Publications by authors named "Heng Fong Seow"

53 Publications

Isolation and Identification of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Exosomes Derived from the Serum of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Sep 15;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-coding RNAs consisting of more than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs present in exosomes may play a critical role in the cellular processes involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression including proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells. This paper aims to identify the differential expression of exosomal lncRNAs derived from the sera of non-cancer individuals and patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma. These differentially-expressed exosomal serum lncRNAs may provide an insight into the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Serum exosomes and exosomes from SW480-7 cell culture supernatants were isolated and viewed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size distribution and protein markers of exosomes derived from SW480-7 were further analyzed using the Zetasizer Nano S instrument and western blotting technique. TEM showed that exosomes derived from serum and SW480-7 cells were round vesicles with sizes ranging from 50-200 nm. The exosomes derived from SW480-7 had an average diameter of 274.6 nm and contained the exosomal protein, ALIX/PDCD6IP. In our clinical studies, six lncRNAs, namely GAS5, H19, LINC00152, SNHG16, RMRP, and ZFAS1 were detected in the exosomes from sera of 18 CRC patients. Among these six lncRNAs, the expression level of LINC00152 was found to be significantly lower in CRC patients as compared to non-cancer individuals ( = 0.04) while lncRNA H19 was significantly up-regulated in advanced-stages (stage III and IV) of CRC ( = 0.04) as compared to early-stages (stage I and II). In conclusion, the detection of lower LINC00152 in exosomes of sera from CRC patients versus non-cancer individuals and H19 upregulation in advanced stages suggests that they may play important roles in pathogenesis and progression of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10090918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8465981PMC
September 2021

Recent Updates on Mechanisms of Resistance to 5-Fluorouracil and Reversal Strategies in Colon Cancer Treatment.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) plus leucovorin (LV) remain as the mainstay standard adjuvant chemotherapy treatment for early stage colon cancer, and the preferred first-line option for metastatic colon cancer patients in combination with oxaliplatin in FOLFOX, or irinotecan in FOLFIRI regimens. Despite treatment success to a certain extent, the incidence of chemotherapy failure attributed to chemotherapy resistance is still reported in many patients. This resistance, which can be defined by tumor tolerance against chemotherapy, either intrinsic or acquired, is primarily driven by the dysregulation of various components in distinct pathways. In recent years, it has been established that the incidence of 5-FU resistance, akin to multidrug resistance, can be attributed to the alterations in drug transport, evasion of apoptosis, changes in the cell cycle and DNA-damage repair machinery, regulation of autophagy, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell involvement, tumor microenvironment interactions, miRNA dysregulations, epigenetic alterations, as well as redox imbalances. Certain resistance mechanisms that are 5-FU-specific have also been ascertained to include the upregulation of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and the downregulation of thymidine phosphorylase. Indeed, the successful modulation of these mechanisms have been the game plan of numerous studies that had employed small molecule inhibitors, plant-based small molecules, and non-coding RNA regulators to effectively reverse 5-FU resistance in colon cancer cells. It is hoped that these studies would provide fundamental knowledge to further our understanding prior developing novel drugs in the near future that would synergistically work with 5-FU to potentiate its antitumor effects and improve the patient's overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10090854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466833PMC
August 2021

Loss of Interleukin-17RA Expression is Associated with Tumour Progression in Colorectal Carcinoma.

Pathol Oncol Res 2020 Oct 27;26(4):2291-2298. Epub 2020 May 27.

Immunology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia.

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine found in various cancers. Current evidence indicates that IL-17 plays a vital role in tumour initiation and progression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) via binding with its receptor, IL-17RA. However, the association between clinicopathological features and presence of IL-17 and IL-17RA protein in primary CRC tissues remains unclear. This study also investigates the difference between the presence of IL-17 and IL-17RA in the paired tumour tissues versus adjacent normal tissues. The presence of IL-17RA and IL-17 protein in primary CRC tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinicopathological features and IL-17RA and IL-17 immunoreactivity, were analyzed by χ2 tests. We found that both IL-17RA (p = 0.001) and IL-17 (p = 0.025) in tumour cells of primary CRC tissues was significantly lower as compared to adjacent normal tissue. Positive immunoreactivity for IL-17RA and IL-17 were detected in 51.0% and 16.8% of tumour tissues, respectively. Furthermore, negative immunoreactivity of IL-17R was significantly associated with advanced stage according to TNM classifier (p = 0.027), high grade of tumour (p = 0.019), increased depth of tumour invasion (p = 0.023) and vascular invasion (p = 0.039). Positive IL-17 immunoreactivity was associated with advanced stage (p = 0.008) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.008). Thus, this study suggests that the loss of IL-17RA expression occurs as tumour progresses and this may predict the aggressiveness of tumour whilst expression of IL-17 promotes tumour progression and lymph node metastasis. Thus, loss of IL-17RA could be a useful prognostic biomarker for tumour progression in CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-020-00820-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of the miR-96-5p inhibitor and mimic on the migration and invasion of the SW480-7 colorectal cancer cell line.

