in tissues of, e.g. plants and animals and that Cl can accumulate as, e.g. chlorinated fatty acids in organisms. Yet, data focusing on ecosystem perspectives and combined spatiotemporal variability regarding various Cl pools are still scarce, and the processes and ecological roles of the extensive biological Cl cycling are still poorly understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12144-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854439PMC
February 2021

Temporal dynamics and ecotoxicological risk assessment of personal care products, phthalate ester plasticizers, and organophosphorus flame retardants in water from Lake Victoria, Uganda.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 28;262:127716. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany.

For the first time the occurrence of 25 organic micropollutants (OMPs) including; 11 personal care products (PCPs), six phthalate ester plasticizers (PEPs) and eight organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) was investigated in 72 water samples obtained from five bays in the Uganda sector of Lake Victoria. In addition, an assessment of the potential ecotoxic risk of the target OMPs to aquatic organisms was conducted. Water samples were analyzed for the target OMPs using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All the target PCPs were found in all the water samples with the exception of musk ketone and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. Triclosan (89-1400 ng L), benzophenone (36-1300 ng L), and 4-methylbenzylidine camphor (21-1500 ng L) were the most predominant PCPs. All the six plasticizers were found in all the water samples with dibutyl phthalate (350-16 000 ng L), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (210-23 000 ng L) detected at the highest concentrations. Five OPFRs out of the eight targeted were found in all the water samples. Tricresyl phosphate (25-8100 ng L), tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (24-6500 ng L) and triphenyl phosphate (54-4300 ng L) were the most dominant OPFRs. The highest concentrations of OMPs were recorded in Murchison and Thurston Bays, presumably due to industrial wastewater effluents from the highly industrialized localities of the two Bays. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed that PCPs (triclosan, musk ketone, and 4-MBC), plasticizers (dibutyl phthalate, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) and OPFRs (tricresyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate and tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate) pose a high ecotoxic risk to lives of aquatic organisms (risk quotients, RQ > 1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127716DOI Listing
January 2021

Impacts of a shallow shipwreck on a coral reef: A case study from St. Brandon's Atoll, Mauritius, Indian Ocean.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Apr 8;156:104916. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Shallow shipwrecks, can have severe ecological and toxicological impacts on coral atolls. In 2012, a tuna longliner ran aground on the reef crest of St Brandon's Atoll, Mauritius, broke up into three pieces which was moved by currents and storms into the lagoon. In the months following the grounding, the coral around the wreck became dead and black. Down-current from the wreck, a dense bloom of filamentous algae (Ulva sp.) attached to coral occurred. To determine the ecological effects of the wreck on the system, the marine biota around the wreck, in the algal bloom, and fish reference zones were counted in 2014. Metal concentrations in reference and affected coral was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). A pronounced difference was seen in the metal concentration pattern between coral from the wreck- and algal zones, and the coral reference zone. While the wreck zone contained the highest abundance of fish, the fish reference zone had the highest species diversity but with fewer fish. We also counted eleven Critically Endangered hawksbill sea turtles Eretmochelys imbricata and significantly more sea cucumbers in the algal zone than the reference zones. The effects of shipwrecks on coral reefs must be considered a threat over periods of years and should be studied further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104916DOI Listing
April 2020

