Publications by authors named "Henk S Schipper"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adipocytes harbor a glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway involved in iNKT cell activation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 08 30;1864(8):1157-1167. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Molecular Cancer Research, Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Natural killer T (NKT) cells in adipose tissue (AT) contribute to whole body energy homeostasis.

Results: Inhibition of the glucosylceramide synthesis in adipocytes impairs iNKT cell activity.

Conclusion: Glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway is important for endogenous lipid antigen activation of iNKT cells in adipocytes.

Significance: Unraveling adipocyte-iNKT cell communication may help to fight obesity-induced AT dysfunction. Overproduction and/or accumulation of ceramide and ceramide metabolites, including glucosylceramides, can lead to insulin resistance. However, glucosylceramides also fulfill important physiological functions. They are presented by antigen presenting cells (APC) as endogenous lipid antigens via CD1d to activate a unique lymphocyte subspecies, the CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells. Recently, adipocytes have emerged as lipid APC that can activate adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells and thereby contribute to whole body energy homeostasis. Here we investigate the role of the glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway in the activation of iNKT cells by adipocytes. UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg), the first rate limiting step in the glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway, was inhibited via chemical compounds and shRNA knockdown in vivo and in vitro. β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase (B4Galt) 5 and 6, enzymes that convert glucosylceramides into potentially inactive lactosylceramides, were subjected to shRNA knock down. Subsequently, (pre)adipocyte cell lines were tested in co-culture experiments with iNKT cells (IFNγ and IL4 secretion). Inhibition of Ugcg activity shows that it regulates presentation of a considerable fraction of lipid self-antigens in adipocytes. Furthermore, reduced expression levels of either B4Galt5 or -6, indicate that B4Galt5 is dominant in the production of cellular lactosylceramides, but that inhibition of either enzyme results in increased iNKT cell activation. Additionally, in vivo inhibition of Ugcg by the aminosugar AMP-DNM results in decreased iNKT cell effector function in adipose tissue. Inhibition of endogenous glucosylceramide production results in decreased iNKT cells activity and cytokine production, underscoring the role of this biosynthetic pathway in lipid self-antigen presentation by adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.04.016DOI Listing
August 2019

Immunometabolic Activation of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:1192. Epub 2018 May 28.

Laboratory for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are lipid-reactive T cells with profound immunomodulatory potential. They are unique in their restriction to lipid antigens presented in CD1d molecules, which underlies their role in lipid-driven disorders such as obesity and atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the contribution of iNKT cell activation to immunometabolic disease, metabolic programming of lipid antigen presentation, and immunometabolic activation of iNKT cells. First, we outline the role of iNKT cells in immunometabolic disease. Second, we discuss the effects of cellular metabolism on lipid antigen processing and presentation to iNKT cells. The synthesis and processing of glycolipids and other potential endogenous lipid antigens depends on metabolic demand and may steer iNKT cells toward adopting a Th1 or Th2 signature. Third, external signals such as toll-like receptor ligands, adipokines, and cytokines modulate antigen presentation and subsequent iNKT cell responses. Finally, we will discuss the relevance of metabolic programming of iNKT cells in human disease, focusing on their role in disorders such as obesity and atherosclerosis. The critical response to metabolic changes places iNKT cells at the helm of immunometabolic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985373PMC
August 2019

Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

PLoS One 2017 26;12(10):e0187068. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Laboratory for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.

Methods: 13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.

Results: Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI). The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also higher numbers of immature transition B-cells and intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes combined with lower total monocyte numbers, compared to controls. Furthermore, adiponectin receptor 1 expression on nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes was consistently upregulated in obese children pre-intervention, compared to controls. However, none of the differences in leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles between obese children and controls remained significant after multiple testing correction.

Conclusions: First, the distinct adipokine receptor profiles of circulating leukocyte subsets may partly explain the differential impact of adipokines on leukocyte subsets. Second, the similarities in adipokine receptor expression profiles between obese children and normal weight controls suggest that adipokine signaling in childhood obesity is primarily modulated by circulating adipokine levels, instead of adipokine receptor expression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187068PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5658151PMC
November 2017

Endogenous lipid antigens for invariant natural killer T cells hold the reins in adipose tissue homeostasis.

