Publications by authors named "Helmy Hazmi"

10 Publications

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Using Anthropometric Indicator to Identify Hypertension in Adolescents: A Study in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Int J Hypertens 2018 1;2018:6736251. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the predictive power of anthropometric indicators and recommend cutoff points to discriminate hypertension among adolescents in Sarawak, Malaysia. A total of 2461 respondents aged 12-17 years participated in this study with mean age of 14.5±1.50 years. All anthropometric indicators had significant area under the ROC curve, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. The best anthropometric indicators for predicting hypertension for boys were WC, BMI, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). For girls, BMI was the best indicators followed by WHtR and WC. The recommended BMI cutoff point for boys was 20 kg/m and 20.7 kg/m for girls. For WC, the recommended cutoff point was 67.1 cm for boys and 68.2 cm for girls. BMI and WC indicators were recommended to be used at the school setting where the measurement can easily be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6736251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093054PMC
August 2018

Elevated blood pressure and its predictors among secondary school students in Sarawak: a cross-sectional study.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2018 Mar;26(1):16-21

Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Malaysia, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Objectives: Hypertension is a health issue affecting adolescents. Accumulating evidence affirms that elevated blood pressure begins in childhood and tracks into adulthood. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and its predictors among secondary school students in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Methods: A total of 2,461 secondary school students aged 12-17 years from 19 schools in Sarawak participated in the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data, parental history of hypertension, and self-reported physical activity. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 23.0.

Results: The prevalence of adolescents with elevated blood pressure, overweight, central obesity, and overfat were 30.1%, 24.3%, 13.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated the predictors significantly associated with elevated blood pressure among respondents: overweight (adjusted odds ratio=3.144), being male (adjusted odds ratio=3.073), being Chinese (adjusted odds ratio=2.321) or Iban (adjusted odds ratio=1.578), central obesity (adjusted odds ratio=2.145), being overfat (adjusted odds ratio=1.885), and being an older adolescent (adjusted odds ratio=1.109). Parental history of hypertension, locality, and physical activity showed no significant associations.

Conclusion: The obesity epidemic must be tackled at community and school levels by health education and regulation of school canteen foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a5186DOI Listing
March 2018

Role Performance of Community Health Volunteers and Its Associated Factors in Kuching District, Sarawak.

J Environ Public Health 2017 13;2017:9610928. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

The objective of this study was to assess the role performance among KOSPEN community health volunteer in Kuching district and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 21 localities in Kuching with a total of 210 respondents. Data were collected using validated interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. The respondents comprised 55.2% females, 81.9% married, and 41.4% aged above 45 and above and 72.4% completed their education up to secondary school. The result revealed that 59.0% of the respondents agreed and understood their role performances. Multiple Logistics analysis revealed that factors associated with role performance were age group ( = 0.003), education level ( < 0.001), marital status ( = 0.025), prestige and respect ( = 0.012), being seen as "doctor" in community ( = 0.003), job aids ( = 0.009), training location ( = 0.001), and supervision by community ( < 0.001). To increase and maintain the work performance of CHVs, commitment from the government, policy makers, stakeholders, and the communities is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/9610928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327774PMC
September 2017

Gender and Racial Differences in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Rural Adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia.

J Nutr Metab 2016 9;2016:4536753. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. . This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity), measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI), body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups-Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0. . A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate). The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69). The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention programme for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4536753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5120189PMC
November 2016

Reliability and construct validity of the Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ).

BMC Geriatr 2016 11 30;16(1):202. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, 94300, Malaysia.

Background: Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) was developed as a screening tool to detect patients with early dementia in primary care. It was developed based on 20 symptoms of dementia. From a preliminary study, EDQ had been shown to be a promising alternative for screening of early dementia. This study was done to further test on EDQ's reliability and validity.

Methods: Using a systematic random sampling, 200 elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Kuching, Sarawak had consented to participate in the study and were administered the EDQ. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to exclude patients with depression. Those who scored >21 MMSE, were retested using the EDQ. Reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (principle component with varimax rotation). Test retest Intraclass Correlation Coeeficient (ICC) was used to determine the reliability of the scale.

Results: The result showed that the sensitivity and specificity for EDQ was 71.2% and 59.5%. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was good which was 0.874. Confirmatory factor analysis on 4 factors indicated that the Cronbach's alpha for each domain were acceptable with memory (0.741), concentration (0.764), emotional and physical symptoms (0.754) and lastly sleep and environment (0.720). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between the first EDQ score and the retest EDQ score among those with MMSE of >21 showed a very strong overall agreement, ICC = 0.764, N = 160, P <0.001.

