Publications by authors named "Helmut Mayrhofer"

34 Publications

Large differences in carbohydrate degradation and transport potential among lichen fungal symbionts.

Nat Commun 2022 May 12;13(1):2634. Epub 2022 May 12.

University of Alberta, Biological Sciences CW405, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3, Canada.

Lichen symbioses are thought to be stabilized by the transfer of fixed carbon from a photosynthesizing symbiont to a fungus. In other fungal symbioses, carbohydrate subsidies correlate with reductions in plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, but whether this is true of lichen fungal symbionts (LFSs) is unknown. Here, we predict genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and sugar transporters in 46 genomes from the Lecanoromycetes, the largest extant clade of LFSs. All LFSs possess a robust CAZyme arsenal including enzymes acting on cellulose and hemicellulose, confirmed by experimental assays. However, the number of genes and predicted functions of CAZymes vary widely, with some fungal symbionts possessing arsenals on par with well-known saprotrophic fungi. These results suggest that stable fungal association with a phototroph does not in itself result in fungal CAZyme loss, and lends support to long-standing hypotheses that some lichens may augment fixed CO with carbon from external sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30218-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098629PMC
May 2022

Refining the picture: new records to the lichen biota of Italy.

MycoKeys 2021 11;82:97-137. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala Sweden.

Based on the analysis of both historical and recent collections, this paper reports an annotated list of taxa which are new to the lichen biota of Italy or of its administrative regions. Specimens were identified using a dissecting and a compound microscope; routine chemical spot tests and standardized thin-layer chromatography (TLC or HPTLC). The list includes 225 records of 153 taxa. Twenty taxa are new to Italy, the others are new to one or more administrative regions, with 15 second records and 5 third records for Italy. Some of the species belong to recently-described taxa, others are poorly known, sterile or ephemeral lichens which were largely overlooked in Italy. Several species are actually rare, either because of the rarity of their habitats (e.g. old-growth forests), or because in Italy they are at the margins of their bioclimatic distribution. The picture of the lichen biota of Italy has now new pixels, but its grain is still coarse. Further analysis of historical collections, increased efforts in the exploration of some areas, and the taxonomic revision of critical groups are still necessary to provide more complete distributional data for new biogeographic hypotheses, taxonomic and ecological research, and biodiversity conservation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.82.69027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373855PMC
August 2021

The lichens of the Majella National Park (Central Italy): an annotated checklist.

MycoKeys 2021 29;78:119-168. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

BIOME Lab, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, 40126, Bologna, Italy University of Bologna Bologna Italy.

The botanical exploration of the Majella National Park has a long tradition dating back to the eighteenth century. However, the lichen biota of this area is still poorly investigated. To provide a baseline for future investigations, in this annotated checklist, we summarised all available information on the occurrence of lichens in the Majella National Park, retrieved from previous literature, herbarium material and original data produced by recent research. The checklist includes 342 infrageneric taxa. However, seven taxa are considered as dubious, thus setting the number of accepted taxa at 335, i.e. 45.8% of those currently known to occur in the Abruzzo Region. This checklist provides a baseline of the lichens known to occur in the Majella National Park, highlighting the potential of this area as a hotspot of lichen biodiversity, especially from a biogeographical point of view as indicated by the occurrence of several arctic-alpine species that form disjunct populations in the summit area of the massif.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.78.62362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021542PMC
March 2021

Contrasting Environmental Drivers Determine Biodiversity Patterns in Epiphytic Lichen Communities along a European Gradient.

Microorganisms 2020 Dec 1;8(12). Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Spain.

Assessing the ecological impacts of environmental change on biological communities requires knowledge of the factors driving the spatial patterns of the three diversity facets along extensive environmental gradients. We quantified the taxonomic (TD), functional (FD), and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of lichen epiphytic communities in 23 beech forests along Europe to examine their response to environmental variation (climate, habitat quality, spatial predictors) at a continental geographic scale. We selected six traits related to the climatic conditions in forest ecosystems, the water-use strategy and the nutrient uptake, and we built a phylogenetic tree based on four molecular markers. FD and climate determined TD and PD, with spatial variables also affecting PD. The three diversity facets were primarily shaped by distinct critical predictors, with the temperature diurnal range affecting FD and PD, and precipitation of the wettest month determining TD. Our results emphasize the value of FD for explaining part of TD and PD variation in lichen communities at a broad geographic scale, while highlighting that these diversity facets provide complementary information about the communities' response under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, traits such as growth form, photobiont type, and reproductive strategy mediated the response of lichen communities to abiotic factors emerging as useful indicators of macroclimatic variations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760525PMC
December 2020

Neogene speciation and Pleistocene expansion of the genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi) involving multiple colonizations of Antarctica.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 02 24;155:107020. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Graz A-8010, Austria.