Occurrence, distribution, and ecotoxicological risk assessment of selected pharmaceutical compounds in water from Lake Victoria, Uganda.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 26;239:124642. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Universitätsallee 1, 21335, Lüneburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The occurrence of 24 pharmaceuticals (including 15 antibiotics, three analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs, three anti-epileptic/antidepressant drugs, two beta blockers, and one lipid regulator) was investigated in 75 water samples collected from four bays in the Ugandan part of Lake Victoria. In addition, the potential environmental risk of the target pharmaceutical compounds to aquatic organisms in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake Victoria was assessed. Water samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed for pharmaceuticals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Eighteen of the 24 pharmaceuticals occurred at quantifiable concentrations. Sulfamethoxazole (1-5600 ng L), trimethoprim (1-89 ng L), tetracycline (3-70 ng L), sulfacetamide (1-13 ng L), and ibuprofen (6-780 ng L) occurred at quantifiable concentrations in all water samples. Sulfamethazine (2-50 ng L), erythromycin (10-66 ng L), diclofenac (2-160 ng L), and carbamazepine (5-72 ng L) were only quantifiable in water samples from Murchison Bay. The highest concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in Murchison Bay, the main recipient of sewage effluents, industrial and municipal waste from Kampala city via the Nakivubo channel. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed that sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and diclofenac pose a high toxic risk to aquatic organisms in the lake, while ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ibuprofen pose a medium risk. This study is the first of its kind to report the levels and ecotoxic risks of pharmaceutical compounds in Lake Victoria waters, of Uganda, and East Africa as a whole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124642DOI Listing
January 2020

Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity.

Water Res 2019 May 28;155:182-192. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7028, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products when chlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemical analysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity), genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovative water treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation, ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon. Chlorination was performed in laboratory scale after each step in the treatment process in order to investigate the effect of each treatment process to the formation of DBPs. Suspended ion exchange had a high capacity to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and to decrease UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity in non-chlorinated water. High-dose chlorination (10 mg Cl L) of raw water caused a drastic induction of Nrf2 activity, which was decreased by 70% in water chlorinated after suspended ion exchange. Further reduction of Nrf2 activity following chlorination was achieved by ozonation and the concomitant treatment steps. The ozonation treatment resulted in decreased Nrf2 activity in spite of unchanged DOC levels. However, a strong correlation was found between UV absorbing compounds and Nrf2 activity, demonstrating that Nrf2 inducing DBPs were formed from pre-cursors of a specific NOM fraction, constituted of mainly aromatic compounds. Moreover, high-dose chlorination of raw water induced genotoxicity. In similarity to the DOC levels, UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity, the disinfection-induced genotoxicity was also reduced by each treatment step of the innovative water treatment technique. AhR activity was observed in the water produced by the conventional process and in the raw water, but the activity was clearly decreased by the ozonation step in the innovative water treatment process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.02.052DOI Listing
May 2019

Evaluating gas chromatography with a halogen-specific detector for the determination of disinfection by-products in drinking water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 28;26(8):7305-7314. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Thematic Studies-Environmental Change, Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.

The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic, and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen-specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 μg L and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the "traditional" regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1419-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447507PMC
March 2019

The trans-continental distributions of pentachlorophenol and pentachloroanisole in pine needles indicate separate origins.

Environ Pollut 2017 Oct 13;229:688-695. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, should be investigated as a possible partial explanation of the observed distributions. The results show that neither PCA nor total PCP (ΣPCP = PCP + PCA) should be used to approximate the concentrations of PCP; PCP and PCA must be determined and quantified separately to understand their occurrence and fate in the environment. The background work shows that the accumulation of airborne POPs in plants is a complex process. The variations in life cycles and physiological adaptations have to be taken into account when using plants to evaluate the concentrations of POPs in remote areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.010DOI Listing
October 2017

Persistent organic pollutants in the Atlantic and southern oceans and oceanic atmosphere.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Apr 15;583:64-71. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø, Norway.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007-Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sample concentrations for most POPs in air were higher in the northern hemisphere with the exception of HCB, which had high gas phase concentrations in the northern and southern latitudes and low concentrations near the equator. South Atlantic and Southern Ocean seawater had a high ratio of α-HCH to γ-HCH, indicating persisting levels from technical grade sources. The Atlantic and Southern Ocean continue to be net sinks for atmospheric α-, γ-HCH, and Endosulfan despite declining usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.189DOI Listing
April 2017

The Missing Skull - Professor Lundborg and the mismeasure of grandma.

