Publications by authors named "Hengameh Bakhtiar"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Optimizing Methods for Bovine Dental Pulp Decellularization.

J Endod 2021 Jan 10;47(1):62-68. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Dentistry, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aimed to characterize the decellularization effects of different treatment protocols on the bovine dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue regeneration.

Methods: Seven different decellularization protocols consisting of trypsin/EDTA (for 1 hour, 24 hours, or 48 hours), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, for 24 hours or 48 hours), Triton X-100 (for 1 hour), and deoxyribonuclease treatments were tested on bovine dental pulp tissue. The posttreatment samples were evaluated for remaining DNA and cellular contents, structural durability, immunofluorescence analysis, and in vivo immune responses.

Results: A complete decellularization process in all of the experimental groups was observed. The protocol that included 1 hour of Triton X-100 treatment and 12 hours of trypsin/EDTA treatment with no SDS treatment (P7 [12E-0S-1T]) showed the highest retention of glycosaminoglycan and the absence of nuclei in 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. All groups showed significantly lower DNA content compared with native pulp tissue (P < .05), whereas compared with other protocols, protocols 1 (1 hour of EDTA/trypsin, 24 hours of SDS, and 1 hour of Triton X-100) and 4 (1 hour of EDTA/Trypsin, 48 hours of SDS, and no Triton X-100) resulted in the highest DNA contents (P < .05). Based on these results, P7 was further evaluated by immunofluorescence and in vivo immunogenicity. P7 specimens preserved collagen type I, whereas mononuclear cell infiltration along with neovascularization was observed in vivo.

Conclusions: All tested treatments displayed the potential ability to decellularize pulp tissue and are viable options for a xenogeneic dental pulp ECM scaffold. The P7 (12E-0S-1T) protocol resulted in decellularized ECM with minimal organic matrix/ultrastructural detriments and an acceptable host immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2020.08.027DOI Listing
January 2021

Potential of Treated Dentin Matrix Xenograft for Dentin-Pulp Tissue Engineering.

J Endod 2020 Jan 20;46(1):57-64.e1. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Dentistry, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aims to develop and characterize the regenerative potential of an atelopeptidized treated dentin matrix xenograft using in vitro and in vivo models.

Methods: Freshly extracted bovine dentin was pulverized into 250- to 500-μm particles and demineralized with 17% EDTA for 1, 7, and 13 days. The samples were atelopeptidized with pepsin. The degree of demineralization and the effect of atelopeptidization were assessed using field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The expression of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and osteopontin was evaluated in dental pulp stem cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The samples were then implanted intramuscularly in rats for 30 days, and the inflammatory cells were quantified histologically.

Results: Field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed an exposed tubular structure of dentin after 1 and 7 days of demineralization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the absence of amide peaks at 1260 to 1640/cm after atelopeptidization. The dental pulp stem cell expression of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein increased in all compared with the untreated control group (P < .05). The maximum expression rates were observed for the 1-day demineralized and atelopeptidized group. The 1-day demineralized group elicited the highest inflammatory response compared with the 7- or 13-day demineralized groups (P < .001). Atelopeptidization significantly decreased the inflammatory response only in the 1-day demineralized dentin group (P < .05).

Conclusions: Atelopeptidization of 1-day demineralized dentin xenograft preserved the collagen structure, minimized the immune reaction, and provided sufficient regenerative potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2019.10.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Pulp ECM-derived macroporous scaffolds for stimulation of dental-pulp regeneration process.

Dent Mater 2020 01 15;36(1):76-87. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Dentistry, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Recent studies suggest xenogeneic extracellular matrices as potential regenerative tools in dental pulp regeneration. This study aimed to fabricate and characterize a novel three-dimensional macroporous pulp-derived scaffold that enables the attachment, penetration, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Method: Bovine pulp was decellularized and characterized with histological and DNA content methods. This scaffold was prepared using finely milled lyophilized decellularized pulp extracellular matrix (ECM) digested with pepsin. Three different concentrations of ECM (1.50, 2.25 and 3.00mg/ml) were freeze-dried and were tested with/without chemical crosslinking. The specimens were subjected to physicochemical characterization, cell viability and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs). All scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in rats for two weeks and histological and immunostaining analyses were performed.

Results: Histological and DNA analysis confirmed complete decellularization. All samples demonstrated more than 97% porosity and 1.50mg/ml scaffold demonstrated highest water absorption. The highest cell viability and proliferation of hBMMSCs was observed on the 3.00mg/ml crosslinked scaffolds. The gene expression analysis showed a significant increase of dmp-1 and collagen-I on 3.00mg/ml crosslinked scaffolds compared to the other scaffolds. Histological examination of subcutaneous implanted scaffolds revealed low immunological response, and enhanced angiogenesis in cross-linked samples compared to non-crosslinked samples.

