Publications by authors named "Henrik Enghoff"

48 Publications

Penetrative and non-penetrative interaction between Laboulbeniales fungi and their arthropod hosts.

Sci Rep 2021 11 12;11(1):22170. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 2100, København Ø, Denmark.

Laboulbeniales are a highly specialized group of fungi living only on arthropods. They have high host specificity and spend their entire life-cycle on an arthropod host. Taxonomic characters of Laboulbeniales are based on the architecture of the cells of the parenchymal thallus, i.e. the visible part of the fungus outside the host. The extent of the fungus spreading inside the host-the haustorium-remains largely unknown. The attachment to the arthropod host is fundamental to understand the fungus-animal interaction, but how this truly occurs is unclear. Recent evidences question the strictly parasitic life-style of Laboulbeniales. We used micro-computed tomography (µCT) and 3D reconstructions to visualize, for the first time, the complete structure of Laboulbeniales species in situ on their hosts. We compared the haustoriate species, Arthrorhynchus nycteribiae on an insect host to the non-haustoriate species, Rickia gigas on a millipede host. Our results confirm that some Laboulbeniales species are ectoparasitic and have a haustorial structure that penetrates the host's cuticle, while others are ectobionts and are only firmly attached to the host's cuticle without penetrating it. The presence and the morphology of the haustorium are important traits for Laboulbeniales evolution, and key factors for future understanding of host dependence and specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-01729-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589835PMC
November 2021

A new giant species of the millipede genus emPrionopetalum/em Attems, 1909 from Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae).

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 31;4950(3):zootaxa.4950.3.8. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark.

A new large species of the millipede genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, P. nessiae sp. nov. from Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, is described, with SEM imaging and illustrations of relevant taxonomic characters, and mapped. Comments on the significance of sternum 9 in descriptions of Odontopygidae, and on the intrageneric differences in Prionopetalum, are included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4950.3.8DOI Listing
March 2021

Description of the female morphology of the relict troglobiont millipede Cantabrodesmus lorioli Mauriès 1971 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Chelodesmidae), and new records in the deepest pit of Spain.

Zootaxa 2020 Dec 16;4895(3):zootaxa.4895.3.7. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Section of Conservation Biology, University of Basel. St. Johanns-Vorstadt 10, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. Research Team on Soil Biology and Subterranean Ecosystems, Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, University of Alcalá (UAH), A.P. 20. Campus Universitario, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain..

The troglobiont millipede, Cantabrodesmus lorioli Mauriès, 1971, inhabits a few caves in a small region of Northern Spain. It is considered a relict species because of its geographical isolation compared to others in its family, and its to some extent uncertain systematic position. Cantabrodesmus lorioli has been placed in three different families, and now is considered a member of the Chelodesmidae, a family with only one other known native European representative. There are few records of this species, and almost nothing is known about its biology. The only available information on this species is the description of the male and a list of caves where it has been captured. In the present work, we provide the first description of the female morphology, illustrated by scanning electron microscopy, and a series of new records from caves in a region where it had never been captured before, including the deepest known pit in Spain, Torca del Porrón. The female morphology does not show many differences from that of the male, but several characters are discussed. All of the known information on the morphology of the species is used to discuss the implications for its biology and systematic position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4895.3.7DOI Listing
December 2020

The first Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) from an American millipede, discovered through social media.

MycoKeys 2020 14;67:45-53. Epub 2020 May 14.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark.

Laboulbeniales are highly specialized arthropod-associated fungi. The majority of the almost 2200 known species live on insects, although they also occur on other arthropod hosts. Recently, the number of Laboulbeniales associated with millipedes has increased considerably. Here we describe the first species of a Laboulbeniales fungus, , from an American millipede. The new species was initially discovered on a photo of (Say, 1821) from Ohio, USA, which had been shared on Twitter. A subsequent microscopic study of millipedes in museum collections in Denmark and France confirmed the discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.67.51811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242483PMC
May 2020

A giant African millipede re-discovered, re-located and re-classified after 120 years (Diplopoda, Spirobolida, Pachybolidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Dec 6;4527(3):403-413. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O.Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.