Authors:
Henrik Kylin

Endeavour 2016 Jun 16;40(2):131-4. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

What is science? Or, more pertinently, what is good science? This question is central for all practitioners of science and one of the most important to convey to our students. For those of us working in interdisciplinary settings - my own department covers everything from humanities to political and natural science - the question becomes even more complicated when traditions from different disciplines collide. For me personally, whenever I think too highly of my own research and risk deviating into bad scientific practices, I think of my paternal grandmother, Elsa. Although long dead, she brings me back into the fold of good science - or so I hope - by urging me to take another turn at critically evaluating how I perform research and to keep my arrogance in check.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endeavour.2016.03.001DOI Listing
June 2016

The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon's rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean.

Mar Environ Res 2016 Mar 4;114:58-64. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Research Unit, Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon's Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m(-)(1) shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.12.013DOI Listing
March 2016

20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Dec 18;49(23):13844-52. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada , 6842 Eighth Line, Egbert Ontario, L0L 1N0 Canada.

The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01303DOI Listing
December 2015

Hydration state of the moss Hylocomium splendens and the lichen Cladina stellaris governs uptake and revolatilization of airborne α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Oct 3;46(20):10982-9. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden.

The partitioning of α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane between air and the moss Hylocomium splendens and the lichen Cladina stellaris were studied under laboratory conditions. After cultivation of the sample material to obtain a common starting point free from outside influence, the material was divided into four different treatment categories with different hydration/desiccation regimes. The concentrations of the analytes were 3-5 times higher in the hydrated moss or lichen than in the desiccated material. The results are in contrast to how these compounds are taken up by pine needles in which there is a continuous accumulation, more rapid during periods with high temperatures and dry weather. In general, the different adaptations to water economy is a more important explanatory factor for the concentration of airborne hydrophobic pollutants in mosses, lichens, and vascular plants than their designation as "plants" in a broad sense. It is, therefore, not advisible to mix data from different organism groups for monitoring or modeling purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es302363gDOI Listing
October 2012

Comprehensive mass flow analysis of Swedish sludge contaminants.

Chemosphere 2013 Jan 24;90(1):28-35. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

A screening of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other organic contaminants in sludge from seven Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was performed in this study. This extensive screening provides information on mass flows of 282 compounds used in the Swedish society to sewage sludge. It reveals constant relative contaminant concentrations (ng mg kg(-1) d.w.), except for some pesticides and perfluorinated compounds, indicating that these originate from broad usage and diffuse dispersion rather than (industrial) point sources. There was a five order of magnitude difference in the sum concentrations of the most and least abundant species (metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans, respectively). Lower total concentrations were found in sludge from STPs processing primarily food industry or household sewage. Proportions of the amounts used (in Sweden) found in sludge were lower for compounds that are present in consumer goods or are diffusely dispersed into the environment (0.01-1% recovered in sludge) than for compounds used as detergents or PPCPs (17-63%). In some cases, the recovery seemed to be affected by evaporation (e.g. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) or biotransformation (e.g. adipates) losses, while polychlorinated alkanes and brominated diphenyl ethers were recovered to disproportionately high degree (ca. 4%); likely due to incomplete statistics for imported goods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.07.002DOI Listing
January 2013

High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender.

Environ Pollut 2012 Nov 4;170:63-70. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.06.009DOI Listing
November 2012

First report of chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic Indian Ocean island.

Environ Res 2012 Oct 12;118:53-64. Epub 2012 Jun 12.

School of Environmental Sciences and Development (Zoology), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

