Publications by authors named "Henrik D Møller"

7 Publications

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Replicative aging is associated with loss of genetic heterogeneity from extrachromosomal circular DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 08;48(14):7883-7898

Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark.

Circular DNA can arise from all parts of eukaryotic chromosomes. In yeast, circular ribosomal DNA (rDNA) accumulates dramatically as cells age, however little is known about the accumulation of other chromosome-derived circles or the contribution of such circles to genetic variation in aged cells. We profiled circular DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations sampled when young and after extensive aging. Young cells possessed highly diverse circular DNA populations but 94% of the circular DNA were lost after ∼15 divisions, whereas rDNA circles underwent massive accumulation to >95% of circular DNA. Circles present in both young and old cells were characterized by replication origins including circles from unique regions of the genome and repetitive regions: rDNA and telomeric Y' regions. We further observed that circles can have flexible inheritance patterns: [HXT6/7circle] normally segregates to mother cells but in low glucose is present in up to 50% of cells, the majority of which must have inherited this circle from their mother. Interestingly, [HXT6/7circle] cells are eventually replaced by cells carrying stable chromosomal HXT6 HXT6/7 HXT7 amplifications, suggesting circular DNAs are intermediates in chromosomal amplifications. In conclusion, the heterogeneity of circular DNA offers flexibility in adaptation, but this heterogeneity is remarkably diminished with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430651PMC
August 2020

Regulation of apoptosis and autophagy in mouse and human skeletal muscle with aging and lifelong exercise training.

Exp Gerontol 2018 10 17;111:141-153. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Section for Cell Biology and Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Exercise training has been reported to prevent the age-induced decline in muscle mass and fragmentation of mitochondria, as well as to affect autophagy and mitophagy. The interaction between these pathways during aging as well as the similarity between such changes in human and mouse skeletal muscle is however not fully understood. Therefore the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that cellular degradation pathways, including apoptosis, autophagy and mitophagy are coordinately regulated in mouse and human skeletal muscle during aging and lifelong exercise training through a PGC-1α-p53 axis. Muscle samples were obtained from young untrained, aged untrained and aged lifelong exercise trained men, and from whole-body PGC-1α knockout mice and their littermate controls that were either lifelong exercise trained or sedentary young and aged. Lifelong exercise training prevented the aging-induced reduction in PGC-1α, p53 and p21 mRNA as well as the increase in LC3II and BNIP3 protein in mouse skeletal muscle, while aging decreased the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio, LC3I and BAX protein in mouse skeletal muscle without effects of lifelong exercise training. In humans, aging was associated with reduced PGC-1α mRNA as well as decreased p62 and p21 protein in skeletal muscle, while lifelong exercise training increased BNIP3 protein and decreased p53 mRNA. In conclusion, there was a divergent regulation of autophagy and apoptosis in mouse muscle with aging and lifelong exercise training, whereas healthy aged human skeletal muscle seemed rather robust to changes in apoptosis, autophagy and mitophagy markers compared with mouse muscle at the investigated age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.07.011DOI Listing
October 2018

Genome-wide Purification of Extrachromosomal Circular DNA from Eukaryotic Cells.

J Vis Exp 2016 Apr 4(110):e54239 |. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen;

Extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are common genetic elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and are reported in other eukaryotes as well. EccDNAs contribute to genetic variation among somatic cells in multicellular organisms and to evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. Sensitive methods for detecting eccDNA are needed to clarify how these elements affect genome stability and how environmental and biological factors induce their formation in eukaryotic cells. This video presents a sensitive eccDNA-purification method called Circle-Seq. The method encompasses column purification of circular DNA, removal of remaining linear chromosomal DNA, rolling-circle amplification of eccDNA, deep sequencing, and mapping. Extensive exonuclease treatment was required for sufficient linear chromosomal DNA degradation. The rolling-circle amplification step by φ29 polymerase enriched for circular DNA over linear DNA. Validation of the Circle-Seq method on three S. cerevisiae CEN.PK populations of 10(10) cells detected hundreds of eccDNA profiles in sizes larger than 1 kilobase. Repeated findings of ASP3-1, COS111, CUP1, RSC30, HXT6, HXT7 genes on circular DNA in both S288c and CEN.PK suggests that DNA circularization is conserved between strains at these loci. In sum, the Circle-Seq method has broad applicability for genome-scale screening for eccDNA in eukaryotes as well as for detecting specific eccDNA types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/54239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4841354PMC
April 2016

Formation of Extrachromosomal Circular DNA from Long Terminal Repeats of Retrotransposons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

G3 (Bethesda) 2015 Dec 17;6(2):453-62. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Center for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark

Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) derived from chromosomal Ty retrotransposons in yeast can be generated in multiple ways. Ty eccDNA can arise from the circularization of extrachromosomal linear DNA during the transpositional life cycle of retrotransposons, or from circularization of genomic Ty DNA. Circularization may happen through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking Ty elements, by Ty autointegration, or by LTR-LTR recombination. By performing an in-depth investigation of sequence reads stemming from Ty eccDNAs obtained from populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c, we find that eccDNAs predominantly correspond to full-length Ty1 elements. Analyses of sequence junctions reveal no signs of NHEJ or autointegration events. We detect recombination junctions that are consistent with yeast Ty eccDNAs being generated through recombination events within the genome. This opens the possibility that retrotransposable elements could move around in the genome without an RNA intermediate directly through DNA circularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.115.025858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751563PMC
December 2015