Significance: The three-dimensional macroporous pulp-derived injectable scaffold developed and characterized in this study displayed potential for regenerative therapy. While the scaffold biodegradability was decreased by crosslinking, the biocompatibility of post-crosslinked scaffold was significantly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2019.10.011DOI Listing
January 2020

effect of XP-Endo finisher on the amount of residual debris and smear layer on the root canal walls.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2019 May-Jun;16(3):179-184

Assistant Professor, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A successful endodontic treatment depends on efficient cleaning and shaping and effective irrigation of root canals. The irrigating solution may not be effective in some areas in the canal. The manufacturer of XP-Endo finisher claims that it can effectively clean the root canals with complex morphology. This study aimed to assess the effect of XP-Endo finisher on the amount of residual debris and smear layer on the root canal walls of mandibular second premolars.

Materials And Methods: In this study Fifty extracted mandibular second premolars with a root curvature <20° were collected. Root canals were prepared using BioRaCe rotary system. The root canals were in contact with the file and different irrigating solutions for 1 min. The teeth were then randomly divided into four experimental ( = 10) and one positive control group as follows: (1) XPF + saline, (2) XPF + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (3) XPF + sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), (4) XPF + EDTA + NaOCl and (control) EDTA + NaOCl. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned into two halves and the amount of debris and smear layer remaining in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the roots was quantified and scored under an electron microscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the groups, and < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The highest mean amount of residual debris (2.9 ± 1.13) was noted in XPF + saline group ( < 0.05). XPF + saline and XPF + NaOCl (3.8 ± 0.60) had the lowest efficacy for smear layer removal ( < 0.05) with no significant within-group difference. No significant difference was noted between Groups 2, 3, and 4 with the positive control group regarding debris removal. Groups 2 and 4 had no significant difference with the positive control group regarding smear layer removal.

Conclusion: Use of XP-Endo finisher has no superiority to the standard protocol for the use of irrigating solutions (EDTA + NaOCl) for debris and smear layer removal, but in some cases, such as second appointment of regeneration treatment we cannot use NaOCl because of its destructive effects on stem cells; thus, we can benefit from the synergistic effects of XPF and EDTA for better smear layer removal.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474170PMC
May 2019

Pulp capping materials modulate the balance between inflammation and regeneration.

Dent Mater 2019 01 27;35(1):24-35. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, ISM, Inst Movement Sci, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

The interrelations between inflammation and regeneration are of particular significance within the dental pulp tissue inextensible environment. Recent data have demonstrated the pulp capacity to respond to insults by initiating an inflammatory reaction and dentin pulp regeneration. Different study models have been developed in vitro and in vivo to investigate the initial steps of pulp inflammation and regeneration. These include endothelial cell interaction with inflammatory cells, stem cell interaction with pulp fibroblasts, migration chambers to study cell recruitment and entire human tooth culture model. Using these models, the pulp has been shown to possess an inherent anti-inflammatory potential and a high regeneration capacity in all teeth and at all ages. The same models were used to investigate the effects of tricalcium silicate-based pulp capping materials, which were found to modulate the pulp anti-inflammatory potential and regeneration capacity. Among these, resin-containing materials such as TheraCal shift the pulp response towards the inflammatory reaction while altering the regeneration process. On the opposite, resin-free materials such as Biodentine™ have an anti-inflammatory potential and induce the pulp regeneration capacity. This knowledge contradicts the new tendency of developing resin-based calcium silicate hybrid materials for direct pulp capping. Additionally, it would allow investigating the modulatory effects of newly released pulp capping materials on the balance between tissue inflammation and regeneration. It would also set the basis for developing future capping materials targeting these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2018.09.008DOI Listing
January 2019

The role of stem cell therapy in regeneration of dentine-pulp complex: a systematic review.

Prog Biomater 2018 Dec 28;7(4):249-268. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Endodontology Research Group, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XY, UK.