We report for the first time levels of persistent organic pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic island in the Indian Ocean, the world's third largest ocean. Ten eggs each of the Common Noddy, also known as the Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), and Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) were collected from Ile Cocos off the coast of the island of Rodrigues, located 560 km east of the island of Mauritius. ΣPCBs had the highest levels (2.2 and 2.6n g/g wm, wet mass; 20 and 19 ng/g lm, lipid mass) for common Noddy and Sooty Tern, respectively (and following), then ΣDDT (1.9 and 3.1 ng/g wm; 17 and 23 ng/g lm), and mirex (0.96 and 0.69 ng/g wm; 8.7 and 5.0 ng/gl m). ΣChlordanes (0.094 and 0.15 ng/g wm; 0.48 and 0.73 ng/g lm) and Σtoxaphenes (0.26 and 0.61 ng/g wm; 2.4 and 5.9 ng/g lm) are rare data for these compounds from this ocean. Brominated flame retardants were low (0.08 and 0.07 ng/g wm; 0.7 and 0.7 ng/g lm). Multivariate analyses indicated different contamination patterns in the prey items as Sooty Terns had significantly higher levels of mean Σchlordanes and Σtoxaphenes, as well as CB105, -108 and -157. p,p'-DDE had an association with thinner eggshells in the Sooty Tern. Although the contaminant levels were in all respects low, industrialisation, development on the periphery, commercial exploitation of the marine environment, and pollutants transferred over long distances by marine debris is likely to add to chemical pressure in this region. Monitoring changes in background levels of pollutants in remote regions will indicate such trends, and marine bird eggs from Rodrigues would be an excellent site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2012.05.009DOI Listing
October 2012

Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Jun 14;46(11):5815-23. Epub 2012 May 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 Canada.

We report here on the spatial distribution of C(4), C(6), and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C(6)-C(14) perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (∑PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). ∑PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L ∑PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, ∑PFAAs were <210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically ≥1 in the northern hemisphere, ∼1 near the equator, and ≤1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, ∑PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically ≫1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf, possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es300578xDOI Listing
June 2012

Aerosol-mediated transport and deposition of brominated diphenyl ethers to Antarctica.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Mar 8;46(6):3135-40. Epub 2012 Mar 8.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, PO Box 1346, Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062, United States.

Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE47, 99, 100, and 209) were measured in air, snow and sea ice throughout western Antarctica between 2001 and 2007. BDEs in Antarctic air were predominantly associated with aerosols and were low compared to those in remote regions of the northern hemisphere, except in Marguerite Bay following the fire at Rothera research station in Sept 2001, indicating that this event was a local source of BDE209 to the Antarctic environment. Aerosol BDE47/100 reflects a mixture of commercial pentaBDE products; however, BDE99/100 is suggestive of photodegradation of BDE99 during long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) in the austral summer. BDEs in snow were lower than predicted based on snow scavenging of aerosols indicating that atmospheric deposition events may be episodic. BDE47, -99, and -100 significantly declined in Antarctic sea ice between 2001 and 2007; however, BDE209 did not decline in Antarctic sea ice over the same time period. Significant losses of BDE99 and -100 from sea ice were recorded over a 19 day period in spring 2001 demonstrating that seasonal ice processes result in the preferential loss of some BDEs. BDE47/100 and BDE99/100 in sea ice samples reflect commercial pentaBDE products, suggesting that photodegradation of BDE99 is minimal during LRAT in the austral winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es204375pDOI Listing
March 2012

Identification and determination of chlorinated paraffins using multivariate evaluation of gas chromatographic data.

Environ Pollut 2012 Apr 11;163:142-8. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated waste from Uppsala, Sweden. We identified and quantified the CPs by multivariate evaluation of gas chromatography-electron capture detection chromatograms. Using principal component analyses (PCA) we identified different types of CP-formulations and also obtain quantitative data. PCA yielded better identifications of individual CP-formulations than visual comparison of chromatograms. Partial least squares regression gave good calibration curves of the standards, but did not work for the waste samples. No source of CPs could be identified in the waste collection chain, and as the waste samples seemed to contain at least two different CP-formulations the source was probably to be found in the waste material itself. The method was used to determine CPs in additional environmental samples, demonstrating that multivariate methods may be developed into a powerful tool for identification and quantification of complex mixture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.010DOI Listing
April 2012

Manufacturing origin of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Atlantic and Canadian Arctic seawater.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Jan 21;46(2):677-85. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