Oncol Lett 2019 Aug 18;18(2):1949-1960. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

The objectives of the present study were to identify the aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissues from published miRNA profiling studies and to investigate the effects of the identified miRNA inhibitor and mimic miR-96-5p on CRC cell migration and invasion. The altered expression of the regulators of cytoskeleton mRNA in miR-96-5p inhibitor-transfected cells was determined. The miR-96-5p expression level in five CRC cell lines, HCT11, CaCo2, HT29, SW480 and SW620, and 26 archived paraffin-embedded CRC tissues were also investigated by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell viability in response to the miR-96-5p inhibitor and mimic transfections was determined by an MTT assay. A Matrigel invasion assay was conducted to select the invasive subpopulation designated SW480-7, by using the parental cell line SW480. The effects of miR-96-5p mimic- or inhibitor-transfected SW480-7 cells on cell migration and invasion were evaluated using the Transwell and Matrigel assays, and the change in expression of the regulators of cytoskeleton mRNAs was identified by Cytoskeleton Regulators RT-Profiler PCR array followed by validation with RT-qPCR. CRC tissues exhibited a significant increase in miR-96-5p expression, compared with their matched normal adjacent tissues, indicating an oncogenic role for miR-96-5p. The results demonstrated that the miR-96-5p inhibitor decreased the migration of SW480-7 cells, but had no effect on invasion. This may be due to the promotion of cell invasion by Matrigel, which counteracts the blockade of cell invasion by the miR-96-5p inhibitor. The miR-96-5p mimic enhanced SW480-7 cell migration and invasion, as expected. It was determined that there was a >2.5 fold increase in the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton regulation, myosin light chain kinase 2, pleckstrin homology like domain family B member 2, cyclin A1, IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2, Brain-specific angiogenesisinhibitor 1-associated protein 2 and microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1, in miR-96-5p inhibitor-transfected cells, indicating that they are negative regulators of cell migration. In conclusion, the miR-96-5p inhibitor blocked cell migration but not invasion, and the latter may be due to the counteraction of Matrigel, which has been demonstrated to stimulate cell invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6607361PMC
August 2019

Association between polymorphisms of interleukin-17A G197A and interleukin-17F A7488G and risk of colorectal cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Jun;14(Supplement):S299-S305

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia; Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F are inflammatory cytokines mainly produced by T helper 17 cells. IL-17A is known to be protumorigenic while IL-17F has a protective role in cancer. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the association between polymorphisms of IL-17AG197A (rs2275913) and IL-17FA7488G (rs763780) and risk of cancers. No studies have yet to be conducted to genotype the IL-17AG197A polymorphism in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Objective: To assess the association of IL-17AG197A and IL-17FA7488G polymorphisms with CRC risk.

Materials And Methods: We performed the genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method on blood samples from 80 healthy individuals and paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 70 CRC patients.

Results: Our study showed that IL-17A197AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk with odds ratios of 6.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.25-16.42, P < 0.001) and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.23-6.35, P = 0.014), in comparison with GG and AG genotypes, respectively. However, IL-17FA7488G polymorphism was not significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 0.102). No significant association of IL-17AG197A and IL-17FA7488G polymorphisms with patient and tumor variables was found.

Conclusion: This report from Malaysia shows the relationship of IL-17A197AA genotype with susceptibility to CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.235345DOI Listing
June 2018

Inhibition of cell migration and invasion by miR‑29a‑3p in a colorectal cancer cell line through suppression of CDC42BPA mRNA expression.

Oncol Rep 2017 Dec 16;38(6):3554-3566. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of miR‑29a‑3p inhibitor on the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cell lines (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. miR‑29a‑3p was detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) in the CRC cell lines HCT11, CaCo2, HT29, SW480 and SW620. An invasive subpopulation designated SW480‑7 was derived from the parental cell line, detected by Transwell and Transwell Matrigel assays. Cytoskeleton Regulators RT2 profiler PCR array and western blot analysis were utilized to identify the alterations in expression of downstream mRNAs. siRNA against CDC42BPA was transfected into SW480‑7 and effects on cell migration and invasion were investigated. Data obtained showed that miR‑29a‑3p was detected in these five CRC cell lines. miR‑29a‑3p inhibitor had no effect on viability but stimulated cell migration and invasion of SW480‑7 cells. In contrast, miR‑29a‑3p mimic suppressed cell migration and invasion. TargetScan miRBD and DIANA were employed to identify the potential direct target genes of miR‑29a‑3p in the Cytoskeleton Regulators RT2-Profiler PCR array. Cytoskeleton Regulators RT2-Profiler PCR array data showed that 3 out of the 5 predicted targets genes, CDC42BPA (2.33-fold), BAIAP2 (1.79-fold) and TIAM1 (1.77-fold), in the array were upregulated by miR‑29a‑3p. A significant increase in expression IQGAP2, PHLDB2, SSH1 mRNAs and downregulation of PAK1 mRNA was also detected with miR‑29a‑3p inhibition. Increase in CDC42BPA, SSH1 and IQGAP2 mRNA expression correlated with increased protein level in miR‑29a‑3p transfected SW-480-7 cells. Silencing of CDC42BPA (an enhancer of cell motility) partially abolished miR‑29a‑3p inhibitor-induced stimulation of cell migration and invasion. miR‑29a‑3p expression in stage II and III CRC is relatively lower than that of stage I CRC. However, the data need to be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. In conclusion, inhibition of miR‑29a‑3p stimulates SW480‑7 cell migration and invasion and downstream expression IQGAP2, PHLDB2, SSH1 mRNAs are upregulated whilst PAK1 mRNA is downregulated. Silencing of CDC42BPA expression partially reduces miR29a‑3p inhibitor-induced migration and invasion of SW480‑7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2017.6037DOI Listing
December 2017

Advances in targeted and immunobased therapies for colorectal cancer in the genomic era.