Infection of the dental pulp will result in inflammation and eventually tissue necrosis which is treated conventionally by pulpectomy and root canal treatment. Advances in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering along with the introduction of new sources of stem cells have led to the possibility of pulp tissue regeneration. This systematic review analyzes animal studies published since 2010 to determine the ability of stem cell therapy to regenerate the dentine-pulp complex (DPC) and the success of clinical protocols. In vitro and human clinical studies are excluded and only the experimental studies on animal models were included. Dental pulp stem cells constitute the most commonly used cell type. The majority of stem cells are incorporated into various types of scaffold and implanted into root canals. Some of the studies combine growth factors with stem cells in an attempt to improve the outcome. Studies of ectopic transplantation using small animal models are simple and non-systematic evaluation techniques. Stem cell concentrations have not been so far reported; therefore, the translational value of such animal studies remains questionable. Though all types of stem cells appear capable of regenerating a dentine-pulp complex, still several factors have been considered in selecting the cell type. Co-administrative factors are essential for inducing the systemic migration of stem cells, and their vascularization and differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. Scaffolds provide a biodegradable structure able to control the release of growth factors. To identify problems and reduce costs, novel strategies should be initially tested in subcutaneous or renal capsule implantation followed by root canal models to confirm results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40204-018-0100-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304177PMC
December 2018

Dental Pulp Response to RetroMTA after Partial Pulpotomy in Permanent Human Teeth.

J Endod 2018 Nov 18;44(11):1692-1696. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Aix Marseille University, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut des Sciences du Mouvement, Institute Movement Science, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: A lack of information exists regarding the efficacy of RetroMTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea) directly applied on the pulp in vital pulp therapy. This study was designed to examine the clinical efficacy of RetroMTA compared with ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) for partial pulpotomy.

Methods: Partial pulpotomy was performed in 22 healthy human maxillary and mandibular third molars planned for extraction. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 11) and underwent partial pulpotomy with RetroMTA and ProRoot MTA as the control. The teeth were then restored with glass ionomer cement. Clinical and electric pulp tests were performed after 1 and 8 weeks. The teeth were radiographed and extracted at 8 weeks. Histologic sections were prepared and analyzed for pulp inflammation and dentinal bridge formation. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: Clinical examination after 1 and 8 weeks showed no sensitivity to heat, cold, or palpation in the ProRoot MTA and RetroMTA groups. Periapical radiographs taken before the extraction of teeth showed no evidence of periapical pathology. Electric pulp testing revealed no sensitivity. Data comparisons using the Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the materials with regard to the pulp inflammation type, intensity and extension (P = .3), or bridge continuity (P = .12). However, these data revealed a significant difference between the 2 materials in pulp morphology (P < .05) and bridge thickness (P < .01).

Conclusions: This is the first work to evaluate a RetroMTA histologic outcome in partial pulpotomy in human permanent teeth. It shows pulp disorganization, an absence of inflammation, and discontinuous mineralization, which may represent a potential drawback with RetroMTA in this indication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2018.07.013DOI Listing
November 2018

Canal Transportation and Centering Ability of ProTaper and SafeSider in Preparation of Curved Root Canals: A CBCT Evaluation.

Iran Endod J 2018 ;13(2):240-245

Dental Material Research Center, Department of Endodontics, Tehran Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Maintaining the original central canal path is an important parameter in efficient root canal preparation. Instruments causing minimal changes in original canal path are preferred for this purpose. This study sought to compare canal transportation and centering ability of ProTaper and SafeSider instruments in curved mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular first molars using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods And Materials: In this experimental study, 30 mesiobuccal root canals of extracted human mandibular first molars with 20° to 40° curvature were randomly divided into two groups (=15). After mounting in putty, preoperative CBCT scans were obtained of teeth. Root canals in group A were shaped using S1, S2, F1 and F2 of ProTaper system. Root canals in group B were instrumented to size 25 using SafeSider system according to the manufacturers' instructions. Postoperative CBCT scans were then obtained. The distance between the external root surface and internal canal wall was measured at the mesial and distal at 1, 3 and 7 mm from the apex. The values measured on primary and secondary CBCT scans were compared to assess possible changes in original central canal path and canal transportation. Data were compared using the -test and repeated measure ANOVA.

Results: ProTaper and SafeSider were significantly different in terms of canal transportation and centering ability, and ProTaper was significantly superior to SafeSider in this respect (<0.001).

Conclusion: ProTaper (in contrast to SafeSider) is well capable of maintaining the original central canal path with the least amount of transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/iej.v13i2.19200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911301PMC
January 2018

Human Pulp Responses to Partial Pulpotomy Treatment with TheraCal as Compared with Biodentine and ProRoot MTA: A Clinical Trial.

J Endod 2017 Nov 16;43(11):1786-1791. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, ISM, Institute Movement Science, Faculté d'Odontologie, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Questions exist regarding the efficacy of resin-containing materials such as TheraCal directly applied on the pulp. This study sought to investigate the clinical efficacy of TheraCal as compared with Biodentine and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for partial pulpotomy.