The extent to which different manufacturing sources and long-range transport pathways contribute to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the world's oceans, particularly in remote locations, is widely debated. Here, the relative contribution of historic (i.e., electrochemically fluorinated) and contemporary (i.e., telomer) manufacturing sources was assessed for PFOA in various seawater samples by an established isomer profiling technique. The ratios of individual branched PFOA isomers were indistinguishable from those in authentic historic standards in 93% of the samples examined, indicating that marine processes had little influence on isomer profiles, and that isomer profiling is a valid source apportionment tool for seawater. Eastern Atlantic PFOA was largely (83-98%) of historic origin, but this decreased to only 33% close to the Eastern U.S. seaboard. Similarly, PFOA in the Norwegian Sea was near exclusively historic, but the relative contribution decreased to ∼50% near the Baltic Sea. Such observations of contemporary PFOA in coastal source regions coincided with elevated concentrations, suggesting that the continued production and use of PFOA is currently adding to the marine burden of this contaminant. In the Arctic, a spatial trend was observed whereby PFOA in seawater originating from the Atlantic was predominantly historic (up to 99%), whereas water in the Archipelago (i.e., from the Pacific) was predominantly of contemporary origin (as little as 17% historic). These data help to explain reported temporal and spatial trends from Arctic wildlife biomonitoring, and suggest that the dominant PFOA source(s) to the Pacific and Canadian Arctic Archipelago are either (a) from direct emissions of contemporary PFOA via manufacturing or use in Asia, or (b) from atmospheric transport and oxidation of contemporary PFOA-precursors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es202958pDOI Listing
January 2012

DDT and malaria prevention: addressing the paradox.

Environ Health Perspect 2011 Jun 18;119(6):744-7. Epub 2011 Jan 18.

School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Background: The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT.

Objective: We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities.

Discussion: Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT "good"? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is "good" because it saves lives, and "not safe" because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction.

Conclusions: There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114806PMC
June 2011

Cob(I)alamin reacts with sucralose to afford an alkylcobalamin: relevance to in vivo cobalamin and sucralose interaction.

Food Chem Toxicol 2011 Apr 2;49(4):750-7. Epub 2010 Dec 2.

Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Vitamin B(12), viz., cyano- or hydroxo-cobalamin, can be chemically or enzymatically converted into the derivatives methyl- and adenosyl-cobalamin, which are complex organometallic cofactors associated with several cobalamin-dependent enzymes. The reduced form of vitamin B(12), cob(I)alamin {Cbl(I)}, obtained by reduction of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) with e.g. sodium borohydride, is one of the most powerful nucleophiles known. Cbl(I) was shown to react readily with the synthetic sweetener sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) in an aqueous system to form an alkylcobalamin (Suc-Cbl). This occurred by replacement of one of the three chlorine atoms of sucralose with a cobalamin moiety. The efficiency of trapping sucralose in presence of excess Cbl(I) was estimated to be >90%. Furthermore, in an in vitro study using human liver S9 with NADPH regeneration, in presence of OH-Cbl and sucralose, Suc-Cbl was shown to be formed. The Suc-Cbl was characterized primarily by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS. Given the human consumption of sucralose from food and beverages, such a reaction between the sweetener and reduced vitamin B(12) could occur in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.11.037DOI Listing
April 2011

Current-use and organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and anaerobic digest.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2011 Jan 17;86(1):60-4. Epub 2010 Nov 17.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

Several current-use (≤ 80 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤ 15 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤ 18 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0147-1DOI Listing
January 2011

Particle-specific sorption/desorption properties determine test compound fate and bioavailability in toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius--high-resolution studies with lindane.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2010 Jul;29(7):1520-8

