Publications by authors named "Heng Zhao"

495 Publications

NCAPG2 Is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker and Promotes Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance in Low-Grade Glioma.

Front Oncol 2022 8;12:918606. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, China.

Gliomas account for 75% of all primary malignant brain tumors in adults and are associated with high mortality. Mounting evidence has shown that NCAPG2 is differentially expressed in various cancers. However, the prognostic value and immune functions of NCAPG2 in low-grade glioma (LGG) remain unresolved. In the present study, we revealed that NCAPG2 was up-regulated in LGG, and its higher expression was associated with adverse clinical outcomes and poor clinical characteristics, including WHO grade, IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and primary therapy outcome. The results of the Cox regression analysis revealed that NCAPG2 was an independent factor for the prognosis of low-grade glioma. Meanwhile, we also established a nomogram based on NCAPG2 to predict the 1-, 3-, or 5-year survival in LGG patients. Furthermore, we found that Copy number variation (CNV) and DNA hypomethylation results in its overexpression in LGG. In addition, functional annotation confirmed that NCAPG2 was mainly involved in the immune regulation and WNT signaling pathways. Finally, we determined that increased expression of NCAPG2 was correlated with infiltration levels of various immune cells and immune checkpoint in LGG. Importantly, we found that NCAPG2 was highly expressed in glioma stem cells lines and knockdown of NCAPG2 significantly inhibited the self-renewal ability of GSC. This is the first study to identify NCAPG2 as a new potential prognostic biomarker and characterize the functional roles of NCAPG2 in the progression of LGG, and provides a novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for LGG in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.918606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309203PMC
July 2022

MIL-100(Fe) Sub-Micrometric Capsules as a Dual Drug Delivery System.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 12;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara 14801-902, Brazil.

Nanoparticles of metal-organic frameworks (MOF NPs) are crystalline hybrid micro- or mesoporous nanomaterials that show great promise in biomedicine due to their significant drug loading ability and controlled release. Herein, we develop porous capsules from aggregate of nanoparticles of the iron carboxylate MIL-100(Fe) through a low-temperature spray-drying route. This enables the concomitant one-pot encapsulation of high loading of an antitumor drug, methotrexate, within the pores of the MOF NPs, and the collagenase enzyme (COL), inside the inter-particular mesoporous cavities, upon the formation of the capsule, enhancing tumor treatment. This association provides better control of the release of the active moieties, MTX and collagenase, in simulated body fluid conditions in comparison with the bare MOF NPs. In addition, the loaded MIL-100 capsules present, against the A-375 cancer cell line, selective toxicity nine times higher than for the normal HaCaT cells, suggesting that [email protected]@MIL-100 capsules may have potential application in the selective treatment of cancer cells. We highlight that an appropriate level of collagenase activity remained after encapsulation using the spray dryer equipment. Therefore, this work describes a novel application of MOF-based capsules as a dual drug delivery system for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9324886PMC
July 2022

Phylogeny, Divergence Time Estimation and Biogeography of the Genus (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetaceae).

Front Microbiol 2022 7;13:907961. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Institute of Microbiology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Species of are important tree pathogens and play a crucial role in forest ecosystems. The species diversity and distribution of have been studied, however, its evolutionary history is poorly understood. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequence data. Molecular clock analyses developed the divergence times of based on a dataset (ITS + LSU rDNA + + + α). Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) was used to reconstruct the historical biogeography for the genus with a Dispersal Extinction Cladogenesis (DEC) model. Here, we provide a robust phylogeny of , with a description of a new species, from Yunnan Province, China. Molecular clock analyses suggested that the common ancestor of and emerged in the Paleogene period with full support and a mean stem age of 56.9 Mya (95% highest posterior density of 35.9-81.6 Mya), and most species occurred in the Neogene period. Biogeographic studies suggest that Asia, especially in the Hengduan-Himalayan region, is probably the ancestral area. Five dispersals and two vicariances indicate that species of were rapidly diversified. Speciation occurred in the Old World and New World due to geographic separation. This study is the first inference of the divergence times, biogeography, and speciation of the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.907961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301299PMC
July 2022

Characterization of the Immunologic Phenotype of Dendritic Cells Infected With Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

Front Immunol 2022 5;13:931740. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.

Due to viral envelope glycoprotein D binding to cellular membrane HVEM receptor, HSV-1 can infect certain dendritic cells, which becomes an event in the viral strategy to interfere with the host's immune system. We previously generated the HSV-1 mutant strain M6, which produced an attenuated phenotype in mice and rhesus monkeys. The attenuated M6 strain was used to investigate how HSV-1 infection of dendritic cells interferes with both innate and adaptive immunity. Our study showed that dendritic cells membrane HVEM receptors could mediate infection of the wild-type strain and attenuated M6 strain and that dendritic cells infected by both viruses in local tissues of animals exhibited changes in transcriptional profiles associated with innate immune and inflammatory responses. The infection of pDCs and cDCs by the two strains promoted cell differentiation to the CD103 phenotype, but varied transcriptional profiles were observed, implying a strategy that the HSV-1 wild-type strain interferes with antiviral immunity, probably due to viral modification of the immunological phenotype of dendritic cells during processing and presentation of antigen to T cells, leading to a series of deviations in immune responses, ultimately generating the deficient immune phenotype observed in infected individuals in the clinical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.931740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9294641PMC
July 2022

A Novel Framework for Automation Technology Based on Machine Vision and Robotics in Electrical Power Inspection Processing.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2022 4;2022:9158936. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., Ltd. Research Institute, Nanjing 211103, China.

