Publications by authors named "Hema A Murthy"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Signal-to-signal neural networks for improved spike estimation from calcium imaging data.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Mar 1;17(3):e1007921. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Idiap Research Institute, Martigny, Switzerland.

Spiking information of individual neurons is essential for functional and behavioral analysis in neuroscience research. Calcium imaging techniques are generally employed to obtain activities of neuronal populations. However, these techniques result in slowly-varying fluorescence signals with low temporal resolution. Estimating the temporal positions of the neuronal action potentials from these signals is a challenging problem. In the literature, several generative model-based and data-driven algorithms have been studied with varied levels of success. This article proposes a neural network-based signal-to-signal conversion approach, where it takes as input raw-fluorescence signal and learns to estimate the spike information in an end-to-end fashion. Theoretically, the proposed approach formulates the spike estimation as a single channel source separation problem with unknown mixing conditions. The source corresponding to the action potentials at a lower resolution is estimated at the output. Experimental studies on the spikefinder challenge dataset show that the proposed signal-to-signal conversion approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art-methods in terms of Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and yields comparable performance for the area under the receiver operating characteristics measure. We also show that the resulting system: (a) has low complexity with respect to existing supervised approaches and is reproducible; (b) is layer-wise interpretable, and (c) has the capability to generalize across different calcium indicators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951974PMC
March 2021

Functional parcellation of mouse visual cortex using statistical techniques reveals response-dependent clustering of cortical processing areas.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 02 4;17(2):e1008548. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

The visual cortex of the mouse brain can be divided into ten or more areas that each contain complete or partial retinotopic maps of the contralateral visual field. It is generally assumed that these areas represent discrete processing regions. In contrast to the conventional input-output characterizations of neuronal responses to standard visual stimuli, here we asked whether six of the core visual areas have responses that are functionally distinct from each other for a given visual stimulus set, by applying machine learning techniques to distinguish the areas based on their activity patterns. Visual areas defined by retinotopic mapping were examined using supervised classifiers applied to responses elicited by a range of stimuli. Using two distinct datasets obtained using wide-field and two-photon imaging, we show that the area labels predicted by the classifiers were highly consistent with the labels obtained using retinotopy. Furthermore, the classifiers were able to model the boundaries of visual areas using resting state cortical responses obtained without any overt stimulus, in both datasets. With the wide-field dataset, clustering neuronal responses using a constrained semi-supervised classifier showed graceful degradation of accuracy. The results suggest that responses from visual cortical areas can be classified effectively using data-driven models. These responses likely reflect unique circuits within each area that give rise to activity with stronger intra-areal than inter-areal correlations, and their responses to controlled visual stimuli across trials drive higher areal classification accuracy than resting state responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888605PMC
February 2021

Data-driven measurement of precision of components of pitch curves in Carnatic music.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 May;147(5):3657

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India.

Carnatic music (CM) is characterized by continuous pitch variations called gamakas, which are learned by example. Precision is measured on the points of zero-slope in gamaka- and non-gamaka-segments of the pitch curve as the standard deviation (SD) of the error in their pitch with respect to targets. Two previous techniques are considered to identify targets: the nearest semitone and the most likely mean of a semi-continuous Gaussian mixture model. These targets are employed irrespective of where the points of zero-slope occur in the pitch curve. The authors propose segmenting CM pitch curves into non-overlapping components called constant-pitch notes (CPNs) and stationary points (STAs), i.e., points where the pitch curve outside the CPNs changes direction. Targets are obtained statistically from the histograms of the mean pitch-values of CPNs, anchors (CPNs adjacent to STAs), and STAs. The upper and lower quartiles of SDs of errors in long CPNs (9-15 cents), short CPNs (20-26 cents), and STAs (41-54 cents) are separable, which justifies the component-wise treatment. The CPN-STA model also brings out a hitherto unreported structure in rāgas and explains the precision obtained using the previous techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001313DOI Listing
May 2020

Level-wise Subject adaptation to improve classification of motor and mental EEG tasks.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:6172-6175

Classification of various cognitive and motor tasks using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is necessary for building Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) that are noninvasive. However, achieving high classification accuracy in a multi-subject multitask scenario is a challenge. A noticeable reduction in accuracy is observed when the subjects between train and test are mismatched. Drawing a similarity from speaker adaptation approaches in speech, we propose a method to perform subject-wise adaptation of EEG in order to improve the task classification performance. A Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) approach is employed for feature extraction. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based subject-specific models are built for each of the tasks. Maximum a-posterior (MAP) adaptation is performed, and an absolute improvement of 1.22-7.26% is observed in the average accuracy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2019.8857584DOI Listing
July 2019

Subspace techniques for task-independent EEG person identification.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:4545-4548

There has been a growing interest in studying electroencephalography signals (EEG) as a possible biometric. The brain signals captured by EEG are rich and carry information related to the individual, tasks being performed, mental state, and other channel/measurement noise due to session variability and artifacts. To effectively extract person-specific signatures present in EEG, it is necessary to define a subspace that enhances the biometric information and suppresses other nuisance factors. i-vector and x-vector are state-of-art subspace techniques used in speaker recognition. In this paper, novel modifications are proposed for both frameworks to project person-specific signatures from multi-channel EEG into a subspace. The modified i-vector and x-vector systems outperform baseline i-vector and x-vector systems with an absolute improvement of 10.5% and 15.9%, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2019.8857426DOI Listing
July 2019

Time Warping Solutions for Classifying Artifacts in EEG.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:4537-4540

The most common brain-computer interface (BCI) devices use electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals are noisy owing to the presence of many artifacts, namely head movement, and facial movements like eye blinks or jaw movements. Removal of these artifacts from EEG signals is essential for the success of any downstream BCI application. These artifacts influence different sensors of the EEG. In this paper, we devise algorithms for detection and classification of artifacts. Classification of artifacts into head nod, jaw movement and eye-blink is performed using two different varieties of time warping; namely, linear time warping, and dynamic time warping. The average accuracy of 85% and 90% is obtained using the former, and the later, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2019.8856669DOI Listing
July 2019

Spike Estimation from Fluorescence Signals Using High-Resolution Property of Group Delay.

IEEE Trans Signal Process 2019 Jun 2;67(11):2923-2936. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

Spike estimation from calcium (Ca) fluorescence signals is a fundamental and challenging problem in neuroscience. Several models and algorithms have been proposed for this task over the past decade. Nevertheless, it is still hard to achieve accurate spike positions from the Ca fluorescence signals. While existing methods rely on data-driven methods and the physiology of neurons for modelling the spiking process, this work exploits the nature of the fluorescence responses to spikes using signal processing. We first motivate the problem by a novel analysis of the high-resolution property of minimum-phase group delay (GD) functions for multi-pole resonators. The resonators could be connected either in series or in parallel. The Ca indicator responds to a spike with a sudden rise, that is followed by an exponential decay. We interpret the Ca signal as the response of an impulse train to the change in Ca concentration, where the Ca response corresponds to a resonator. We perform minimum-phase group delay-based filtering of the Ca signal for resolving spike locations. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on nine datasets spanning various indicators, sampling rates and, mouse brain regions. The proposed approach: GDspike, is compared with other spike estimation methods including MLspike, Vogelstein de-convolution algorithm, and data-driven Spike Triggered Mixture (STM) model. The performance of GDSpike is superior to that of the Vogelstein algorithm and is comparable to that of MLSpike. It can also be used to post-process the output of MLSpike, which further enhances the performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tsp.2019.2908913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112804PMC
June 2019