Onco Targets Ther 2016 31;9:1899-920. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Targeted therapies require information on specific defective signaling pathways or mutations. Advances in genomic technologies and cell biology have led to identification of new therapeutic targets associated with signal-transduction pathways. Survival times of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) can be extended with combinations of conventional cytotoxic agents and targeted therapies. Targeting EGFR- and VEGFR-signaling systems has been the major focus for treatment of metastatic CRC. However, there are still limitations in their clinical application, and new and better drug combinations are needed. This review provides information on EGFR and VEGF inhibitors, new therapeutic agents in the pipeline targeting EGFR and VEGFR pathways, and those targeting other signal-transduction pathways, such as MET, IGF1R, MEK, PI3K, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and death-receptor signaling pathways for treatment of metastatic CRC. Additionally, multitargeted approaches in combination therapies targeting negative-feedback loops, compensatory networks, and cross talk between pathways are highlighted. Then, immunobased strategies to enhance antitumor immunity using specific monoclonal antibodies, such as the immune-checkpoint inhibitors anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1, as well as the challenges that need to be overcome for increased efficacy of targeted therapies, including drug resistance, predictive markers of response, tumor subtypes, and cancer stem cells, are covered. The review concludes with a brief insight into the applications of next-generation sequencing, expression profiling for tumor subtyping, and the exciting progress made in in silico predictive analysis in the development of a prescription strategy for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S95101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821380PMC
April 2016

Comparison of invasion by human microvascular endothelial cell lines in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a threedimensional (3D) cell culture system.

Malays J Pathol 2015 Dec;37(3):219-25

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pathology, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Immortalized human endothelial cells are widely used as in vitro models for debilitating conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) is immortalized via stable transfection with a gene encoding SV40 large antigen whilst telomerase-immortalized human microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells is immortalized by engineering the human telomerase catalytic protein (hTERT) into primary microvascular endothelial cells. Here, we established a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid invasion assay with HMEC-1 and TIME and compared the difference in their ability to invade through the collagen matrix in response to exogenous growth factors, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).

Methods: TIME and HMEC-1 spheroids were embedded in a collagen matrix. The spheroids were stimulated with exogenous growth factors, namely VEGF (50 ng/mL) and bFGF (200 ng/mL). Twelve points of invasion length from a spheroid was measured using image analysis software, Image J. Three independent experiments were conducted and data was analysis by GraphPad Instat software, version 3.05.

Results: TIME spheroid invasion was 16.5 fold higher with exogenous VEGF (50 ng/mL) and bFGF (200 ng/mL) treatment as compared to those cultured in complete growth medium only. In contrast, no significant difference was observed between HMEC-1 spheroids stimulated with and without exogenous growth factors, VEGF and bFGF.

Conclusions: This is the first report on the establishment of a 3D-spheroid invasion assay with TIME cells. The requirement of VEGF and bFGF for TIME spheroids invasion is a novel finding. In addition, this assay offers an advantage over HMEC-1 for testing novel angiogenic agents since it is not affected by endogenously secreted growth factors.
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December 2015

Increased Expression of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase p110α and Gene Amplification of PIK3CA in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Pathol Oncol Res 2016 Apr 18;22(2):413-9. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Molecular alterations in PIK3CA oncogene that encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K p110α) are commonly found in human cancers. In this study, we examined the expression of PI3K p110α and PIK3CA gene amplification in 74 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated overexpression of PI3K p110α protein in 44.6% (33/74) of NPCs and 4.8% (2/42) of the adjacent normal nasopharyngeal mucosa. Copy number of PIK3CA gene was successfully analyzed in 51 of the total NPC cases and 19 non-malignant nasopharynx tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. Using mean + 2(standard deviation) of copy numbers in the non-malignant nasopharynx tissues as a cutoff value, PIK3CA copy number gain was found in 10 of 51 (19.6%) NPC cases. High PI3K p110α expression level was correlated with increased PIK3CA copy number (Spearman's rho =0.324, P = 0.02). PI3K p110α expression and PIK3CA copy number did not associate with Akt phosphorylation, and patient and tumor variables. This study suggests that PI3K p110α overexpression, which is attributed, at least in part, to PIK3CA gene amplification, may contribute to NPC pathogenesis. However, these molecular aberrations may not be responsible for activation of Akt signaling in NPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-015-0007-8DOI Listing
April 2016

Dual treatments targeting IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC or MEK synergize to inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis, and arrest cell cycle at G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cell line.