As a well-known support, computer vision is a powerful factor to improve the application and development of the electronic system. Whether the power system can operate safely and stably can greatly influence the deduction of providence. All types of electric swinging devices are easily disturbed by various factors during the assistance operation. The ubiquitous power system that operates everywhere becomes extremely small once the electrical equipment is abandoned. For the current complexity system, if the old-fashioned hand-written visual monitoring system is still used, not only will their ability fails to meet the requirements but also the number of cumbersome, important, and financial context will be unsatisfactory. It is natural to reason about some problems. Serious problems are due to incompetent human investigation. Issues are not optimally handled during this period. The application of Coach Ken technology can fully utilize machine vision technology to analyze the salient data and identify dominant devices that support shape vision. Meanwhile, it can truly realize the supervision system of perception and machine control. In view of this, we in this work mainly expound the artifact recognition technology supported by machine vision reproduction. Besides, we disassemble the composition method of the electric power supply recognition system supported by machine vision parallel, in order to enhance the future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9158936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9273454PMC
July 2022

High-performance micro/nanoplastics characterization by MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry.

Chemosphere 2022 Jul 8;307(Pt 1):135601. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Micro/nanoplastics (MNPs) are widespread environmental pollutants that cause high health risks. However, high heterogeneity in particle sizes and chemical compositions of MNPs make their accurate characterization extremely challenging. Herein, we established a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) strategy for the unambiguous characterization of different types of MNPs with high performance, including polystyrene, polyethylene glycol terephthalate, polyamide, polymethyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer, and polycarbonate. The MNP sample preparation and detection conditions were systematically optimized by using response surface methodology, and the MS detection signal-to-noise ratios were improved 1.5 times on average. The ultrahigh mass resolution of FTICR MS is crucial to the unambiguous elucidation of MNP structures. We demonstrate that this MS strategy is highly efficient in the characterization of polymer constitutions of environmental MNPs derived from foam, bottles, cable ties, and compact discs, providing a promising tool for MNP detection and safety evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135601DOI Listing
July 2022

Diagnostic value of bone marrow cell morphology in visceral leishmaniasis-associated hemophagocytic syndrome: Two case reports.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Jun;10(16):5463-5469

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Children's Major Disease Research, The Kunming Children's Hospital, Kunming 650228, Yunnan Province, China.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis related-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (VL-HLH) is a hemophagocytic syndrome caused by infection. VL-HLH is rare, especially in nonendemic areas where the disease is severe, and mortality rates are high. The key to diagnosing VL-HLH is to find the pathogen; therefore, the must be accurately identified for timely clinical treatment.

Case Summary: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, laboratory examination results, and bone marrow cell morphology of two children with VL-HLH diagnosed bone marrow cell morphology at Kunming Children's Hospital of Yunnan, China. Both cases suspected of having malignant tumors at other hospitals and who were unresponsive to treatment were transferred to Kunming Children's Hospital. They are Han Chinese girls, one was 2 years old and the other one is 9 mo old. They had repeated fevers, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypofibrinogenemia over a long period and met the HLH-2004 criteria. Their HLH genetic test results were negative. Both children underwent chemotherapy as per the HLH-2004 chemotherapy regimen, but it was ineffective and accompanied by serious infections. We found amastigotes in their bone marrow morphological examination of their bone marrow cells, which showed hemophagocytic cells; thus, the children were diagnosed with VL-HLH. After being transferred to a specialty hospital for treatment, the condition was well-controlled.

Conclusion: Morphological examination of bone marrow cells plays an important role in diagnosing VL-HLH. When clinically diagnosing secondary HLH, VL-HLH should be considered in addition to common pathogens, especially in patients for whom HLH-2004 chemotherapy regimens are ineffective. For infants and young children, bone marrow cytology examinations should be performed several times and as early as possible to find the pathogens to reduce potential misdiagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i16.5463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210904PMC
June 2022

Linker Unit Modulation of Polymer Acceptors Enables Highly Efficient Air-Processed All-Polymer Solar Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Jul 10:e2202223. Epub 2022 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, MOE Key Laboratory of High-Performance Polymer Materials & Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210023, P. R. China.

A group of regioregular polymer acceptors is synthesized by polymerizing Y6 moieties with different linker units including thiophene, vinylene, 2,2'-bithiophene, and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, and their optoelectrical properties and photovoltaic performances are studied systematically. It is found that the linker units have significant impacts on the backbone planarity, conjugation, and hence optoelectrical properties of polymer acceptors. The vinylene-based PYF-V-o polymer shows a smaller dihedral angle between the end groups and vinylene units and a more rigid polymer backbone, thus affording bathochromic absorption and better electron-transporting capacity. As a result, the PM6:PYF-V-o based all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) are able to achieve the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.4% with an unprecedented small voltage loss of 0.49 V. Moreover, the PM6:PYF-V-o blend exhibits good resistance to environmental stressors and the air-processed PM6:PYF-V-o cells can still maintain a high efficiency of 16.1%, which is the best air-processed all-PSC efficiency reported to date. This study provides the structural-property guidance that can be used to facilitate the development of polymer acceptors for all-PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202202223DOI Listing
July 2022