The giant millipede Pachybolus tectus Cook, 1897, described from Zanzibar, East Africa, and never re-collected till now, is re-described based on newly collected specimens from Cameroon, West Africa. The species is transferred to the genus Pelmatojulus Saussure, 1860, and compared with the most similar congener, P. togoensis (Cook, 1897). The type specimen of P. tectus, which no longer exists, probably was mis-labelled. An overview of the distribution of Pelmatojulus species and records of the genus from Cameroon are given, including P. brachysternus (Cook, 1897) as new to the fauna of Cameroon. Pelmatojulus insignis (Saussure, 1859) and P. togoensis are recorded as new to the fauna of Ghana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.3.9DOI Listing
December 2018

A revision of dragon millipedes IV: the new genus , with the description of nine new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zookeys 2018 19(797):19-69. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Nine new species constituting the '' group of dragon millipedes are assigned to the new genus Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, Seven new species are described from Thailand: Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, and Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Surat Thani Province, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Chumphon Province, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, (type species) and Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Krabi Province, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , and Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Phang Nga Province; as well as one from Malaysia, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , and one from Myanmar, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, The new genus is endemic to South Myanmar, South Thailand, and Malaysia, and all new species are restricted to limestone habitats. All were exclusively found living on humid rock walls and/or inside small caves. Complete illustrations of external morphological characters, an identification key, and a distribution map are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.797.29510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255853PMC
November 2018

Novelty upon novelty visualized by rotational scanning electron micrographs (rSEM): Laboulbeniales on the millipede order Chordeumatida.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206900. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Unitat de Botànica, Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Laboulbeniales are highly specific ectoparasitic fungi of arthropods (insects, millipedes, and arachnids). The first Laboulbeniales parasitizing the millipede order Chordeumatida (Diplopoda) were discovered and described as a new dioecious genus of Laboulbeniales, Thaxterimyces, to accommodate the new species T. baliensis. Also the millipede host is a new species and is described as Metopidiothrix sheari. This is the first time Laboulbeniales fungus and its millipede host are described as new together. Males of Metopidiothrix have the most extensive secondary sexual modifications in the entire class Diplopoda. Although nothing is known about the function of these modifications, the unique pattern of Laboulbeniales infection in the new millipede species is obviously related to host sexual behavior. Rotational Scanning Electron Micrographs (rSEM) are used to create a 3D comprehensive model to examine the fungal-host interaction, a more advanced visualization of the ectoparasitic fungus on its host. Laboulbeniales diversity on millipedes is still understudied, and a consistent effort is needed to unveil and understand the extent and diversity of this biological interaction. Due to their minute size and apparently non-detrimental effect on their hosts, Laboulbeniales in general have been largely ignored by mycologists and neglected by generations of entomologists. As a result a significant component of global biodiversity has been strongly underestimated, and a wealth of new discoveries is still to be made both in the field and in existing museum collections.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206900PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261555PMC
April 2019

First continental troglobiont millipede (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

Zookeys 2018 8(795):93-103. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark University of Copenhagen København Denmark.

The new species of millipede is described from a cave in the Estremenho karst massif in central Portugal. It is the first cave-adapted species of its genus with a strict subterranean life-style in continental Europe, and is the fifth blind species of the genus. The new species is illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. It is tentatively placed in the purely Iberian -group. The differences between the new species and its relatives are discussed, as well as its adaptations to a subterranean life-style.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.795.27619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237897PMC
November 2018

Catalogue of the type material in the entomological collection of the Natural History Museum of Denmark: basal hexapods.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 8;4457(2):201-236. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark.