Biomed Pharmacother 2015 Oct 2;75:40-50. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive cancers that do not benefit from hormonal therapy or therapies that target HER2 receptors. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), which has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer, activates numerous downstream kinases that associate with cell proliferation and survival. This study compared the effects caused by dual treatments targeting IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC, or MEK with those by single treatments in a TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231. We used small-molecule kinase inhibitors, namely, NVP-AEW541, NVP-BKM120, KU0063794, and PD0325901 to target IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC, and MEK, respectively. Combination treatments of PD0325901 with NVP-AEW541, NVP-BKM120 or KU0063794 and NVP-AEW541 with KU0063794 demonstrated a significant synergistic growth inhibition. These dual treatments increased apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced the inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt or downstream molecules of mTORC1, as compared to the single treatments. Our study suggests that targeting multiple kinases in IGF-1R signaling may be a promising therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2015.08.031DOI Listing
October 2015

In vitro modulation of probiotic bacteria on the biofilm of Candida glabrata.

Anaerobe 2015 Aug 29;34:132-8. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

A conspicuous new concept of pathogens living as the microbial societies in the human host rather than free planktonic cells has raised considerable concerns among scientists and clinicians. Fungal biofilms are communities of cells that possess distinct characteristic such as increased resistance to the immune defence and antimycotic agents in comparison to their planktonic cells counterpart. Therefore, inhibition of the biofilm may represent a new paradigm for antifungal development. In this study, we aim to evaluate the in vitro modulation of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata biofilms using probiotic lactobacilli strains. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 were shown to have completely inhibited C. glabrata biofilms and the results were corroborated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed scanty structures of the mixed biofilms of C. glabrata and probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, biofilm-related C. glabrata genes EPA6 and YAK1 were downregulated in response to the probiotic lactobacilli challenges. The present study suggested that probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 strains inhibited C. glabrata biofilm by partially impeding the adherence of yeast cells and the effect might be contributed by the secretory compounds produced by these probiotic lactobacilli strains. Further investigations are required to examine and identify the biofilm inhibitory compounds and the mechanism of probiotic actions of these lactobacilli strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.05.009DOI Listing
August 2015

Detection of medically important Candida species by absolute quantitation real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Jan 10;8(1):e14940. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: The number of invasive candidiasis cases has risen especially with an increase in the number of immunosuppressed and immunocom promised patients. The early detection of Candida species which is specific and sensitive is important in determining the correct administration of antifungal drugs to patients.

Objectives: This study aims to develop a method for the detection, identification and quantitation of medically important Candida species through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

Materials And Methods: The isocitrate lyase (ICL) gene which is not found in mammals was chosen as the target gene of real-time PCR. Absolute quantitation of the gene copy number was achieved by constructing the plasmid containing the ICL gene which is used to generate standard curve. Twenty fungal species, two bacterial species and human DNA were tested to check the specificity of the detection method.

Results: All eight Candida species were successfully detected, identified and quantitated based on the ICL gene. A seven-log range of the gene copy number and a minimum detection limit of 10(3) copies were achieved.

Conclusions: A one-tube absolute quantification real-time PCR that differentiates medically important Candida species via individual unique melting temperature was achieved. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were not compromised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.14940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350049PMC
January 2015

Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β via the activin receptor-like kinase-5 inhibitor attenuates pulmonary fibrosis.

Mol Med Rep 2015 May 13;11(5):3808-13. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic pulmonary disease that is characterized by formation of scar tissue in lungs. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is considered an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of this disease. Hence, the antifibrotic effect of an inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor, namely, SB 431542, was investigated in our study. SB 431542 was used to treat TGF-β-treated IMR-90 cells; the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected at the protein level by using an anti-α-SMA antibody, and at the gene level by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The effect of the inhibitor on cell proliferation was determined by a cell growth assay. The inhibitor was also administered into bleomycin-treated mice. Histopathological assessment and determination of total collagen levels were carried out to evaluate the severity of lung fibrosis in these mice. Our results demonstrated that treatment with SB 431542 inhibits TGF-β‑induced α-SMA expression in lung fibroblasts, at both the protein and the mRNA levels (P<0.05). However, the inhibitor did not significantly reduce lung fibroblast proliferation. In the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model, bleomycin treatment caused important morphological changes, accompanied by an increase in the collagen level of the lungs. Early treatment with SB 431542 prevented the manifestation of histopathological alterations, whereas delayed treatment significantly decreased the collagen level (P<0.05). These results suggest that inhibition of TGF-β signaling, via inhibition of the activin receptor-like kinase-5 (ALK-5) by SB 431542, may attenuate pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.3193DOI Listing
May 2015

5-Fluorouracil Induce the Expression of TLR4 on HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line Expressing Different Variants of TLR4.

Iran J Pharm Res 2013 ;12(2):453-60

Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human TLR4 gene, namely Asp299Gly (D299G) and Thr399Ile (T399I), have been shown to impair the ability of certain individuals to respond properly to TLR4 ligands. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used for the treatment of patients with advanced colon cancers. The present study examined the impact of two common polymorphisms of the TLR4 genes on the response of the HCT116 colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU. HCT116 was transfected with Flag-CMV1-TLR4 wild-type (WT) and D299G, T399I expression plasmids. The cytotoxic effect of 5-FU on transfected cells was assessed by MTT assay. FACS analysis was performed to show the effect of 5-FU and LPS on the expression of different variants of TLR4. The lowest IC50-value was measured in cells expressing the WT TLR4 and non-transfected cells were more resistance to the drug compared to the other cells. 5-FU significantly induced the expression of TLR4 protein in the presence and absence of LPS. 5-FU also induced HMGB1 secretion, Cas3 and PARP activity and these effects were stronger in cells expressing WT TLR4 than the other cells. In conclusion, 5-FU-induced TLR4 expression and LPS had synergistic effect with 5-FU to induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813241PMC
November 2013