Word2Pix: Word to Pixel Cross-Attention Transformer in Visual Grounding.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Jun 24;PP. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Current one-stage methods for visual grounding encode the language query as one holistic sentence embedding before fusion with visual features for target localization. Such a formulation provides insufficient ability to model query at the word level, and therefore is prone to neglect words that may not be the most important ones for a sentence but are critical for the referred object. In this article, we propose Word2Pix: a one-stage visual grounding network based on the encoder-decoder transformer architecture that enables learning for textual to visual feature correspondence via word to pixel attention. Each word from the query sentence is given an equal opportunity when attending to visual pixels through multiple stacks of transformer decoder layers. In this way, the decoder can learn to model the language query and fuse language with the visual features for target prediction simultaneously. We conduct the experiments on RefCOCO, RefCOCO + , and RefCOCOg datasets, and the proposed Word2Pix outperforms the existing one-stage methods by a notable margin. The results obtained also show that Word2Pix surpasses the two-stage visual grounding models, while at the same time keeping the merits of the one-stage paradigm, namely, end-to-end training and fast inference speed. Code is available at https://github.com/azurerain7/Word2Pix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3183827DOI Listing
June 2022

Immunological Study of Combined Administration of SARS-CoV-2 DNA Vaccine and Inactivated Vaccine.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China.

Objective: We constructed two DNA vaccines containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) genes of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and used them in combination with inactivated vaccines in a variety of different protocols to explore potential novel immunization strategies against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Methods: Two DNA vaccine candidates with different signal peptides (namely, secreted and membrane signal peptides) and RBD protein genes of different SARS-CoV-2 strains (Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, C.37) were used. Four different combinations of DNA and inactivated vaccines were tested, namely, Group A: three doses of DNA vaccine; B: three doses of DNA vaccine and one dose of inactivated vaccine; C: two doses of inactivated vaccine and one dose of DNA vaccine; and D: coadministration of DNA and inactivated vaccines in two doses. Subgroups were grouped according to the signal peptide used (subgroup 1 contained secreted signal peptides, and subgroup 2 contained membrane signal peptides). The in vitro expression of the DNA vaccines, the humoral and cellular immunity responses of the immunized mice, the immune cell population changes in local lymph nodes, and proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum samples were evaluated.

Results: The antibody responses and cellular immunity in Group A were weak for all SARS-CoV-2 strains; for Group B, there was a great enhancement of neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers against the B.1.617.2 variant strain. Group C showed a significant increase in antibody responses (NAb titers against the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain were 768 and 1154 for Group C1 and Group C2, respectively, versus 576) and cellular immune responses, especially for variant B.1.617.2 (3240 ( < 0.001) and 2430 ( < 0.05) for Group C1 and Group C2, versus 450); Group D showed an improvement in immunogenicity. Group C induced higher levels of multiple cytokines.

Conclusion: The DNA vaccine candidates we constructed, administered as boosters, could enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses of inactivated vaccines against COVID-19, especially for B.1.617.2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228235PMC
June 2022

Small Ruminant Farming in Tribal Areas of Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.

Vet Sci 2022 Jun 7;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Porcine Gene Editing and Xenotransplantation, Kunming 650201, China.

Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) of Punjab-Pakistan are comprised of hilly mountains with small ruminants as a sole source of income. In this study, farming practices, productivity, health and the economic value of sheep were evaluated in PATA through a survey of farmers ( = 138) holding 11,558 heads of sheep. Out of a total population, 87% were non-descriptive flocks, and 9% and 4% were purebred flocks belonging to the Kajli and Thali populations, respectively. Sheep flocks were mainly (86%) reared under the traditional production system and had a delayed onset of puberty. There was low influence of season on the reproduction, and the majority of flocks (78%) were bred throughout the year. The lack of proper vaccination and poor management exposed the flocks to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, which lead to high mortality in lambs (~22%) and adults (~32%). The share of sheep in farmers livelihood was 42%, and only 20% of producers' living standard was improved with sheep farming, but the rise in rearing more sheep was quite low (20%). Although the livestock department arranged farmers' training, the majority of farmers (83%) never participated in training and had no knowledge of modern technologies. Collectively, the traditional sheep production systems, poor management, lack of vaccination, marketing channels and farmers training hampered the sheep rearing and producers' livelihood in the PATA of Punjab-Pakistan. However, developing model livestock farms, conducting farmer training, establishing a viable market for dairy products, and introducing subsidy policy interventions can improve the sheep farming in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229448PMC
June 2022

Nonhalogenated Dual-Slot-Die Processing Enables High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

Adv Mater 2022 Aug 1;34(31):e2202659. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.

Organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising candidates for next-generation photovoltaic technologies, with their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) reaching 19%. However, the typically used spin-coating method, toxic halogenated processing solvents, and the conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), which causes excessive charge recombination, hamper the commercialization and further efficiency promotion of OSCs. Here, a simple but effective dual-slot-die sequential processing (DSDS) strategy is proposed to address the above issues by achieving a continuous solution supply, avoiding the solubility limit of the nonhalogen solvents, and creating a graded-BHJ morphology. As a result, an excellent PCE of 17.07% is obtained with the device processed with o-xylene in an open-air environment with no post-treatment required, while a PCE of over 14% is preserved in a wide range of active-layer thickness. The unique film-formation mechanism is further identified during the DSDS processing, which suggests the formation of the graded-BHJ morphology by the mutual diffusion between the donor and acceptor and the subsequent progressive aggregation. The graded-BHJ structure leads to improved charge transport, inhibited charge recombination, and thus an excellent PCE. Therefore, the newly developed DSDS approach can effectively contribute to the realm of high-efficiency and eco-friendly OSCs, which can also possibly be generalized to other organic photoelectric devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202659DOI Listing
August 2022

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 1;7(6):913-915. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Institute of Microbiology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Most species are important phytopathogenic and medicinal fungi. Recently, several species including were newly described. In the present study, the complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of was determined, with a size of 114,176 bp and a GC content of 28.98%, containing two ribosomal RNA subunit, 26 transfer RNA, and 54 protein-coding genes (PCGs). The comparative analyses indicated that the amino acids of 14 core PCGs were highly conserved in . Phylogenetic analysis of was performed based on mitogenomic data and provided a new insight to the phylogeny of the . The complete mitogenome sequence provides important data for further study of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2078677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9176326PMC
June 2022

HSV-1 Infection of Epithelial Dendritic Cells Is a Critical Strategy for Interfering with Antiviral Immunity.

Viruses 2022 05 14;14(5). Epub 2022 May 14.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development for Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650000, China.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an α subgroup member of the human herpesvirus family, infects cells via the binding of its various envelope glycoproteins to cellular membrane receptors, one of which is herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), expressed on dendritic cells. Here, HVEM gene-deficient mice were used to investigate the immunologic effect elicited by the HSV-1 infection of dendritic cells. Dendritic cells expressing the surface marker CD11c showed an abnormal biological phenotype, including the altered transcription of various immune signaling molecules and inflammatory factors associated with innate immunity after viral replication. Furthermore, the viral infection of dendritic cells interfered with dendritic cell function in the lymph nodes, where these cells normally play roles in activating the T-cell response. Additionally, the mild clinicopathological manifestations observed during the acute phase of HSV-1 infection were associated with viral replication in dendritic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v14051046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9147763PMC
May 2022

Construction of PIK3C3 Transgenic Pig and Its Pathogenesis of Liver Damage.

Life (Basel) 2022 Apr 24;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Key Laboratory for Porcine Gene Editing and Xenotransplantation in Yunnan Province, Kunming 650201, China.

As a member of the PIKs family, PIK3C3 participates in autophagy and plays a central role in liver function. Several studies demonstrated that the complete suppression of PIK3C3 in mammals can cause hepatomegaly and hepatosteatosis. However, the function of PIK3C3 overexpression on the liver and other organs is still unknown. In this study, we successfully generated PIK3C3 transgenic pigs through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by designing a specific vector for the overexpression of PIK3C3. Plasmid identification was performed through enzyme digestion and transfected into the fetal fibroblasts derived from miniature pigs. After 2 weeks of culturing, six positive colonies obtained from a total of 14 cell colonies were identified through PCR. One positive cell line was selected as the donor cell line for SCNT for the construction of PIK3C3transgenic pigs. Thirty single blastocysts were collected and identified as PIK3C3 transgenic-positive blastocysts. Two surrogates became pregnant after transferring the reconstructed embryos into four surrogates. Fetal fibroblasts of PIK3C3-positive fetuses identified through PCR were used as donor cells for SCNT to generate PIK3C3 transgenic pigs. To further explore the function of PIK3C3 overexpression, genotyping and phenotyping of the fetuses and piglets obtained were performed by PCR, immunohistochemical, HE, and apoptosis staining. The results showed that inflammatory infiltration and vacuolar formation in hepatocytes and apoptotic cells, and the mRNA expression of NF-κB, TGF-β1, TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-6 significantly increased in the livers of PIK3C3 transgenic pigs when compared with wild-type (WT) pigs. Immunofluorescence staining showed that LC3B and LAMP-1-positive cells increased in the livers of PIK3C3 transgenic pigs. In the EBSS-induced autophagy of the porcine fibroblast cells (PFCs), the accumulated LC3II protein was cleared faster in PIK3C3 transgenic (PFCs) thanWT (PFCs). In conclusion, PIK3C3 overexpression promoted autophagy in the liver and associated molecular mechanisms related to the activation of ULK1, AMBR1, DRAM1, and MTOR, causing liver damage in pigs. Therefore, the construction of PIK3C3 transgenic pigs may provide a new experimental animal resource for liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12050630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146193PMC
April 2022

Species Diversity and Ecological Habitat of (Cunninghamellaceae, Mucorales) with Emphasis on Five New Species from Forest and Grassland Soil in China.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Apr 30;8(5). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China.

Although species of are known to be ubiquitous in soil, animal dung, and insect and plant debris, the species diversity of the genus and their ecological habitats have not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we describe five new species of from forest and grassland soils in southwestern China, with support provided by phylogenetic, morphological, and physiological evidence. The species diversity and ecological habitat of are summarized. Currently, 22 species are recorded in China, which mainly occur in soil, especially in tropical and subtropical forests and mountains. An updated key to the species of in China is also provided herein. This is the first overview of the ecological habitat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8050471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146633PMC
April 2022

Analysis on single nucleotide polymorphisms of the PeTPS-(-)Apin gene in Pinus elliottii.