A catalogue of type specimens of basal hexapods (Collembola, Protura, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Zygentoma) in the collection of the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen is presented. The NHMD collection harbours type material of 175 species, and it is composed of 132 holotypes, 4 neotypes, 3 syntypes, 32 lectotypes, and 39 paratypes. For Diplura one neotype is newly designated. The order Protura is represented by 5 families, Collembola by 7 families, Diplura by 6 families, Archaeognatha by 1 family and Zygentoma by 2 families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4457.2.1DOI Listing
August 2018

Out of the dark void: Ommatoiulus longicornis n. sp., a new julid from Spain (Diplopoda, Julida) with notes on some troglobiomorphic traits in millipedes.

Zootaxa 2018 May 17;4420(3):415-429. Epub 2018 May 17.

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Burgring 7, 1010 Wien, Austria..

A new millipede species, Ommatoiulus longicornis n. sp. is described from the subterranean habitat in eastern Spain, and the elongation of its antennae is discussed in relation to the habitat where it dwells. We take the occasion to discuss the elongation of appendages as a troglobiomorphic character in millipedes and shed the light on the various, sometimes controversial, hypotheses that could have led to these modifications in millipedes and other subterranean arthropods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4420.3.7DOI Listing
May 2018

Pseudotibiozus Demange, 1970-millipedes of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Spirostreptidae).

Zootaxa 2018 May 31;4425(3):541-554. Epub 2018 May 31.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark.

The genus Pseudotibiozus Demange, 1970, is discussed, its type species, P. cerasopus (Attems, 1914) is re-described based on type and new material, and P. zophoribates sp. nov. is described from the West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. The millipede faunas of the West and East Usambara Mts are compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4425.3.7DOI Listing
May 2018

A revision of dragon millipedes I: genus Chamberlin, 1923, with the description of eight new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zookeys 2018 29(761):1-177. Epub 2018 May 29.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The dragon millipede genus s.l. is split into five genera, based on morphological characters and preliminary molecular phylogenetic analyses. The present article includes a review of s.s., while future articles will deal with Cook and Loomis, 1924 and three new genera which preliminarily are referred to as the '', '', and '' groups. Diagnostic morphological characters of each group are discussed. is resurrected as a valid genus and the following 33 species are assigned to it: (Attems, 1937), , (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), , (Attems, 1953), , (Zhang & Li, 1982), , Cook & Loomis, 1924, , (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), , (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), , (Golovatch, VandenSpiegel & Semenyuk, 2016), , (Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994), , (Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), , (Loksa, 1960), , (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012), , (Zhang, 1986), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), , (Attems, 1937), , (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), , (Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, 2015), , (Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, 2015), , (Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauriès, 2010), , (Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauriès, 2010), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), , (Golovatch, VandenSpiegel & Semenyuk, 2016), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), , (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), , (Attems, 1937), , (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), , (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012), and (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), s.s. includes the following species: Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; (Pocock,1895); (Jeekel, 1964); Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; (Pocock, 1895); Enghoff, Sutcharit & Panha, 2007; Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; (Pocock, 1895); (Jeekel, 1964), all of which are re-described based mainly on type material. Two new synonyms are proposed: Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, (= (Pocock, 1895)), Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, (= (Jeekel, 1964)). Six new species are described from Thailand: Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , as well as one from Malaysia: Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , and one from Myanmar: Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, The species can mostly be easily distinguished by gonopod structure in combination with other external characters; some cases of particularly similar congeners are discussed. All species of s.s. seem to be endemic to continental Southeast Asia (except the 'tramp' species ). Some biological observations (relationship with mites, moulting) are recorded for the first time. Complete illustrations of external morphological characters, an identification key, and distribution maps of all species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.761.24214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988806PMC
May 2018

A new genus and species of Haplobainosomatidae (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida) from the MSS of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park, central Spain.

Zootaxa 2017 Nov 14;4347(3):492-510. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Research Team on Soil Biology and Subterranean Ecosystems. Department of Life Sciences. Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences. University of Alcalá (UAH). A.P. 20. Campus Universitario. E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain Section of Conservation Biology, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel. St. Johanns-Vorstadt 10, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland..