Widespread geographic distributions in lichens have been usually explained by the high dispersal capacity of their tiny diaspores. However, recent phylogenetic surveys have challenged this assumption and provided compelling evidence for cryptic speciation and more restricted distribution ranges in diverse lineages of lichen-forming fungi. To evaluate these scenarios, we focus on the fungal genus Pseudephebe (Parmeliaceae) which includes amphitropical species, a distribution pattern whose origin has been a matter of debate since first recognized in the nineteenth century. In our study, a six-locus dataset and a broad specimen sampling covering almost all Earth's continents is used to investigate species delimitation in Pseudephebe. Population structure, gene flow and dating analyses, as well as genealogical reconstruction methods, are employed to disentangle the most plausible transcontinental migration routes, and estimate the timing of the origin of the amphitropical distribution and the Antarctic populations. Our results demonstrate the existence of three partly admixed phylogenetic species that diverged between the Miocene and Pliocene, and whose Quaternary distribution has been strongly driven by glacial cycles. Pseudephebe minuscula is the only species showing an amphitropical distribution, with populations in Antarctica, whereas the restricted distribution of P. pubescens and an undescribed Alaskan species might reflect the survival of these species in European and North American refugia. Our microevolutionary analyses suggest a Northern Hemisphere origin for P. minuscula, which could have dispersed into the Southern Hemisphere directly and/or through "mountain-hopping" during the Pleistocene. The Antarctic populations of this species are sorted into two genetic clusters: populations of the Antarctic Peninsula were grouped together with South American ones, and the Antarctic Continental populations formed a second cluster with Bolivian and Svalbard populations. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the current distribution of P. minuscula in Antarctica is the outcome of multiple, recent colonizations. In conclusion, our results stress the need for integrating species delimitation and population analyses to properly approach historical biogeography in lichen-forming fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.107020DOI Listing
February 2021

The evolution of fungal substrate specificity in a widespread group of crustose lichens.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 10 17;285(1889). Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Biological Sciences CW405, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R3.

Lichens exhibit varying degrees of specialization with regard to the surfaces they colonize, ranging from substrate generalists to strict substrate specialists. Though long recognized, the causes and consequences of substrate specialization are poorly known. Using a phylogeny of a 150-200 Mya clade of lichen fungi, we asked whether substrate niche is phylogenetically conserved, which substrates are ancestral, whether specialists arise from generalists or vice versa and how specialization affects speciation/extinction processes. We found strong phylogenetic signal for niche conservatism. Specialists evolved into generalists and back again, but transitions from generalism to specialism were more common than the reverse. Our models suggest that for this group of fungi, 'escape' from specialization for soil, rock and bark occurred, but specialization for wood foreclosed evolution away from that substrate type. In parallel, speciation models showed positive diversification rates for soil and rock dwellers but not other specialists. Patterns in the studied group suggest that fungal substrate specificity is a key determinant of evolutionary trajectory for the entire lichen symbiosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234878PMC
October 2018

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

IMA Fungus 2018 Jun 24;9(1):167-175. Epub 2018 May 24.

Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11 International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048565PMC
June 2018

The lichens of the Alps - an annotated checklist.

MycoKeys 2018 12(31):1-634. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Institute of Plant Sciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

This is the first attempt to provide an overview of the lichen diversity of the Alps, one of the biogegraphically most important and emblematic mountain systems worldwide. The checklist includes all lichenised species, plus a set of non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa frequently treated by lichenologists, excluding non-lichenised lichenicolous fungi. Largely based on recent national or regional checklists, it provides a list of all infrageneric taxa (with synonyms) hitherto reported from the Alps, with data on their distribution in eight countries (Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland) and in 42 Operational Geographic Units, mostly corresponding to administrative subdivisions within the countries. Data on the main substrates and on the altitudinal distribution are also provided. A short note points to the main ecological requirements of each taxon and/or to open taxonomic problems. Particularly poorly known taxa are flagged and often provided with a short description, to attract the attention of specialists. The total number of infrageneric taxa is 3,163, including 117 non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa. The richness of the lichen biota fairly well corresponds with the percent of the Alpine area occupied by each country: Austria (2,337 taxa), Italy (2,169), France (2,028), Switzerland (1,835), Germany (1,168), Slovenia (890) and Lichtenstein (152), no lichen having ever been reported from Monaco. The number of poorly known taxa is quite high (604, 19.1% of the total), which indicates that, in spite of the Alps being one of the lichenologically most studied mountain systems worldwide, much work is still needed to reach a satisfactory picture of their real lichen diversity. Thirteen new combinations are proposed in the genera , , , , , , , , , and .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.31.23568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5914158PMC
March 2018

Assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens after glacier retreat in the European Alps.