PLoS One 2022 27;17(5):e0266503. Epub 2022 May 27.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Silviculture, 2011 Co-Innovation Center of Jiangxi Typical Trees Cultivation and Utilization, College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China.

Background: Resin-tapping forests of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) have been set up across Southern China owing to their high production and good resin quality, which has led to the rapid growth of the resin industry. In this study, we aimed to identify molecular markers associated with resin traits in pine trees, which may help develop marker-assisted selection (MAS).

Methods: PeTPS-(-)Apin gene was cloned by double primers (external and internal). DnaSP V4.0 software was used to evaluate genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium. SHEsis was used for haplotype analysis. SPSS was used for ANOVA and χ2 test. DnaSP v4.0 software was used to evaluate genetic diversity.

Results: The full length PeTPS-(-)Apin gene was characterized and shown to have 4638 bp, coding for a 629-amino acid protein. A total of 72 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were found. Three SNPs (CG615, AT641 and AG3859) were significantly correlated with α -pinene content, with a contribution rate > 10%. These SNPs were used to select P. elliottii with high α-pinene content, and a 118.0% realistic gain was obtained.

Conclusions: The PeTPS-(-)Apin gene is not uniquely decisive for selection of plus slash pines with stable production, high yield, and good quality, but it can be used as a reference for selection of other resin-producing pines and other resin components.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0266503PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9140247PMC
May 2022

Aucubin as a natural potential anti-acute hepatitis candidate: Inhibitory potency and hepatoprotective mechanism.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jul 14;102:154170. Epub 2022 May 14.

The College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatic inflammation can substantially impact the development of acute hepatitis. It is a pressing need to identify and exploit novel therapeutic targets as well as effective drug therapies against acute hepatitis. Aucubin (AU) is one of the main active components extracted from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides and possesses significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the protective effect and mechanism of AU on acute hepatitis have not been reported yet.

Purpose: This study aims to investigate the protective effect of AU on LPS-induced acute hepatitis and the mechanism of action.

Methods: The limma package was used to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between LPS-induced acute hepatitis and normal groups based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray data. Network pharmacology predicted targets for AU therapy against acute hepatitis, and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of the biological processes involved in these targets. The key pathways were analyzed by protein-protein interaction, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), and GSEA (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) enrichment. The important interaction targets between AU and key pathways were evaluated by molecular simulation. The in silico predicted mechanism was verified based on in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Results: A total of 116 intersection targets between AU prediction targets and differentially expressed genes were identified. They were functionally involved in the imbalance of "inflammation-anti-inflammation" and "oxidation-antioxidation" systems in the process of LPS-induced cases. In vitro experiments revealed that AU reduced inflammation in LPS-induced HepG2 cells by reducing the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, as well as iNOS enzyme activity levels. In addition, LPS-induced oxidative stress can be alleviated by AU via adjusting the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Malone dialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Protein-protein interaction and GSEA results showed that AU might exert anti-inflammatory effects mainly through the STAT3/NF-κB signal pathway. Molecular dynamics simulation as well as in vivo tests further demonstrated AU restrained nuclear transfer of NF-κB (P65), probably through reducing phosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, AU appears to reduce oxidative stress by upregulating NRF2/HO-1.

Conclusion: We explored potential targets and signal pathways of AU in inhibiting acute hepatitis. AU exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and may be a useful candidate drug for the treatment of acute hepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154170DOI Listing
July 2022

Production of Triple-Gene (GGTA1, B2M and CIITA)-Modified Donor Pigs for Xenotransplantation.

Front Vet Sci 2022 28;9:848833. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Yunnan Province Key Laboratory for Porcine Gene Editing and Xenotransplantation, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

Activation of human immune T-cells by swine leukocyte antigens class I (SLA-I) and class II (SLA-II) leads to xenograft destruction. Here, we generated the GGTA1, B2M, and CIITA (GBC) triple-gene-modified miniature pigs, analyzed the transcriptome of GBC-modified peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the pig's spleen, and investigated their effectiveness in anti-immunological rejection. A total of six cloned piglets were successfully generated using somatic cell nuclear transfer, one of them carrying the heterozygous mutations in triple genes and the other five piglets carrying the homozygous mutations in GGTA1 and CIITA genes, but have the heterozygous mutation in the B2M gene. The autopsy of GBC-modified pigs revealed that a lot of spot bleeding in the kidney, severe suppuration and necrosis in the lungs, enlarged peripulmonary lymph nodes, and adhesion between the lungs and chest wall were found. Phenotyping data showed that the mRNA expressions of triple genes and protein expressions of B2M and CIITA genes were still detectable and comparable with wild-type (WT) pigs in multiple tissues, but α1,3-galactosyltransferase was eliminated, SLA-I was significantly decreased, and four subtypes of SLA-II were absent in GBC-modified pigs. In addition, even in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVEC) induced by recombinant porcine interferon gamma (IFN-γ), the expression of SLA-I in GBC-modified pig was lower than that in WT pigs. Similarly, the expression of SLA-II DR and DQ also cannot be induced by recombinant porcine IFN-γ. Through RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), 150 differentially expressed genes were identified in the PBMCs of the pig's spleen, and most of them were involved in immune- and infection-relevant pathways that include antigen processing and presentation and viral myocarditis, resulting in the pigs with GBC modification being susceptible to pathogenic microorganism. Furthermore, the numbers of human IgM binding to the fibroblast cells of GBC-modified pigs were obviously reduced. The GBC-modified porcine PBMCs triggered the weaker proliferation of human PBMCs than WT PBMCs. These findings indicated that the absence of the expression of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and SLA-II and the downregulation of SLA-I enhanced the ability of immunological tolerance in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.848833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097228PMC
April 2022

Outline, Divergence Times, and Phylogenetic Analyses of Trechisporales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota).