The chordeumatidan fauna of the Iberian Peninsula is far from being well known, but recent efforts are improving that knowledge. Samplings carried out in the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (also known as the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum) on several screes of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (central Spain) have led to the discovery of a new species of chordeumatidan millipede. This new species belongs to the family Haplobainosomatidae, which is mainly known from the northern Iberian Peninsula, and thus this is the first record of the family in central Spain. However, the extremely simple gonopods of this species are so different from all other known species of the family that it must be placed in a new genus. In this work, a complete description of the species, named as Guadarramasoma ramosae gen. & sp. nov., with a detailed iconography based on scanning electron microscopy images is provided together with a distribution map and a brief discussion of the implications of this new finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4347.3.4DOI Listing
November 2017

A new species of the Chaleponcus dabagaensis-group from Mount Rungwe, Tanzania-support for an extended concept of the Eastern Arc Mountains (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae).

Authors:
Henrik Enghoff

Zootaxa 2017 Nov 23;4353(2):389-392. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark..

Chaleponcus altirungwensis sp. nov. is described from Mount Rungwe, Tanzania. The new species belongs to the Chaleponcus dabagaensis group which is otherwise restricted to the Udzungwa Mountains and joins a growing set of taxa indicating close biogeographical connections between Mount Rungwe and the Eastern Arc Mountains in a strict sense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4353.2.11DOI Listing
November 2017

"Open access" growth histories in millipedes (Diplopoda).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2018 Jan 16;47(1):104-116. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690022, Russia.

A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species. The inferred numbers of body rings in developmental stadia are compared with actual numbers observed on additional samples, including the type series, of U. pilifer. The pattern of missing glands in the two mongoliulid species is compared with the pattern of missing glands typical of the entire millipede order Polydesmida.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2017.11.009DOI Listing
January 2018

A new East African genus of spirostreptid millipedes (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Spirostreptidae), with notes on their fungal ectoparasite Rickia gigas.

Authors:
Henrik Enghoff

Zootaxa 2017 Jun 7;4273(4):501-530. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark..

The new genus Tropostreptus is erected to accommodate seven species which are all endemic in Tanzania: T. hamatus (Demange, 1977) (type species, = Spirostreptus hamatus Demange, 1977), T. sigmatospinus sp. nov., T. microcephalus sp. nov., T. droides sp. nov., T. kipunji spec. nov., T. austerus (Attems, 1950) (= Epistreptus austerus Attems, 1950) and T. severus sp. nov. All but one (T. sigmatospinus) of the species are restricted to the Eastern Arc Mts. in a wide sense, i.e., including Mt. Rungwe. Notes are included on Rickia gigas Santamaria et al., 2016 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales), which infects several Tropostreptus species. The typical, long-celled form of R. gigas grows on body parts of both sexes coming into contact during copulation, whereas a short-celled form also ascribed to R. gigas grows on the hind margin of body rings of both sexes. A key to Tropostreptus species is included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4273.4.3DOI Listing
June 2017

New records and detailed distribution and abundance of selected arthropod species collected between 1999 and 2011 in Azorean native forests.

Biodivers Data J 2016 22(4):e10948. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Department of Ecology and Taxonomy, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, GR-15784, Greece; cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Rua Capitão João d'Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Azores, Portugal.

Background: In this contribution we present detailed distribution and abundance data for arthropod species identified during the BALA - (1999-2004) and BALA2 projects (2010-2011) from 18 native forest fragments in seven of the nine Azorean islands (all excluding Graciosa and Corvo islands, which have no native forest left).