Conclusions: The results of the validation study showed that Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) is a valid and reliable tool to be used as a screening tool to detect early dementia in primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-016-0384-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5131430PMC
November 2016

Hypertension and its association with anthropometric indexes among pre-university students.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2016 Nov;28(4):373-379

Hypertension has become increasingly common among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension and its association with anthropometric indexes among pre-university students. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among pre-university students of a public university. Anthropometric measurements were conducted using mobile stadiometers, digital body fat scales and measuring tapes. Body fat percentage was measured with a body composition analyzer, and blood pressure was determined using digital blood pressure monitors. Statistical analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Statistics 20. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension at risk was 7.3%, which was higher among males (16.7%). About 22% of the respondents were overweight and obese. The majority of males had a normal waist circumference (WC) (75.9%), but almost half of females had a WC value in the unhealthy category (47.0%). Females had higher conicity indexes and body fat compared to males. Respondents who were found to have hypertension at risk had a higher prevalence of being overweight and having unhealthy WC and waist-to-height ratio and had high conicity indexes and a high percentage of fat. Risk factors independently associated with hypertension at risk included male gender (odds ratio=4.213, 95% CI, 1.238-14.342) and body mass index (odds ratio=7.865, 95% CI, 1.165-53.099). Regular screening of hypertension at risk among adolescents and initiation of early treatment for those affected should be conducted to avoid further complication in later life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0020DOI Listing
November 2016

Disordered eating and body image issues and their associated factors among adolescents in urban secondary schools in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2017 Apr;29(2)

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Universiti.

Eating disorders are common health issues among the adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and their relationship with body mass index, body part satisfaction and perception on body weight among urban secondary school children. It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Kuching, Sarawak. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire that consist of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), perception on body part satisfaction and body weight, and anthropometric measurement. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 22. A total of 329 respondents participated in this study with 59% females and 60.5% Malays. There were 14.3% of the respondents overweight and obese, with higher percentage among males (19.3%). About 18.5% of the respondents were found to be at risk of eating disorders with higher prevalence among males (19.3%). More females reported to have higher prevalence of body part dissatisfaction (46.9%) and body weight (37.6%) compared to males (40%, 28.1%). The statistical results indicated there were significant associations between EAT-26 and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.039), body part satisfaction (p=0.004), and perception of body weight (p=0.038). Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among males. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental and physical health, intervention programme on their developmental challenges and issues for both males and females should be in place particularly in the school education syllabus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0044DOI Listing
April 2017

TRADITIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN KELANTAN, MALAYSIA.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2015 May;46(3):504-11

We conducted a cross sectional study of cardiovascular risk factors among healthcare workers at four government hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. We randomly selected 330 subjects fulfilling the following study criteria: those who had been working for at least one year at that health facility, Malaysians citizens and those with some form of direct contact with patients. We conducted an interview, obtained physical measurements, a fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid profiles among 308 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 43.5 years, 82% were female; 30.8%, 14.3%, 10.4%, 1.3% and 1.6% of the subjects had dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, a history of stroke and a history of ischemic heart disease, respectively. Forty-two percent of subjects had at least one medical condition. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.0 kg/M2 (SD=4.8) and 24.3% had a BMI > or =30 kg/M2. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 121.5 mmHg (SD=14.0) and 76.5 mmHg (SD=9.7), respectively and the mean waist-hip ratio was 0.84 (SD=0.1). The mean fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were 5.8 mmol/l (SD=2.4), 5.5 mmol/l (SD=1.0), 1.4 mmol/l (SD=0.9), 1.5 mmol/l (SD=0.3) and 3.5 mmol/l (SD=0.9), respectively. Our study population had a smaller proportion of hypertension than that of the general Malaysian population. They had higher fasting total cholesterol, slightly lower fasting blood sugar, with a large proportion of them, obese and had diabetes. Immediate intervention is needed to reduce the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, health care workers, Malaysia
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May 2015

Factors associated with physical inactivity among female and male rural adolescents in Borneo - a cross-sectional study.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2014 ;26(3):447-53

Rural communities have shown marked increase in metabolic syndrome among young people, with physical inactivity as one of the main contributing factors. This study aimed to determine factors associated with physical inactivity among male and female rural adolescents in a sample of schools in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 students aged 13-15 years. Data on socio-demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, social influences) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurement was taken to generate body mass index (BMI)-for-age, while physical activity (PA) level was assessed using pedometers. The mean steps per day was 6251.37 (SD=3085.31) with males reported as being more active. About 27% of the respondents were either overweight or obese, with more females in this group. There was no significant difference in steps among males and females (p=0.212), and nutritional status (BMI-for-age) (p=0.439). Females consistently scored higher in most items under perceived barriers, but had significantly lower scores in self-efficacy's items. Males were more influenced by peers in terms of PA (p<0.001) and were more satisfied with their body parts (p=0.047). A significantly higher body size discrepancy score was found among females (p=0.034, CI -0.639, -0.026). PA level was low and almost one-third of the respondents were overweight and obese. Female students faced more barriers and had lower self-efficacy with regards PA. Based on the findings, it is recommended that interventions focus on reducing barriers while increasing support for PA. This is particularly important in improving the health status of the youth, especially among the females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2013-0319DOI Listing
May 2015