Front Microbiol 2022 25;13:818358. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) data set and the combined 2-locus data set [5.8S + nuc 28S rDNA (nLSU)] of taxa of Trechisporales around the world show that family forms a monophyletic lineage within Trechisporales. Bayesian evolutionary and divergence time analyses on two data sets of 5.8S and nLSU sequences indicate an ancient divergence of family from Hydnodontaceae during the Triassic period (224.25 Mya). family is characterized by resupinate and thin basidiomata, smooth, verruculose, or odontoid-semiporoid hymenophore, a monomitic hyphal structure, and generative hyphae bearing clamp connections, the presence of cystidia and hyphidia in some species, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, and acyanophilous basidiospores. In addition, four new species, namely, , , , and , are described and illustrated. In addition, three new combinations, namely, , , and , are also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.818358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9083364PMC
April 2022

Evaluation of a Multilevel Program to Improve Clinician Adherence to Management Guidelines for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 05 2;5(5):e2210596. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Importance: Promotion of clinician adherence to stroke guidelines can improve stroke outcomes.

Objective: To investigate the outcomes of a multilevel system program on clinician adherence to guidelines for treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This quality improvement study used a prospective interrupted time series (ITS) and difference-in-difference (DID) design, from August 1, 2018, to January 31, 2020, divided into preprogram term and short and long postprogram terms; each term had 6 months. Data were collected during hospitalization and at discharge with an automated medical record data capture system in 58 public hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. Data were analyzed from August 2018 to January 2020.

Exposures: The multilevel system program included a modularized standard template for medical records, centrally supported continuing education, continuous monitoring and feedback, and collaborative workshops.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was adherence to 12 key performance indicators (KPIs), expressed as (1) percentage of patient-applicable KPIs achieved in each participant and (2) percentage of participants among whom all applicable KPIs were achieved (dichotomous all-or-none measure). The secondary outcome was severe disability or death (modified Rankin Scale 5-6) at discharge.

Results: Among 45 091 patients (mean [SD] age, 69 [12] years; 18 347 female [40.7%]), 28 721 from 30 hospitals received the program and 16 370 from 28 hospitals continued routine care. In adjusted DID analysis, the program was associated with an increase in the absolute percentage of KPIs achieved per patient (6.46%; 95% CI, 5.49% to 7.43%), absolute rate of all-or-none success (8.29%; 95% CI, 6.99% to 9.60%), and decreased rate of severe disability or death at discharge (-1.68%; 95% CI, -2.99% to -0.38%). The ITS result showed the program was associated with an increase in KPIs achieved per patient per week (slope change in short-term period, 0.36%; 95% CI, 0.20% to 0.52%; level change in long-term period, (9.64%; 95% CI, 4.58% to 14.69%) and in all-or-none success (slope change in short-term period 0.34%; 95% CI, 0.23% to 0.46%; level change in long-term period 5.89%; 95% CI, 0.19% to 11.59%).

Conclusions And Relevance: The centrally supported program was associated with increases in clinician adherence to guidelines and reduced the proportion of severely disabled or deceased patients with AIS at discharge, providing support for its wider implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.10596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9077486PMC
May 2022

Biometric factors and orthokeratology lens parameters can influence the treatment zone diameter on corneal topography in Corneal Refractive Therapy lens wearers.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2022 Apr 29:101700. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Institute of Medical Technology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100044, China; Department of Ophthalmology & Clinical Center of Optometry, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China; College of Optometry, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China; Eye Disease and Optometry Institute, Peking University People's Hospital, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Therapy of Retinal and Choroid Diseases, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between patients' baseline biometric factors or lens parameters and the diameter of the treatment zone in young myopic children undergoing Corneal Refractive Therapy.

Methods: The data of patients undergoing Corneal Refractive Therapy lens treatment within two years were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline clinical data, including sex, age, refractive power, corneal topography readings, ocular optical biometric measurements, and Corneal Refractive Therapy lens parameters, were subjected to Pearson, Spearman, and partial correlation analyses to identify the potential factors that may influence treatment zone diameter on corneal topography. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to predict the treatment zone size.

Results: The Right eyes of 309 patients were included in this study. The spherical refraction, flat keratometric reading, Reverse Zone Depth 2, Landing Zone Angle 1, and lens diameter were independent factors of treatment zone diameter. In the multivariate analyses, Landing Zone Angle 1 was positively correlated, while Reverse Zone Depth 2 and lens diameter were negatively correlated with the size of the treatment area. The accuracy of logistic regression in predicting the treatment zone size was 71.5%.

Conclusion: Adjustments to Corneal Refractive Therapy lens parameters may influence the treatment zone diameter on corneal topography. A higher Reverse Zone Depth 2, smaller Landing Zone Angle 1, and larger lens diameter can lead to a smaller treatment zone for Corneal Refractive Therapy lens treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2022.101700DOI Listing
April 2022

CdS-based artificial leaf for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and simultaneous degradation of biological wastewater.