New Information: Of the total 286 species identified, 81% were captured between 1999 and 2000, a period during which only 39% of all the samples were collected. On average, arthropod richness for each island increased by 10% during the time frame of these projects. The classes Arachnida, Chilopoda and Diplopoda represent the most remarkable cases of new island records, with more than 30% of the records being novelties. This study stresses the need to expand the approaches applied in these projects to other habitats in the Azores, and more importantly to other less surveyed taxonomic groups (e.g. Diptera and Hymenoptera). These steps are fundamental for getting a more accurate assessment of biodiversity in the archipelago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e10948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267528PMC
December 2016

Four colorful new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae).

Zootaxa 2016 Sep 22;4170(1):93-113. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phaya Thai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.; Email:

Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga. The coloration of all new species is clearly aposematic: ranging from purple-pink to red. The new species are discussed in relation to their congeners, and a distribution map is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4170.1.4DOI Listing
September 2016

Mud and silk in the dark: A new type of millipede moulting chamber and first observations on the maturation moult in the order Callipodida.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2016 May 22;45(3):301-6. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark.

The postembryonic development of millipedes includes a series of stadia separated by moults, a process known as anamorphosis. The moulting process and especially the moulting into maturity, i.e., with fully developed copulatory organs, remains unknown for most millipede species. We have kept specimens of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) in the laboratory for one year and studied its moulting process, including the first study of the maturation moult in the order Callipodida. Unlike the typical silk cocoon reported for other callipodidans, this species builds a new type of solid moulting chamber, using the available substrate reinforced by a silken web. We present the detailed ultrastructure of the moulting chamber and silk. It takes five days to build the moulting chamber and between 29 (female) and 35 (male) days to shed the exuviae. The male maturation moult is preceded by an evagination of a gonopodal sac between the 6th and 7th body rings, in which the gonopods are developed. Females evaginated completely their vulval sacs, retracting them after shedding the exuviae. Vulval sac size seems to increase with the progressive reduction of the second pair of legs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2016.04.001DOI Listing
May 2016

Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain): a high-altitude biogeographical crossroads for millipedes (Diplopoda), with first data on its MSS fauna and description of a new species of the genus Ceratosphys Ribaut, 1920 (Chordeumatida: Opisthocheiridae).

Zootaxa 2015 Nov 19;4044(3):391-410. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Research Team on Soil Biology and Subterranean Ecosystems. Department of Life Sciencies. Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences. University of Alcalá (UAH). A.P. 20. Campus Universitario. E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Email: unknown.

Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description of Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C. soutadei Mauriès, 1969, has more similarities to certain Pyrenean species. Biogeographical relationships of all the captured species are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4044.3.4DOI Listing
November 2015

A review of the millipede genus Typhloiulus Latzel, 1884 (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), with a description of three new species from Bulgaria and Greece.

Zootaxa 2015 Aug 11;3999(3):334-62. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø-Denmark; Email: unknown.

The mostly cavernicolous and endogean millipede genus Typhloiulus Latzel, 1884 (Julida: Julidae) is hitherto known to comprise 33-36 species distributed in the Balkan and Apennine peninsulas, as well as the adjacent parts of the Alps and the Carpathian Arch. Here we describe three new species, T. bulgaricus sp. n., T. orpheus sp. n. and T. rhodopinus sp. n., collected from caves and other subterranean habitats in Bulgaria and Greece. Furthermore, the taxonomic descriptions of some poorly known species are emended and/or new distribution data given. T. staregai Strasser, 1973, is synonymized with T. strictus (Latzel, 1882). A neotype of T. kotelensis Jawłowski, 1938, of which the original type material is thought to be lost, is designated, and a checklist of Typhloiulus species is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3999.3.2DOI Listing
August 2015

PESI - a taxonomic backbone for Europe.

Biodivers Data J 2015 28(3):e5848. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Département Systématique & Evolution, UMR 7205 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC-EPHE, (ISyEB), Paris, France.

Background: Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information.