Extrachromosomal circular DNA is common in yeast.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Jun 2;112(24):E3114-22. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark;

Examples of extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are found in many organisms, but their impact on genetic variation at the genome scale has not been investigated. We mapped 1,756 eccDNAs in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using Circle-Seq, a highly sensitive eccDNA purification method. Yeast eccDNAs ranged from an arbitrary lower limit of 1 kb up to 38 kb and covered 23% of the genome, representing thousands of genes. EccDNA arose both from genomic regions with repetitive sequences ≥ 15 bases long and from regions with short or no repetitive sequences. Some eccDNAs were identified in several yeast populations. These eccDNAs contained ribosomal genes, transposon remnants, and tandemly repeated genes (HXT6/7, ENA1/2/5, and CUP1-1/-2) that were generally enriched on eccDNAs. EccDNAs seemed to be replicated and 80% contained consensus sequences for autonomous replication origins that could explain their maintenance. Our data suggest that eccDNAs are common in S. cerevisiae, where they might contribute substantially to genetic variation and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1508825112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4475933PMC
June 2015

A model for generating several adaptive phenotypes from a single genetic event: Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAP1 as a potential bet-hedging switch.

Commun Integr Biol 2013 May 9;6(3):e23933. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

Molecular Integrative Physiology; University of Copenhagen; Copenhagen, Denmark.

Microbial populations adapt to environmental fluctuations through random switching of fitness-related traits in individual cells. This increases the likelihood that a subpopulation will be adaptive in a future milieu. However, populations are particularly challenged when several environment factors change simultaneously. We suggest that a population can rapidly adapt to multiple environmental changes if individual members stochastically flip a hub-switch that controls a set of adaptive phenotypes in a single event. This mechanism of coupling phenotypic outcomes via a hub-switch can protect a population against large fluctuations in size. Here we report that the general amino acid transporter Gap1 is a potential hub-switch. The GAP1 gene is flanked by two direct repeats that can lead to GAP1 deletions (∆gap1) and a self-replicating GAP1 circle. Thus, an isogenic GAP1 population can differentiate into two variant, reversible genotypes, ∆gap1 or GAP1 (circle). These subpopulations have different phenotypic advantages. A ∆gap1 population has a selective advantage on allantoin or ammonium as a nitrogen source and high stress tolerance. Advantages of the GAP1 population include amino acid uptake, fast energy recruitment by trehalose mobilization, and in some cases, adherent biofilm growth. Our proposed model of a hub-switch locus enhances the bet-hedging model of population dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cib.23933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656021PMC
May 2013

Epidermal growth factor receptor ligands as new extracellular targets for the metastasis-promoting S100A4 protein.

FEBS J 2009 Oct 9;276(20):5936-48. Epub 2009 Sep 9.

Department of Molecular Cancer Biology, Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The function of S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding S100 protein family, has been associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Although an essential pro-metastatic role of extracellular S100A4 in tumor progression has been demonstrated, the identification of the precise underlying mechanisms and protein partners (receptors) has remained elusive. To identify putative targets for extracellular S100A4, we screened a phage display peptide library using S100A4 as bait. We identified three independent peptide motifs with varying affinities for the S100A4 protein. Sequence analyses indicated that the most abundant peptide mimicked the F/YCC motif present in the epidermal growth factor domain of ErbB receptor ligands. S100A4 selectively interacted with a number of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, demonstrating highest affinity for amphiregulin. Importantly, we found that S100A4 stimulated EGFR/ErbB2 receptor signaling and enhanced the amphiregulin-mediated proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. S100A4-neutralizing antibodies, as well as EGFR- and ErbB2 receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, blocked these effects. The present results suggest that extracellular S100A4 regulates tumor progression by interacting with EGFR ligands, thereby enhancing EGFR/ErbB2 receptor signaling and cell proliferation. Structured digital abstract: * MINT-7256556: EGF (uniprotkb:P01133) binds (MI:0407) to S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256512: BC (uniprotkb:P35070) binds (MI:0407) to S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256485, MINT-7256618, MINT-7256636: AR (uniprotkb:P15514) binds (MI:0407) to S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256494: HB-EGF (uniprotkb:Q99075) binds (MI:0407) to S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256502: P53 (uniprotkb:P04637) binds (MI:0407) to S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256654: S100A2 (uniprotkb:P29034) binds (MI:0407) to AR (uniprotkb:P15514) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256693: S100A5 (uniprotkb:P33763) binds (MI:0407) to AR (uniprotkb:P15514) by far western blotting (MI:0047) * MINT-7256593: S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) binds (MI:0407) to BC (uniprotkb:P35070) by pull down (MI:0096) * MINT-7256567: S100A4 (uniprotkb:P26447) binds (MI:0407) to AR (uniprotkb:P15514) by pull down (MI:0096).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07274.xDOI Listing
October 2009