Immunology 2018 02 26;153(2):179-189. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Department of Molecular Cancer Research and Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The global obesity epidemic and its associated co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers, have drawn attention to the pivotal role of adipocytes in health and disease. Besides their 'classical' function in energy storage and release, adipocytes interact with adipose-tissue-resident immune cells, among which are lipid-responsive invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. The iNKT cells are activated by lipid antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells as CD1d/lipid complexes. Upon activation, iNKT cells can rapidly secrete soluble mediators that either promote or oppose inflammation. In lean adipose tissue, iNKT cells elicit a predominantly anti-inflammatory immune response, whereas obesity is associated with declining iNKT cell numbers. Recent work showed that adipocytes act as non-professional antigen-presenting cells for lipid antigens. Here, we discuss endogenous lipid antigen processing and presentation by adipocytes, and speculate on how these lipid antigens, together with 'environmental factors' such as tissue/organ environment and co-stimulatory signals, are able to influence the fate of adipose-tissue-resident iNKT cells, and thereby the role of these cells in obesity and its associated pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.12839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5765379PMC
February 2018

Dietary intake and lipid profile in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2017 May 7;16(3):410-417. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, and Cystic Fibrosis Centre, University Medical Centre Utrecht, KE.04.133.1, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are advised to derive 35% of their daily energy intake from dietary fat. Whether this high fat intake is associated with dyslipidaemia is unknown. We described the lipid profile and dietary intake in paediatric patients with CF.

Methods: 110 fasting lipid concentrations of 110 Dutch patients with CF were studied, along with 86 measurements of dietary intake. For the total group and for boys and girls separately, the lipid profile and the dietary intake were investigated. The cross-sectional relationship between the lipid concentrations and dietary intake was determined.

Results: The mean dietary fat intake was ≥35% of the total energy intake, along with a considerable consumption of saturated fat. We found lower concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased concentrations of triglyceride and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios. Lipid concentrations were not associated with dietary fat intake.

Conclusion: This study lacks variation in dietary fat intake to exclude an effect on lipid concentrations as the distribution of dietary fat intake remained constant at a high level. Elevated triglyceride concentrations and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Any negative consequences of a high dietary fat intake on the overall lipid profile later in life cannot be excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2017.02.010DOI Listing
May 2017

CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

J Biol Chem 2014 Aug 25;289(32):22128-39. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

From the Molecular Cancer Research, Center for Molecular Medicine and

Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently, CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are up-regulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally controlled by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β and -δ. Moreover, adipocyte-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine release by iNKT cells also occurred in the absence of exogenous ligands, suggesting the display of endogenous lipid antigen-D1d complexes by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and -δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.551242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139226PMC
August 2014

An oral mixed fat load is followed by a modest anti-inflammatory adipocytokine response in overweight patients with metabolic syndrome.

Lipids 2014 Mar 21;49(3):247-54. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Department of Vascular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands,

We investigated the postprandial changes in plasma levels of adipocytokines in overweight patients with metabolic syndrome after an oral fat load. After an oral fat load and during a prolonged fast, blood was drawn at 0, 2, 3, 4 and 8 h for measurement of adiponectin, adipsin, cathepsin S, chemerin, hepatic growth factor, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10, leptin, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, nerve growth factor, retinol binding protein-4, resistin, serum amyloid A1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and thrombopoietin using a microbead-based Luminex assay. Area under the curves (AUC) were calculated and compared. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher after an oral fat load compared to fasting at t = 2 h (950 ± 513 vs. -1,881 ± 713 ng/ml) while the plasma levels for adipsin (-9 ± 5 vs. 16 ± 5 ng/ml), chemerin (-122 ± 35 vs. 13 ± 21 ng/ml), SAA-1 (-391 ± 213 vs. 522 ± 173 ng/ml) and TPO (-335 ± 144 vs. 622 ± 216 ng/ml) were lower after an oral fat load compared to fasting. The baseline corrected AUC for IP-10 was higher after fat load compared to fasting (median -116 pg h/ml; IQR -270 to 10 vs. -21 pg h/ml; IQR -136 to 418 (p = 0.047). In conclusion, in overweight male subjects with the metabolic syndrome, an oral fat load is accompanied with a modest anti-inflammatory response of adipose tissue-derived adipocytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-014-3877-8DOI Listing
March 2014

Human adipocyte extracellular vesicles in reciprocal signaling between adipocytes and macrophages.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014 May 9;22(5):1296-308. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Department of Vascular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (UMC Utrecht), Utrecht, The Netherlands; Section Metabolic Diseases, Molecular Cancer Research, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by human adipocytes or adipose tissue (AT)-explants play a role in the paracrine interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, a key mechanism in AT inflammation, leading to metabolic complications like insulin resistance (IR) were determined.