Molecular alterations of Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathways in colorectal cancers from a tertiary hospital at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

APMIS 2013 Oct 29;121(10):954-66. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Molecular alterations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN have been implicated in designing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to determine the status of these molecular alterations in Malaysian CRCs as such data are not available in the literature. We investigated the mutations of KRAS, BRAF, and PTEN, the gene amplification of PIK3CA, and the protein expression of PTEN and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (p110α) by direct DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 49 CRC samples. The frequency of KRAS (codons 12, 13, and 61), BRAF (V600E), and PTEN mutations, and PIK3CA amplification was 25.0% (11/44), 2.3% (1/43), 0.0% (0/43), and 76.7% (33/43), respectively. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated loss of PTEN protein in 54.5% (24/44) of CRCs and no significant difference in PI3K p110α expression between CRCs and the adjacent normal colonic mucosa (p = 0.380). PIK3CA amplification was not associated with PI3K p110α expression level, but associated with male cases (100% of male cases vs 56% of female cases harbored amplified PIK3CA, p = 0.002). PI3K p110α expression was significantly higher (p = 0.041) in poorly/moderately differentiated carcinoma compared with well-differentiated carcinoma. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, PTEN loss, and PI3K p110α expression did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation or Ki-67 expression. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, and PTEN loss were not mutually exclusive. This is the first report on CRC in Malaysia showing comparable frequency of KRAS mutation and PTEN loss, lower BRAF mutation rate, higher PIK3CA amplification frequency, and rare PTEN mutation, as compared with published reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12152DOI Listing
October 2013

Apoptosis induced by para-phenylenediamine involves formation of ROS and activation of p38 and JNK in chang liver cells.

Environ Toxicol 2014 Sep 22;29(9):981-90. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

Department of Human Biology, School of Medicine, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

para-Phenylenediamine (p-PD) is a suspected carcinogen, but it has been widely used as a component in permanent hair dyes. In this study, the mechanism of p-PD-induced cell death in normal Chang liver cells was investigated. The results demonstrated that p-PD decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cell death via apoptosis was confirmed by enhanced DNA damage and increased cell number in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, using Hoechst 33258 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis via reactive oxygen species generation was detected by the dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining method. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was assessed by western blot analysis and revealed that p-PD activated not only stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 MAPK but also extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by p-PD were markedly enhanced by ERK activation and selectively inhibited by ERK inhibitor PD98059, thus indicating a negative role of ERK. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580 moderately inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by p-PD. Similarly, SP600125, an inhibitor of SAPK/JNK, moderately inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by p-PD, thus implying that p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK had a partial role in p-PD-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that p-PD significantly increased phosphorylation of p38 and SAPK/JNK and decreased phosphorylation of ERK. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that SAPK/JNK and p38 cooperatively participate in apoptosis induced by p-PD and that a decreased ERK signal contributes to growth inhibition or apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.21828DOI Listing
September 2014

Increased NFk-B activity in HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line harboring TLR4 Asp299Gly variant.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2012 Jun;11(2):121-32

Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), considered one of the most important TLR, recognizes lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria. Recognition of ligands by TLRs induces signaling pathways resulting in activation of transcriptional factors such as NF-κB which are involved in the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. To prevent an inappropriate immune response, a complex network of molecules negatively regulates TLRs and their associated signaling pathways. Two cosegregating single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human TLR4 gene, namely Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have been associated with hyporesponsiveness to inhaled LPS. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TLR4 gene variant on NF-κB activity in colorectal cancer cell line. HCT116 cells were transfected with wild-type and mutants Flag-CMV1-TLR4 expression vectors. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate selected molecules involved in TLR4 signaling. NF-κB activity was assessed by dual-luciferase reporter assay and cytokine profiles were evaluated byELISA and Cytometric Bead Array method. Results showed that the activity of pNF-κB was higher in cells harboring TLR4 D299G compared to the other cells. However, the activity of pAKT, pERK1 and pIRAK was higher in wild-type. The results of cytokine measurements showed about four fold higher level of IL-8 in cells with wild-type TLR4. This study suggest that TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variant has an impact on TLR4 signaling and potentially on intestinal homeostasis due to impaired control signals at the epithelial cell level which may lead to chronic intestinal inflammation and interrupted intestinal homeostasis and may eventually lead to colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/011.02/ijaai.121132DOI Listing
June 2012

Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSC) inhibit the proliferation of K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukaemic cell line).