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

We studied the sorption (batch equilibrium experiments) and desorption (consecutively harsher supercritical fluid extractions) of lindane to different types of sediment and food particles, as well as larval uptake in standardized peat-based artificial sediment toxicity tests with the midge Chironomus riparius. Lindane sorption to organic particles was fast and efficient, reaching 98+/-0.1 and 97+/-0.1% of added compound in 48 h for peat and Tetraphyll(R), respectively, and 77+/-0.2% in whole sediment. Sorption to inorganic particles, that is, sand and kaolin clay, was much lower, 9.6+/-1.3% and 8.3+/-0.8%, respectively. Supercritical fluid extractions showed that most of the lindane sorbed to organic particles and sediment was loosely bound, as only 9 to 14% remained associated with particles after weak and intermediate extractions strengths. Larval uptake of dissolved lindane was 4.9+/-0.71 and 10.8+/-1.2 microg/g wet weight in 22 and 68 microg/L treatments, respectively, and four to five times higher than that of particle-associated lindane, ranging 1.0+/-0.15 to 2.7+/-0.21 microg/g in the above treatments. Surprisingly, larval uptake of lindane was similar from refractory peat and the more labile Tetraphyll particles. Despite an efficient larval uptake of dissolved lindane, sorption/desorption of lindane to/from Tetraphyll particles will facilitate digestive uptake in toxicity tests, particularly in spiked-water scenarios where food particles may act as vectors. Our results show that the exposure scenario is an important determinant for the behavior and bioavailability of test compounds in standardized toxicity tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.194DOI Listing
July 2010

Screening of antifouling biocides around a pleasure boat marina in the Baltic Sea after legal restrictions.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2010 Oct 6;85(4):402-6. Epub 2010 Aug 6.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Copper, zinc, and Irgarol 1051 concentrations were determined around a pleasure boat marina in the Stockholm Archipelago. Copper concentrations in water were twice as high (6.62 μg L⁻¹) in 2004 as 1992-1993, zinc concentrations six times higher (20.0 μg L⁻¹). Concentrations in bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) had also risen. Irgarol concentrations in water were similar (~0.17 μg L⁻¹) in 1996 and 2004, while concentrations in bladder wrack halved from 1993 to 2004. The peak concentrations of copper and Irgarol in water have shifted indicating that the main source in the 1990 s were local boats, but in 2004 visiting boats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0094-xDOI Listing
October 2010

Evaluating threats to an endangered species by proxy: air pollution as threat to the blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) in South Africa.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2011 Feb 15;18(2):282-90. Epub 2010 Jul 15.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

Background, Aim, And Scope: The blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) is one of the most threatened bird species in southern Africa. Among terrestrial birds, its plumage is known to be the most water repellent, an adaptation to foraging on the wing in dense fog. Despite this unique adaptation, the nesting success of the blue swallow at the Blue Swallow Natural Heritage Site (BSNHS) is lower during years with high incidence of fog. As the phenomenon is not observed at other nesting sites, we hypothesized that this is due to changes in the air chemistry at the BSNHS. In the immediate proximity of the BSNHS, plantations of exotic trees (e.g., pines and eucalypts), rich in volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are dominant features. In addition, air pollution from the Johannesburg area is transported with the surface winds and mix with VOCs released from exotic trees. Together with the high humidity and high elevation, these conditions may result in the formation of sulphonates. Sulphonates are strong detergents, and the presence of these in the fog could lead to decreased water repellence of the plumage. This study was performed in order to determine the occurrence and distribution of sulphonates in the BSNHS and to compare these with sulphonates formed in other locations in South Africa. Because the blue swallow is endangered, pine needles were used as proxy to detect formation of sulphonates.

Methods: We sampled pine needles with different exposure to air pollutants, in climates with different humidity, and at different elevation and analyzed these for sulphonates using mass spectrometry.

Results: Pine needles from high elevations and the BSNHS, with high humidity, and exposure to air pollution contained significantly higher concentrations of sulphonates than pine needles from low elevations or from high elevations with a dryer climate or a different combination of air pollutants.

Conclusions: These findings lead to two conclusions. First, the occurrence and distribution of sulphonates may be explained by chemical reactions between sulphur dioxide and organic compounds in the humid air induced by ultraviolet radiation. Second, elevated concentrations of sulphonates in the fog could affect the water repellence of the blue swallow plumage, possibly decreasing their capacity to forage in the fog. We cannot prove conclusively that this is the reason why the number of blue swallows at the BSNHS has decreased dramatically, but for endangered species, we may have to rely on proxies to draw conclusions about outside threats. All such information should be valuable in devising protection plans for species under threat.