Methods: EVs released from in vitro differentiated adipocytes and AT-explants ex vivo were characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, multiplex adipokine-profiling, and quantified by flow cytometry. Primary monocytes were stimulated with EVs from adipocytes, subcutaneous (SCAT) or omental-derived AT (OAT), and phenotyped. Macrophage supernatant was subsequently used to assess the effect on insulin signaling in adipocytes.

Results: Adipocyte and AT-derived EVs differentiated monocytes into macrophages characteristic of human adipose tissue macrophages (ATM), defined by release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The adiponectin-positive subset of AT-derived EVs, presumably representing adipocyte-derived EVs, induced a more pronounced ATM-phenotype than the adiponectin-negative AT-EVs. This effect was more evident for OAT-EVs versus SCAT-EVs. Furthermore, supernatant of macrophages pre-stimulated with AT-EVs interfered with insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Finally, the number of OAT-derived EVs correlated positively with patients HOMA-IR.

Conclusions: A possible role for human AT-EVs in a reciprocal pro-inflammatory loop between adipocytes and macrophages, with the potential to aggravate local and systemic IR was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.20679DOI Listing
May 2014

Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue prevent insulin resistance.

J Clin Invest 2012 Sep 6;122(9):3343-54. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell-deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI62739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428087PMC
September 2012

Adipose tissue-resident immune cells: key players in immunometabolism.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2012 Aug 12;23(8):407-15. Epub 2012 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht and Center for Molecular and Cellular Intervention, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Adipose tissue (AT) plays a pivotal role in whole-body lipid and glucose homeostasis. AT exerts metabolic control through various immunological mechanisms that instigated a new research field termed immunometabolism. Here, we review AT-resident immune cells and their role as key players in immunometabolism. In lean subjects, AT-resident immune cells have housekeeping functions ranging from apoptotic cell clearance to extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. However, obesity provides bacterial and metabolic danger signals that mimic bacterial infection, and drives a shift in immune-cell phenotypes and numbers, classified as a prototypic T helper 1 (Th1) inflammatory response. The resulting AT inflammation and insulin resistance link obesity to its metabolic sequel, and suggests that targeted immunomodulatory interventions may be beneficial for obese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2012.05.011DOI Listing
August 2012

Mesenchymal stem cells induce resistance to chemotherapy through the release of platinum-induced fatty acids.

Cancer Cell 2011 Sep;20(3):370-83

Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The development of resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for lasting effective treatment of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become activated during treatment with platinum analogs and secrete factors that protect tumor cells against a range of chemotherapeutics. Through a metabolomics approach, we identified two distinct platinum-induced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PIFAs), 12-oxo-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (KHT) and hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (16:4(n-3)), that in minute quantities induce resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. Interestingly, blocking central enzymes involved in the production of these PIFAs (cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane synthase) prevents MSC-induced resistance. Our findings show that MSCs are potent mediators of resistance to chemotherapy and reveal targets to enhance chemotherapy efficacy in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2011.08.010DOI Listing
September 2011

A multiplex immunoassay for human adipokine profiling.

Clin Chem 2010 Aug 8;56(8):1320-8. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

Department of Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases, UMC Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Adipose tissue secretory proteins, called adipokines, play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Because methods for comprehensive adipokine profiling in patient plasma and other biological samples are currently limited, we developed a multiplex immunoassay for rapid and high-throughput measurement of 25 adipokines in only 50 microL of sample.

Methods: (Pre)adipocyte and ex vivo cultured adipose tissue supernatants were generated and together with plasma from 5 morbidly obese patients and 5 healthy and normal weight controls used to develop the adipokine multiplex immunoassay and test its usefulness in biological samples. We assessed adipokine dynamic ranges, lower limits of detection and quantification, cross-reactivity, intra- and interassay variation, and correlation with adipokine ELISAs.

Results: The limits of quantification and broad dynamic ranges enabled measurement of all 25 adipokines in supernatants and patient plasmas, with the exception of TNF-alpha in plasma samples. Intraassay variation was <10% for all adipokines; interassay variation was < 15%. The multiplex immunoassay results correlated significantly with ELISA measurements. Plasma adipokine profiling showed significantly higher concentrations of the novel adipokines cathepsin S (5.1 x 10(4) vs 4.3 x 10(4) ng/L, P = 0.003) and chemerin (4.1 x 10(5) vs 2.7 x 10(5) ng/L, P = 0.0008) in morbidly obese patients than normal weight controls, besides the established differences in adiponectin and leptin concentrations.

Conclusions: Our findings underscore the relevance of the novel adipokines cathepsin S and chemerin, but foremost the potential of this novel method for both comprehensive adipokine profiling in large patient cohorts and for biological discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2010.146118DOI Listing
August 2010