Methods: In this clinical trial, partial pulpotomy was performed for 27 sound human maxillary and mandibular third molars scheduled for extraction. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 9) and underwent partial pulpotomy with TheraCal, Biodentine, and ProRoot MTA. The teeth were then restored with glass ionomer cement. Clinical and electric pulp tests were performed after 1 and 8 weeks. The teeth were radiographed and extracted at 8 weeks. Histologic sections were prepared and analyzed for pulp inflammation and dentinal bridge formation. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance.

Results: Clinical examination showed no sensitivity to heat, cold, or palpation in ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups. Two patients in TheraCal group (20%) reported significant pain at 1 week. Periapical radiographs showed no periapical pathology, and electric pulp test revealed a normal pulp response with no hypersensitivity. Inflammation was absent with all materials at 8 weeks. Normal pulp organization was seen in 33.33% of the teeth in ProRoot MTA, 11.11% in TheraCal, and 66.67% in Biodentine group (P = .06). Biodentine group showed complete dentinal bridge formation in all teeth, whereas this rate was 11% and 56% in TheraCal and ProRoot MTA groups, respectively (P = .001).

Conclusions: Overall, Biodentine and MTA performed better than TheraCal when used as partial pulpotomy agent and presented the best clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.06.025DOI Listing
November 2017

Second-generation Platelet Concentrate (Platelet-rich Fibrin) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontics: A Case Series.

J Endod 2017 Mar 25;43(3):401-408. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Endodontology Research Group, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Introduction: The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical and radiographic results of a pulp regenerative procedure using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second-generation platelet concentrate, in immature teeth with necrotic pulps.

Methods: Root canal revascularization using PRF was performed on 4 immature teeth with necrotic pulps. After access cavity preparation, the root canals were irrigated with low concentration sodium hypochlorite solution (1.5% sodium hypochlorite [20 mL/canal, 5 minutes]) and then irrigated with saline (20 mL/canal, 5 minutes). Equal proportions (167 mg) of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and cefaclor were mixed and diluted to a final concentration of 1 g/mL. Finally, the canal was sealed with 3-4 mm of a temporary restorative material, and patients were dismissed for 2 to 3 weeks. At the second appointment, 9 mL of the patient's whole blood was obtained and centrifuged to prepare a PRF clot. Canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA, and a sharp spreader was inserted beyond the apex. Then, the PRF clot was placed inside the root canals, and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France) was placed directly over the PRF. The teeth were restored permanently with glass ionomer cement and composite resin.

Results: Clinical examinations revealed that all cases were asymptomatic at the recall appointments at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Radiographs revealed resolution of the periapical lesions, further root development, and apical closure in all cases.

Conclusions: On the basis of the short-term results up to 12 months, PRF clots acted as successful scaffolds for the regeneration of pulpal contents in immature teeth with necrotic pulps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2016.10.016DOI Listing
March 2017

and microbial leakage assessment in endodontics: A literature review.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016 Nov-Dec;6(6):509-516

Department of Endodontic, Dental Branch of Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to perform a literature review of published and studies, which evaluated microbial leakage in endodontics in the past 10 years. A comprehensive electronic literature search was carried out in PubMed database for English articles published from 2005 to 2016 using the keywords "endodontics," "," "," "microbial leakage," "microbial penetration," "saliva," "," "," "endodontic sealers," "temporary filling material," "apical plug," "mineral trioxide aggregate," and "MTA." The keywords were combined using Boolean operators AND/OR. Based on our search strategy, 33 relevant articles were included in the study. There are three main methods for assessment of bacterial microleakage, namely, (A) the dual-chamber leakage model, (B) detection of bacteria using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and (C) polymerase chain reaction. All bacterial leakage models have some limitations and may yield different results compared to other microleakage evaluation techniques (i.e., dye penetration, fluid filtration, or electrochemical tests). The results of SEM correlated with those of microbial leakage test in most studies. Microbial leakage test using saliva better simulates the clinical setting for assessment of the leakage of single or mixed bacterial species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0762.195516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5184383PMC
December 2016

The plasma-rich in growth factor as a suitable matrix in regenerative endodontics: a case series.