Cell Biol Int 2012 Sep;36(9):793-801

Immunology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

hUCB-MSC (human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells) offer an attractive alternative to bone marrow-derived MSC for cell-based therapy by being less invasive a source of biological material. We have evaluated the effect of hUCB-MSC on the proliferation of K562 (an erythromyeloblastoid cell line) and the cytokine secretion pattern of hUCB-MSC. Co-culturing of hUCB-MSC and K562 resulted in inhibition of proliferation of K562 in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-proliferative effect was reduced in transwells, suggesting the importance of direct cell-to-cell contact. hUCB-MSC inhibited proliferation of K562, arresting them in the G0 /G1 phase. NO (nitric oxide) was not involved in the hUCB-MSC-mediated tumour suppression. The presence of IL-6 (interleukin 6) and IL-8 were obvious in the hUCB-MSC conditioned media, but no significant increase was found in 29 other cytokines. Th1 cytokines, IFNα (interferon α), Th2 cytokine IL-4 and Th17 cytokine, IL-17 were not secreted by hUCB-MSC. There was an increase in the number of hUCB-MSC expressing the latent membrane-bound form of TGFβ1 co-cultured with K562. The anti-proliferative effect of hUCB-MSC was due to arrest of the growth of K562 in the G0 /G1 phase. The mechanisms underlying increased IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and LAP (latency-associated peptide; TGFβ1) by hUCB-MSC remains unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CBI20110595DOI Listing
September 2012

Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling by EGF downregulates membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin and enhances invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Cancer Lett 2012 May 17;318(2):162-72. Epub 2011 Dec 17.

Department of Pathology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dysregulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin function in cell-cell adhesion is common in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and correlates with metastatic disease. In this study, we examined the role of EGF-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling in E-cadherin and β-catenin regulation. We found that reduced membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin expression was positively correlated with Akt phosphorylation in NPC tissues. EGF treatment disrupted cell-cell adhesion and resulted in mesenchymal morphological features in NPC cell lines (TW01, TW04, and TW06). Western blot analysis showed that the E-cadherin protein level was partially reduced in TW04 cells only and the β-catenin levels were not considerably affected upon EGF treatment. In contrast, quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the E-cadherin, but not β-catenin, mRNA levels were markedly reduced by EGF in all cell lines. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that E-cadherin and β-catenin appeared to be markedly reduced on the cell surface and more localized in the cytoplasm. Inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 did not abolish the EGF-induced downregulation of E-cadherin protein or mRNA in TW04 cells but moderately increased the β-catenin protein level in TW01 cells and mRNA level in TW06 cells. However, LY294002 substantially restored or increased cell surface E-cadherin and β-catenin in all EGF-treated cell lines, in concordance with the inhibition of cell morphological changes. Moreover, LY294002 significantly blocked EGF-driven cell invasion, correlating with the elevation of membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin levels. In conclusion, EGF-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may not be only dependent on downregulation of E-cadherin protein/mRNA but also on mislocalization of E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mechanisms involved may be related, at least in part, to the PI3K-Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2011.12.018DOI Listing
May 2012

Detection of 10 medically important Candida species by seminested polymerase chain reaction.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 Feb 10;72(2):196-8. Epub 2011 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

A seminested PCR detecting ten medically important Candida species were achieved. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were not compromised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2011.10.008DOI Listing
February 2012

Variant Toll-like receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) and Toll-like receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp alleles) in colorectal cancer.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2011 Jun;10(2):91-9

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

The innate immune system recognizes the presence of bacterial products through the expression of a family of membrane receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Polymorphisms in TLRs have been shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly; Thr399Ile) and TLR2 (Arg677Trp; Arg753Gln) genes and risk of colorectal cancer. DNA from 60 colorectal carcinoma patients from 3 major races in Malaysia (22 Malays, 20 Chinese and 18 Indians) and blood from 50 apparently healthy individuals were evaluated. Control group were matched to study group by race and age. The polymorphisms were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Genotyping results showed two out of sixty tumour specimens (3.3%) harbored both variant TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles. In contrast, DNA isolated from blood cells of 50 apparently healthy individuals harbored wild type TLR4. In the case of TLR2 Arg753Gln genotyping, all of the fifty normal and 60 tumours were of the wild type genotype. TLR2 Arg677Trp genotyping showed a heterozygous pattern in all samples. However, this may not be a true polymorphism of the TLR2 gene as it is likely due to a variation of a duplicated ( pseudogene) region. There was only a low incidence (2/60; 3.3%) of TLR4 polymorphism at the Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles in colorectal cancer patients. All normal and tumour samples harbored the wild type TLR2 Arg753 allele. Our study suggests that variant TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) as well as TLR2 (Arg753Gln allele) are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/010.02/ijaai.9199DOI Listing
June 2011

Carica papaya increases regulatory T cells and reduces IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells in healthy human subjects.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2011 May 24;55(5):803-6. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Immunology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Fruit and vegetables have therapeutic potential as they dampen inflammation, have no known side-effects and as whole foods have prospective additive and synergistic benefits. Th1 (IFN-γ(+) CD4(+))/Th2 (IL-4(+)CD4(+)) T cells play a vital role in mediating inflammatory responses and may be regulated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Effects of Carica papaya on cells of healthy individuals were determined using flow cytometry methods. Significant down-regulation of IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) (p=0.03, n=13), up-regulation of IL-4(+) CD4(+) (p=0.04, n=13) T cells and up-regulation of CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(-) (p=0.001, n=15) Tregs were observed after papaya consumption. In vitro cultures showed up-regulation of Tregs in male subjects and was significantly associated with levels of IL-1β in culture supernatants (R(2) =0.608, p=0.04, n=12). Other inflammatory cytokines were significantly suppressed. Papaya consumption may exert an anti-inflammatory response mediated through Tregs and have potential in alleviating inflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201100087DOI Listing
May 2011

Transcriptome profiling of endothelial cells during infections with high and low densities of C. albicans cells.