New Information: This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.3.e5848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609752PMC
October 2015

A New Dimension in Documenting New Species: High-Detail Imaging for Myriapod Taxonomy and First 3D Cybertype of a New Millipede Species (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

PLoS One 2015 26;10(8):e0135243. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Department of Theoretical Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

We review the state-of-the-art approaches currently applied in myriapod taxonomy, and we describe, for the first time, a new species of millipede (Ommatoiulus avatar n. sp., family Julidae) using high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) as a substantive adjunct to traditional morphological examination. We present 3D models of the holotype and paratype specimens and discuss the potential of this non-destructive technique in documenting new species of millipedes and other organisms. The microCT data have been uploaded to an open repository (Dryad) to serve as the first actual millipede cybertypes to be published.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135243PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550252PMC
May 2016

Two new species of the millipede family Blaniulidae (Diplopoda, Julida) from caves in central and southeastern Europe.

Zootaxa 2015 Jul 14;3985(4):523-40. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100, Københanv Ø, Denmark; Email: unknown.

Two new species, one each of the previously monotypic genera Cibiniulus Verhoeff, 1927, and Thassoblaniulus Mauriès, 1985, are described from caves in Slovakia and Albania, respectively: C. slovacus Antić, Mock & Enghoff, sp. n. and T. radjai Antić & Enghoff sp. n. Brief discussions on relationships with congeners and on the taxonomic position of the genera Cibiniulus and Thassoblaniulus within Blaniulidae are presented, as well as a distribution map for both genera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3985.4.3DOI Listing
July 2015

Redescription of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) (Diplopoda, Callipoda, Dorypetalidae) and ecological data on its Laboulbeniales ectoparasites in caves.

Zootaxa 2015 May 19;3957(5):567-76. Epub 2015 May 19.

Natural History Museum of Denmark (Zoological Museum), University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark.; Email: unknown.

The Portuguese endemic callipodidan millipede Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) is redescribed, based on abundant new material collected in caves of central Portugal. The species is illustrated with comprehensive SEM images. The relationships of the genus Lusitanipus Mauriès, 1978 to other callipodidan genera of the subfamily Cyphocallipodinae Verhoeff, 1909 are discussed. The major part of the studied material is highly infected with ectoparasitic fungi of the order Laboulbeniales, we also include information about the infection in the subterranean ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3957.5.5DOI Listing
May 2015

The hypogean Iberian genus Typhlopsychrosoma Mauriès, 1982 (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Vandeleumatidae): distribution map, key to species, first record in a Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) and detailed iconography of T. baeticaense (Mauriès, 2013).

Zootaxa 2015 Mar 25;3937(2):337-46. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Research Team on Soil Biology and Subterranean Ecosystems. Department of Life Sciencies. Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences. University of Alcalá (UAH). A.P. 20. Campus Universitario. E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Email: unknown.

The troglobiont millipede Typhlopsychrosoma baeticaense (Mauriès, 2013) is recorded in the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of two screes in the Aitana and Bernia mountains (Eastern Iberian Peninsula), far away from its known distribution area. A detailed Scanning Electron Microscopy iconography provides additional information on gonopod morphology, as well as other details such as the inconspicuous evaginations of the cuticle at the place of the eyes in the anophthalmous specimens. We present an updated distribution map and a key to species of the genus, with illustrations of the gonopods of all species described so far. The implications of the appearance of this hypogean species in an MSS are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3937.2.5DOI Listing
March 2015

East African odontopygid millipedes 4: A restricted redefinition of the genus Rhamphidarpoides Kraus, 1960, a related new genus, five new species, and notes on solenomere function (Diplopoda; Spirostreptida; Odontopygidae).