Recommendations And Perspectives: The use of proxies to elucidate threats to endangered species should be evaluated in a broad scale. The mist-belt habitat in general is threatened by many human activities. These findings indicate that air pollution and the proximity of volatile organic compound (VOC) sources close to mist-belt habitat refuges may be an unrecognised conservation threat to the animals inhabiting them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-010-0369-0DOI Listing
February 2011

Organohalogen compounds in blubber of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Environ Pollut 2010 Jun 25;158(6):2200-7. Epub 2010 Mar 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Blubber samples of Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa, were analyzed for a wide range of organohalogen compounds. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs), presumably biogenic, were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Only traces of industrial pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. The OCP levels found off Zanzibar were lower than those reported from other regions while MeO-BDE levels were higher. The relative composition of the OCPs indicated recent use of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) and aged residues of DDT and technical HCH. Placental transfer was estimated to 2.5% and 0.5% of the total burden of OCPs and MeO-BDEs, respectively. Overall transfer from mother to calf in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was estimated to 72% and 85% for the OCPs and MeO-BDEs burdens, respectively. Health effects of MeO-BDEs are not known, but structural similarities with well-known environmental toxins are cause for concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.02.027DOI Listing
June 2010

Malaria control insecticide residues in breast milk: the need to consider infant health risks.

Environ Health Perspect 2009 Oct 1;117(10):1477-80. Epub 2009 May 1.

School of Environmental Sciences and Development (Zoology), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Background: In many parts of the world, deliberate indoor residual spraying (IRS) of dwellings with insecticides to control malaria transmission remains the only viable option, thereby unintentionally but inevitably also causing exposure to inhabitants. Because mothers are exposed to insecticides via various routes, accumulated residues are transferred to infants via breast milk, in some cases exceeding recommended intake levels. Except for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), safety of residues of other insecticides in breast milk has not been considered during World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) evaluations. However, very little is known of the health risks posed by these chemicals to infants who, in developing countries, breast-feed for up to 2 years.

Objective: We evaluated the need for WHOPES to include breast milk as a potentially significant route of exposure and risk to infants when evaluating the risks during evaluation of IRS insecticides.

Discussion: We present evidence showing that neurologic and endocrine effects are associated with pyrethroids and DDT at levels equal or below known levels in breast milk.

Conclusions: Because millions of people in malaria control areas experience conditions of multiple sources and routes of exposure to any number of insecticides, even though lives are saved through malaria prevention, identification of potential infant health risks associated with insecticide residues in breast milk must be incorporated in WHOPES evaluations and in the development of appropriate risk assessment tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790498PMC
October 2009

Direct and indirect effects of the fungicide azoxystrobin in outdoor brackish water microcosms.

Ecotoxicology 2010 Feb 15;19(2):431-44. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden,

The effects of the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin were studied in brackish water microcosms, with natural plankton communities and sediment. Two experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (nominal conc. 0, 15 and 60 microg/L, 24-L outdoor microcosms for 21 days) and a second, follow-up, Experiment 2 (nominal conc. 0, 3, 7.5, 15 microg/L, 4-L indoor microcosms for 12 days). The microcosms represent a simplified brackish water community found in shallow semi-enclosed coastal areas in agricultural districts in the Baltic Sea region. Measured water concentrations of the fungicide (Experiment 1) were, on average, 83 and 62% of nominal concentrations directly after application, and 25 and 30% after 21 days, for the low and high dose treatments, respectively, corresponding to mean DT50-values of 15.1 and 25.8 days, for low and high dose treatments, respectively. In Experiment 1, direct toxic effects on calanoid copepods at both test concentrations were observed. Similarly, in Experiment 2, the copepod abundance was significantly reduced at all tested concentrations. There were also significant secondary effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, standing stocks and primary production. Very few ecotoxicological studies have investigated effects of plant protection products on Baltic organisms in general and effects on community structure and function specifically. Our results show that azoxystrobin is toxic to brackish water copepods at considerably lower concentrations than previously reported from single species tests on freshwater crustaceans, and that direct toxic effects on this ecologically important group may lead to cascade effects altering lower food webs and ecosystem functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-009-0428-9DOI Listing
February 2010