Int J Med Microbiol 2011 Aug 2;301(6):536-46. Epub 2011 Mar 2.

Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Systemic infections of Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans, are on the rise in recent years. However, the exact mode of pathogenesis of this fungus is still not well elucidated. Previous studies using C. albicans mutants locked into the yeast form via gene deletion found that this form was avirulent and did not induce significant differential expression of host genes in vitro. In this study, a high density of C. albicans was used to infect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), resulting in yeast-form infections, whilst a low density of C. albicans resulted in hyphae infections. Transcriptional profiling of HUVEC response to these infections showed that high densities of C. albicans induced a stronger, broader transcriptional response from HUVEC than low densities of C. albicans infection. Many of the genes that were significantly differentially expressed were involved in apoptosis and cell death. In addition, conditioned media from the high-density infections caused a significant reduction in HUVEC viability, suggesting that certain molecules released during C. albicans and HUVEC interactions were capable of causing cell death. This study has shown that C. albicans yeast-forms, at high densities, cannot be dismissed as avirulent, but instead could possibly contribute to C. albicans pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2010.12.002DOI Listing
August 2011

Generation of mesenchymal stem cell from human umbilical cord tissue using a combination enzymatic and mechanical disassociation method.

Cell Biol Int 2011 Mar;35(3):221-6

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) promise a great potential for regenerative medicine due to their unique properties of self-renewal, high plasticity, modulation of immune response and the flexibility for genetic modification. Therefore, the increasing demand for cellular therapy necessitates a larger-scale production of MSC; however, the technical and ethical issues had put a halt on it. To date, studies have shown that MSC could be derived from human UC (umbilical cord), which is once considered as clinical waste. We have compared the two conventional methods which are classic enzymatic digestion and explant method with our newly tailored enzymatic-mechanical disassociation method to generate UC-MSC. The generated UC-MSCs from the methods above were characterized based on their immunophenotyping, early embryonic transcription factors expression and mesodermal differentiation ability. Our results show that enzymatic-mechanical disassociation method increase the initial nucleated cell yield greatly (approximately 160-fold) and maximized the successful rate of UC-MSC generation. Enzymatic-mechanical disassociation-derived UC-MSC exhibited fibroblastic morphology and surface markers expression of CD105, CD73, CD29, CD90 and MHC class I. Furthermore, these cells constitutively express early embryonic transcription factors (Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2 and Rex-1), as confirmed by RT-PCR, indicating their multipotency and high self-renewal capacity. They are also capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes when given an appropriate induction. The present study demonstrates a new and efficient approach in generating MSC from UC, hence serving as ideal alternative source of mesenchymal stem cell for clinical and research use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CBI20100326DOI Listing
March 2011

Anti-proliferative and anti-invasive properties of a purified fraction from Streptomyces sp. H7372.

Int J Oncol 2010 Nov;37(5):1229-41

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Secondary metabolites from actinomycetes especially the genus Streptomyces may be one of the most important sources for novel anticancer agents. A purified fraction from a novel actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. H7372, was elucidated in breast cancer cells. We have isolated three purified fractions from a novel strain, Streptomyces sp. H7372. One of the fractions, designated as 31-2, exhibited the strongest growth-inhibitory effect and thereby was selected for further studies. 31-2 exerted a growth-inhibitory effect on a panel of 15 human cancer and 2 non-malignant cell lines. In MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, 31-2 induced a cytostatic (anti-proliferative) effect without causing cytotoxicity (cell death). Our data suggest that the cytostasis resulted from cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in MCF-7 cells and at the S phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated a modulation of phosphorylation of the Rb and CDC2 proteins and of CDK4, cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 in the 31-2-treated breast cancer cell lines. The protein levels of CDK2, CDK6, and PCNA were not affected by 31-2 treatment. 31-2 also exhibited an anti-invasive effect in MDA-MB-231 cells. However, this effect is not attributed to the modulation of proteolytic activity in MDA-MB-231 cells as the enzymatic degradation of type IV collagen was not affected by 31-2. The 31-2 is a potent cytostatic and anti-invasive agent and modulates the cell cycle pathway. Together, these results will have important implications in searching for novel approaches to treat cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo_00000774DOI Listing
November 2010

Molecular responses during chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemias in predicting poor-response to standard chemotherapy.

Malays J Pathol 2009 Dec;31(2):81-91

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor.