N Y State Dent J 2014 Jun-Jul;80(4):49-53

The aim of this report is to describe the positive effect of plasma-rich in growth factor (PRGF) on pulp regeneration and apex formation in cases with necrotic pulps and open apices. After access cavity preparation and cleaning of the canal, triple antibiotic paste was inserted into the canals for the purpose of disinfection. After two weeks, apical bleeding was mechanically created by insertion of a #80 file through the apex. PRGF obtained from the patient was centrifuged and injected into the canals up to the level of the cementoenamel junction; the teeth were restored temporarily. The patients returned for review two weeks later. If there was absence of pain, swelling, fistula or any other complication, the teeth were sealed with MTA and composite. At 22 months follow-up, complete apex closure in two teeth and apical closure and continued increase of dentinal wall thickness in two other cases were evident.
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September 2014

In vitro comparative study of the microbial leakage of one-step, thermafil and lateral condensation techniques.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2012 Jan 1;13(1):27-30. Epub 2012 Jan 1.

Department of Endodontics, Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To compare the apical seal of lateral condensation technique, thermafil and one-step by using this model.

Materials And Methods: A two-chamber bacterial microleakage model using E. faecalis as microbial marker was used for evaluation of the leakage. Bacterial penetration was monitored over a 60-day period. Leakage was recorded when turbidity was observed in the lower chamber.

Results: After comparing the bacterial penetration values, total penetration was observed 45% in lateral condensation technique, 80% in thermafil and 75% in one-step. There was no significant difference between groups after 60 days; however, the microleakage in lateral condensation group was seen later than one-step and thermafil.

Conclusion: Thermafil and one-step obturator can be advocated as effective obturation techniques for achieving predictable success in endodontic therapy.

Clinical Significance: Thermafil and one-step obturator are suitable devices for obturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1091DOI Listing
January 2012

Comparative antibacterial efficacy of endemic satureja khuzistanica jamzad essential oil, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate solutions as root canal irrigations.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2011 ;8(1):28-32

Assistant Professor, Department of Drug and Food Control, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of endemic Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil as root canal irrigation versus 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate.

Methods: In current in vitro experimental study, fifty four single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 9 samples: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 0.31 mg/ml SKJ, 0.62 mg/ml SKJ, positive and negative controls. Each tooth was instrumented, sealed and autoclaved. Then, test groups were inoculated with E. faecalis, treated with irrigation solution and viable bacterial counts in intracanal dentin chips were determined. Utilizing SPSS 18 software, collected data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance (P = 0.05).

Results: 99.94 % and 99.50% reduction in bacteria load after 5 min treatment with NaOCl and CHX were detected, respectively. Similarly, 99.97% and 99.96% reduction in bacterial counts were observed after 5 min application of 0.62 mg/ml and 0.31 mg/ml SKJ essential. No significant differences were detected among the four irrigation solutions (P = 0.755).

Conclusion: SKJ essential oil with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.31 mg/ml could be an effective antibacterial irrigation solution.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177378PMC
October 2012

A comparative study on anti-hyperalgesia effect of MTA and Ketoprofen in inflammatory pain.

Iran Endod J 2009 6;4(3):81-6. Epub 2009 Jul 6.

Dental Student, Neuroscience Research Centre and Department of Physiology, Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Endodontic Department, Dental School, Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is an endodontic material with different clinical applications e.g. root-end filling, pulp capping and perforation repair. It has been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of White MTA on formalin-induced hyperalgesia in a rat with inflammatory pain.

Materials And Methods: Inflammatory pain was induced by subcutaneous (SC) injection of formalin (40 µL, 2.5%) into the rat upper lip. The nociceptive behavioral responses i.e. shaking of the lower jaw and face rubbing were quantified. 40 µL of eugenol (50 mg/kg), WMTA (20 mg/0.2 mL) or ketoprofen were injected solely or in combination with formalin 2.5% and the behavioral responses were compared with those observed after formalin treatment alone. One-way ANOVA, Tukey were used for analysis of data.

Results: Formalin 2.5% provoked a biphasic nociceptive response, with an early and short lasting first tonic phase followed by a second phase. Solely SC injection of either WMTA or ketoprofen (a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) did not stimulate any significant nociceptive behaviour. However, injection of eugenol (a pain relieving agent) induced the early phase not the tonic phase of nociceptive response. WMTA, eugenol or ketoprofen injection 20 min before formalin injection attenuated the first phase but somehow prevented the induction of the second phase of nociceptive responses which were produced by formalin. Behavioural nociceptive responses including shaking of the lower jaw and face rubbing were significantly reduced when the subject was pretreated with either WMTA or ketoprofen (P<0.001).

Conclusion: In this study, WMTA induced pain reduction by suppression of the formalininduced nociceptive response.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758864PMC
September 2013