Zootaxa 2015 Mar 9;3926(4):541-60. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.; Email:

Based mainly on morphology of the solenomere, a restricted redefinition of the millipede genus Rhamphidarpoides Kraus, 1960, is given. R. aberdarei (Brolemann, 1920), R. aloysiisabaudiae (Silvestri, 1907), R. alticolus (Brolemann, 1920), R. austrosudanicus n.sp., (South Sudan), R. collinus n.sp., (Kenya), R. cyclopyge (Attems, 1935), R. filigerus (Attems,1938), R. kenyanus (Brolemann, 1920), R. kilimanjaronus (Attems, 1909) n. comb. ex Odontopyge, R. lobiferus (Attems, 1938), R. milobontei Pierrard, 1970, R. pectinatus n.sp., (Kenya), R. regina (Carl, 1909), and R. ruandensis Kraus, 1960, are referred to Rhamphidarpoides in the restricted sense. Raduliverpa n.gen. is described to accommodate R. serpentispina n.sp. (TYPE SPECIES; Tanzania, Kenya), R. mitis n.sp. (Tanzania). R. serrata (Kraus, 1960), n.comb. ex Rhamphidarpoides, and R. sicaria (Attems, 1935) n. comb. ex Prionopetalum. Rhamphidarpe aculeata Attems, 1938, Rhamphidarpe armata Attems, 1938, Rhamphidarpoides bidens Kraus, 1960, Rhamphidarpoides bidenticulatus Pierrard, 1970, and Odontopyge winspearei Silvestri, 1907, are excluded from Rhamphidarpoides and placed incertae sedis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3926.4.5DOI Listing
March 2015

Redescription of Iberoiulus cavernicola Ceuca, 1967, and the relationships of the genus Iberoiulus Mauriès, 1985 (Diplopoda, Julida, Blaniulidae).

Zootaxa 2014 Sep 30;3869(2):153-8. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Spain; Email:

The Iberian blaniulid millipede Iberoiulus cavernicola Ceuca, 1967, is redescribed based on abundant new material collected in a cave in Villaluenga del Rosario, Cádiz, Spain. The relationships of the genus Iberoiulus Mauriès, 1985, to other blaniulid genera are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3869.2.4DOI Listing
September 2014

Millipedes of Cyprus (Myriapoda: Diplopoda).

Zootaxa 2014 Jul 14;3835(4):528-48. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Pensoft Publishers, 12, Prof. Georgi Zlatarski St., 1700 Sofia, Bulgaria.; Email:

The paper presents an annotated catalogue of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of Cyprus, based on literature scrutiny and on hitherto unpublished material. A total of 21 species belonging to 14 genera, 9 families and 7 orders are recorded from the island. Three species are regarded as new to science, but are not formally described, and the status of another three is yet to be clarified. Pachyiulus cyprius Brölemann, 1896 and Strongylosoma (Tetrarthrosoma) cyprium Verhoeff, 1902 are established as junior subjective synonyms of Amblyiulus barroisi (Porat, 1893) and T. syriacum (Humbert & DeSaussure, 1869), respectively, both syn. nov. The present-day diversity of the Cypriotic millipede fauna is analysed in the light of past geological events. It is presumed that the fauna originated from the late Miocene, when Cyprus was formed as a result of uplift of the sea floor. During the Messinian salinity crisis, some 6-5.3 mya, land bridges existed between the island and the neighbouring Taurus Mts. (Turkey) and the region of Latakia (Syria), which are supposed to have served as migratory pathways for various millipede taxa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3835.4.5DOI Listing
July 2014

Laboulbeniales on millipedes: the genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces.

Mycologia 2014 Sep-Oct;106(5):1027-38. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206-La Laguna (Tenerife), Spain.

The genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) parasitizing millipedes (Diplopoda) are reviewed. We describe four new species: D. lusitanipodos parasitic on Lusitanipus from Portugal and on Cyphocallipus from Spain, D. veneris on Lusitanipus from Portugal, T. botryandrus on Leptoiulus from Italy and T. rossii on Ophyiulus, Leptoiulus and Typhloiulus from Italy. Diplopodomyces veneris is a dimorphic species, with different morphotypes growing on the male copulatory organs and on the surroundings of the female gonopore respectively. The type species of both genera also have been studied, their descriptions are revised and a neotype for T. manfrediae is designated. New records from Italy are given for D. callipodos and T. manfrediae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-381DOI Listing
May 2015
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