Chemosphere 2022 Aug 26;301:134713. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada. Electronic address:

Rational design of all-solid-state Z-scheme heterojunction with advanced structure is essential for boosting photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we design and fabricate a novel Z-scheme photocatalyst with leaf architecture (named artificial leaf) via a simple dipping-calcination (DC) process followed by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) strategy. The prepared artificial leaf, composing of CdS, InVO, and BiVO, holds advanced leaf-like structure and Z-scheme electron transfer pathway. As a result, this novel artificial leaf exhibits outstanding capability for the harvesting of visible light and superior efficiency for the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as well as remarkably enhanced photocatalytic performance and stability for H evolution (with the rate of 5033 μm g∙h) and pollution degradation (46% pollution can be degraded within 3 h).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134713DOI Listing
August 2022

Towards More Efficient Security Inspection via Deep Learning: A Task-Driven X-ray Image Cropping Scheme.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Mar 31;13(4). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

X-ray imaging machines are widely used in border control checkpoints or public transportation, for luggage scanning and inspection. Recent advances in deep learning enabled automatic object detection of X-ray imaging results to largely reduce labor costs. Compared to tasks on natural images, object detection for X-ray inspection are typically more challenging, due to the varied sizes and aspect ratios of X-ray images, random locations of the small target objects within the redundant background region, etc. In practice, we show that directly applying off-the-shelf deep learning-based detection algorithms for X-ray imagery can be highly time-consuming and ineffective. To this end, we propose a Task-Driven Cropping scheme, dubbed TDC, for improving the deep image detection algorithms towards efficient and effective luggage inspection via X-ray images. Instead of processing the whole X-ray images for object detection, we propose a two-stage strategy, which first adaptively crops X-ray images and only preserves the task-related regions, i.e., the luggage regions for security inspection. A task-specific deep feature extractor is used to rapidly identify the importance of each X-ray image pixel. Only the regions that are useful and related to the detection tasks are kept and passed to the follow-up deep detector. The varied-scale X-ray images are thus reduced to the same size and aspect ratio, which enables a more efficient deep detection pipeline. Besides, to benchmark the effectiveness of X-ray image detection algorithms, we propose a novel dataset for X-ray image detection, dubbed SIXray-D, based on the popular SIXray dataset. In SIXray-D, we provide the complete and more accurate annotations of both object classes and bounding boxes, which enables model training for supervised X-ray detection methods. Our results show that our proposed TDC algorithm can effectively boost popular detection algorithms, by achieving better detection mAPs or reducing the run time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13040565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9031191PMC
March 2022

Indocyanine green fluorescence-navigated thoracoscopy versus traditional inflation-deflation approach in precise uniportal segmentectomy: a short-term outcome comparative study.

J Thorac Dis 2022 Mar;14(3):741-748

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy is widely used in the field of thoracic surgery. However, anatomical variations in the bronchi and lung vessels may be critical obstacles during precise pulmonary segmentectomy. Thus, it is necessary to optimize uniportal VATS segmentectomy and to accurately identify the plane between lung segments by precisely transecting the bronchi and blood vessels of the lung segments. The indocyanine green fluorescence (ICGF)-based method has the potential to be a feasible and effective technique to facilitate the uniportal VATS segmentectomy. The present study aims at comparing the short-term outcomes of ICGF versus the traditional inflation-deflation method for uniportal VATS segmentectomy.

Methods: The perioperative clinical data in 200 consecutive patients undergoing uniportal VATS segmentectomy from December 2018 to August 2020 at Shanghai Chest Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The targeted segment structures were identified and dissected precisely by using ICGF-based (N=100) or the traditional inflation-deflation (N=100) methods. The parameters of intraoperative blood loss and operation time, postoperative drainage volume, air leakage time, drainage tube retention time, length of hospital stay, and complications in the ICGF group were collected. Further, the operation time between the ICGF and the inflation-deflation groups was compared. The data summary and statistical analysis were performed by SPSS 19.0. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: No massive hemorrhage, hypoxemia, allergy, conversion to lobectomy, or wedge resection was noted during the surgery. ICGF groups resulted in a shorter operative time (90±11.46 118±10.59 min, P<0.001). No postoperative complications were observed, e.g., bronchopleural fistula, hemoptysis, or atelectasis. All patients were discharged as routinely scheduled. No disease recurrence or metastasis was found during the follow-ups.

Conclusions: Our study indicated that the ICGF-based navigation approach is a simple, effective, and reliable technique that can greatly facilitate the uniportal VATS segmentectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-22-292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8987837PMC
March 2022

Synergistic Effect of Au-PdO Modified Cu-Doped KWO Nanowires for Dual Selectivity High Performance Gas Sensing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Mar 14;14(11):13836-13847. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute for Smart Materials and Engineering, University of Jinan, No. 336 Nanxinzhuang West Road, 250022, Jinan, P. R. China.