Signal transduction pathways are constitutively expressed in leukaemic cells resulting in aberrant survival of the cells. It is postulated that in cells of chemo-sensitive patients, chemotherapy induces apoptotic signals leading to cell death while survival signals are maintained in cells of chemo-resistant patients. There is very little information currently, on the expression of these mediators in patients immediately after chemotherapy initiation. We examined the expression pattern of proinflammatory cytokines, signaling molecules of the PI3K and MAPK pathways molecules and death receptor, DR5 on paired samples at diagnosis and during chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients treated with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin. The results were correlated with remission status one month after chemotherapy. We found that in chemo-sensitive patients, chemotherapy significantly increased the percentage of cases expressing TNF-alpha (p = 0.025, n = 9) and IL-6 (p = 0.002, n = 11) compared to chemo-resistant cases. We also observed an increased percentage of chemo-sensitive cases expressing DR5 and phosphorylated p38, and Jnk. Thus, expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, DR5, phospho-p38 and phospho-Jnk may regulate cell death in chemo-sensitive cases. In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of chemo-resistant cases expressed phospho-Bad (p = 0.027, n = 9). IL-beta and IL-18 were also found to be higher in chemo-resistant cases at diagnosis and during chemotherapy. Thus, expression of various cellular molecules in leukaemic blasts during chemotherapy may be useful in predicting treatment outcome. These cellular molecules may also be potential targets for alternative therapy.
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December 2009

HLA-A and breast cancer in West Peninsular Malaysia.

Med Oncol 2011 Mar 13;28(1):51-6. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia.

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in Malaysia. Attempts have been made to investigate the association between breast cancer and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. However, data from those previous studies are highly variable. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HLA-A types and clinicopathological factors in breast cancer. The frequencies of HLA-A type in 59 female patients with infiltrating ductal of the breast were determined by polymerase chain reaction method. HLA-A2/A30 and A2/A31 haplotype (5.1%; P = 0.045) as well as HLA-A30 (5.1%, P = 0.045) and A31 (6.8%; P = 0.020) allele were significant higher in the patients than controls (0%). HLA-A24 allele was negatively related to lymph node metastasis (r = -0.316; P = 0.021) whereas, A26 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) and A36 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) alleles were negatively correlated to distant metastasis in breast cancer. Negative correlations between HLA-A26/A36 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001), A2/A11 (r = -0.276; P = 0.044), A24/A34 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) haplotypes and distant metastasis were identified. Interestingly, Her2 expression in breast carcinoma was negatively correlated to A11/24 haplotypes (r = -0.294; P = 0.034) but positively correlated to homozygous HLA-A24 (r = 0.396; P = 0.040). In conclusion, HLA-A2, -A30 and A31 were associated with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-009-9414-6DOI Listing
March 2011

Immunohistochemical detection of phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, HER2 and oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in Malaysian breast cancer patients.

Pathol Oncol Res 2010 Jun 1;16(2):239-48. Epub 2009 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Activation of Akt signaling pathway has been documented in various human malignancies, including breast carcinoma. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of Akt phosphorylation in breast tumours and its relationship with expression of ER-alpha, ER-beta, HER2, Ki-67 and phosphorylated Bcl-2 associated death domain (p-BAD). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect these molecules on 43 paraffin-embedded breast tumour tissues with commercially available antibodies. Eighteen (41.9%), 3 (7.0%), 23 (53.5%), 35 (81.4%), 21 (48.8%), 29 (67.4%), and 34 (81.0%) of breast tumours were positive for nuclear ER-alpha, nuclear ER-beta, membranous HER2, cytonuclear p-Akt (Thr308), p-Akt (Ser473), p-BAD and Ki-67, respectively. ER-alpha expression was inversely correlated with HER2 and Ki-67 (P = 0.041 and P = 0.040, respectively). The p-Akt (Ser473) was correlated with increased level of p-BAD (Ser136) (P = 0.012). No relationship of Akt phosphorylation with HER2, ER-alpha or ER-beta was found. The p-Akt (Ser473) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in stage IV than in stage I or II (P = 0.036 or P = 0.009). The higher Ki-67 and lower ER-alpha expression showed an association with patient age of <50 years (P = 0.004) and with positive nodal status (P = 0.033), respectively. Our data suggest that the Akt phosphorylation and inactivation of its downstream target, BAD may play a role in survival of breast cancer cell. This study does not support the simple model of linear HER2/PI3K/Akt pathway in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-009-9216-3DOI Listing
June 2010

2-dodecanol (decyl methyl carbinol) inhibits hyphal formation and SIR2 expression in C. albicans.

J Basic Microbiol 2009 Dec;49(6):579-83

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Candida albicans is capable of undergoing yeast-hypha transition to attain pathogenicity in humans. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of CaSIR2 via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), during yeast-hypha transition with and without the presence of 2-dodecanol. SIR2 transcript levels were found to be significantly enhanced after hyphal induction as compared to the yeast form. This study found that 2-dodecanol is able to inhibit hyphal development and block SIR2 up-regulation, even in hyphal-inducing growth conditions. We suggest that SIR2 may be involved in Candida albicans quorum-sensing and serum-induced yeast-hyphae transition via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 signalling cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200900035DOI Listing
December 2009

Yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway inhibitors from an organic extract of Streptomyces sp.

J Nat Prod 2009 Aug;72(8):1520-3

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii Hilo, 34 Rainbow Drive, Hilo, Hawaii 96720, USA.

Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Streptomyces sp. H7667 led to the isolation of three new imides, 3-[(5E)-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-hydroxy-5-octenyl]glutarimide (1), 2-amino-N-2'-(phenylacetyl)propanimide (5), and 2-amino-N-(2'-(cyclohex-2''-enyl)acetyl)acetimide (6), and one new isoflavonoid glycoside, 6-O-methyl-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyldaidzein (7), along with four known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by HRESIMS, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np900163fDOI Listing
August 2009
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