Both 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and triethylamine are highly toxic and harmful to human health, and their chronic inhalation can cause respiratory diseases, eye lesions, dermatitis, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and even fatality. Developing sensors for detecting such toxic gases with low power consumption, high response with superselectivity, and stability is crucial for healthcare and environmental monitoring. This study presents a typical gas sensor fabricated based on AuPdO modified Cu-doped KWO nanowires, which can selectively detect 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and triethylamine at 120 and 200 °C, respectively. The sensor displays excellent sensing performance at reduced operating temperature, high selectivity, fast response/recovery, and stability, which can be attributed to a synergistic effect of Cu dopants and AuPdO nanoparticles on the KWO host. The enhanced sensing response and selectivity could be attributed to the oxygen vacancies/defects, bandgap excitation, the electronic sensitization, the reversible redox reaction of PdO and Cu, the cocatalytic activity of AuPdO, and Schottky barrier contacts at the interface of tungsten oxide and Au. The significant variations in the activation capacities of Cu-doped KWO, Pd/PdO, and Au nanoparticles toward 3H-2B and TEA, and the diffusion depth of the two gases in the coated sensing layer may cause dual selectivity. The designed gas sensor materials can serve as a sensitive target for detecting toxic biomarkers and hold broad application prospects in food and environmental safety inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c23051DOI Listing
March 2022

A study on the influencing factors of the public's willingness to donate funds for critical illness crowdfunding projects on network platforms.

PLoS One 2022 11;17(3):e0263706. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China.

As an emerging charity model, critical illness network crowdfunding provides a source of funds for some critically ill patients in China who have difficulty paying their high treatment costs by themselves. This study aims to investigate the influencing factors of the public's willingness to donate to critical illness crowdfunding projects on Internet platforms. From a perspective combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, a complex and comprehensive structural equation model is proposed. We randomly selected 1,000 members of the public in China and empirically verified the study framework through structural equation modeling (SEM) based on 710 valid questionnaires. The results show that the public's donation willingness and the social distance to a critical illness crowdfunding project on an online platform positively affect the public's donation behavior, and donation attitude positively affect donation willingness; perceived usefulness and empathic concern positively affect the public's donation attitude, which in turn affects its donation willingness. This study confirms that members of the public are more likely to help people who have similar demographic factors or people who are similar to themselves and have the same values, i.e., people who have a close social distance. It innovatively proposes and verifies the hypothesis that empathic concern can significantly positively affect users' perceived usefulness and donation attitude. Strong empathic concern triggers donation willingness and behavior.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0263706PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8916639PMC
April 2022

Application of three-dimensional reconstruction of left upper lung lobes in anatomical segmental resection.

Thorac Cancer 2022 04 8;13(8):1176-1183. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: The lobar and segmental anatomy are the basis for anatomical pulmonary segmentectomy.

Methods: From October 2017 to June 2021, 136 patients with small pulmonary nodules scheduled for anatomical pulmonary segmentectomy at our institution underwent three-dimensional (3D) lung reconstruction. The anatomy of the left upper lobe (LUL) was statistically analyzed and graphically mapped using the reconstructed models, and the role of this reconstruction method in performing pulmonary segmentectomy was explored.

Results: Through the analysis of the reconstructed models, the upper stem (S1 + 2 + 3) bronchus was classified as having two (94/136 cases) or three branches (42/136 cases). The upper stem artery had two branches in 24/136 patients, three in 60/136 cases, four in 44/136 cases, and five in 8/136 cases. A total of 103/136 upper stem veins had two branches, 26/136 had three branches, and 7/136 had four branches. The lingual stem (S4 + 5) bronchus was two-branched in 116/136 cases and three-branched in 20/136 cases, while the lingual artery was single-branched in 61/136 cases, two-branched in 70/136 cases, and three-branched in rare cases (5/136 cases). The lingual stem vein was unbranched in 119/136 cases and two-branched in 17/136 cases. Additionally, six unusual variants (<5%) were identified: one in the bronchus, with four cases; three in the pulmonary artery, with six cases; and two in the pulmonary vein, with two cases.

Conclusions: 3D reconstruction can yield results similar to specimens for lung segment studies. The reconstruction strategy and the data presented in this article will be valuable references for thoracic surgeons performing anatomic resections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9013651PMC
April 2022

PolyQ aggregation studied by model peptides with intrinsic tryptophan fluorophores.

Biophys Chem 2022 05 18;284:106782. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. Electronic address:

Polyglutamine (polyQ) model peptides are ideally suited to analyze the involvement of glutamines in the disease-related aggregation onset. Here we use a template-assisted design of polyQ-rich hairpin peptides (Trpzip-Q) to monitor structural stability with fluorescence spectroscopy. The hairpin model imitates the monomeric motif of a polyQ fibril and is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions of two cross-strand pairs of tryptophans (Trps) which are used as fluorophores to report on structural changes. The Trps also frame the polyQ repeats located on each hairpin strand with a different number of glutamines (Q). Single-stranded sequences mimic the unfolded state and were used as references to differentiate the intrinsic fluorescence signal from the spectral effect caused by structural changes. Temperature-induced hairpin unfolding was monitored by the spectral shift of the Trp fluorescence signal and transition temperatures were determined. The magnitude of the spectral shift indicates the degree of structural disorder. We observed that a longer polyQ repeat is more disordered and weakens the cross-strand Trp-Trp interactions resulting in a decrease of the spectral shift. Aggregation to a fibrillar and more ordered structure shows an increase of the spectral shift. In addition, a band at 280 nm occurs in the spectrum which clearly correlates with the turbidity of the sample and is attributed to scattering of larger aggregated structures. Our study reveals that the number of glutamines, pH and temperature affect structural stability and aggregation of polyQ repeats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2022.106782DOI Listing
May 2022
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