J Biogeogr 2017 06 23;44(6):1393-1404. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Institute of Plant Sciences NAWI Graz University of Graz 8010 Graz Austria.

Aim: To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities.

Location: European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy).

Methods: Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years. In each successional stage, soil-dwelling lichens were surveyed within five 1 × 1 m plots. In addition to a classical ecological framework, based on species richness and composition, we applied a functional approach to better elucidate community assembly mechanisms.

Results: A positive relationship was found between species richness and time since deglaciation indicating that richer lichen communities can be found at increasing terrain ageing. This pattern was associated with compositional shifts, suggesting that different community assemblages can be found along the successional stages. The analysis of β-diversity revealed a significant nested pattern of species assemblages along the gradient (i.e. earlier successional stages hosted a subset of the species already established in older successional stages), while the turnover component was less relevant. Considering functional groups, we found contrasting patterns in relation to time since deglaciation: the incidence of species with a cyanobacterial photobiont and those reproducing by spores decreased, while that of species reproducing by vegetative propagules increased.

Main Conclusions: This study reveals that community assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens in alpine glacier forelands are ruled by mechanisms of directional species accumulation and trait selection that involve a trade-off between different functional strategies. Functional traits that reflect the dispersal and adaptation capability of the species underpin the colonization success of soil-dwelling lichens in glacier forelands.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5484317PMC
June 2017

Morphological, chemical and species delimitation analyses provide new taxonomic insights into two groups of .

Lichenologist (Lond) 2016 Sep;48(5):469-488

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Canada.

The genus (), with approximately 300 species, has been subject to few phylogenetic studies. Consequently taxonomic hypotheses in are largely reliant on phenotypic data, while hypotheses incorporating DNA dependent methods remain to be tested. Here we investigate / and the group, which previously have not been subjected to comprehensive molecular and phenotypic studies. We conducted detailed morphological, anatomical, chemical, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation studies including 24 newly sequenced specimens. We propose that and are conspecific and that chemical morphs within the group should be recognized as distinct species. We also propose the placement of the recently described genus in .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282916000359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793993PMC
September 2016

Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens.

Science 2016 Jul 21;353(6298):488-92. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA. Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen-one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf8287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793994PMC
July 2016

Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria).

Phyton 2015 Dec;55(2):201-214

Institute of Plant Sciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria, Europe.

The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Breuss () is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12905/0380.phyton55(2)2015-0201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746754PMC
December 2015

Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Morteratsch Glacier (Eastern Alps, Graubünden, Switzerland).

Phyton 2015 Dec;55(2):193-199

Institute of Plant Sciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria, Europe.

Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the Morteratsch glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil in the glacier forefield. The survey yielded 13 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. (Nyl. ex Vain.) Lojka () is new to the canton of Graubünden.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12905/0380.phyton55(2)2015-0193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746748PMC
December 2015

Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro).

Herzogia 2015 Nov;28(2):520-544

Institute of Plant Sciences, NAWI Graz, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13158/heia.28.2.2015.520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747087PMC
November 2015

Diagnostics for a troubled backbone: testing topological hypotheses of trapelioid lichenized fungi in a large-scale phylogeny of Ostropomycetidae (Lecanoromycetes).

Fungal Divers 2015;73(1):239-258. Epub 2015 May 13.

Institute of Plant Sciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, A-8010 Graz, Austria ; Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.

Trapelioid fungi constitute a widespread group of mostly crust-forming lichen mycobionts that are key to understanding the early evolutionary splits in the Ostropomycetidae, the second-most species-rich subclass of lichenized Ascomycota. The uncertain phylogenetic resolution of the approximately 170 species referred to this group contributes to a poorly resolved backbone for the entire subclass. Based on a data set including 657 newly generated sequences from four ribosomal and four protein-coding gene loci, we tested a series of a priori and new evolutionary hypotheses regarding the relationships of trapelioid clades within Ostropomycetidae. We found strong support for a monophyletic group of nine core trapelioid genera but no statistical support to reject the long-standing hypothesis that trapelioid genera are sister to Baeomycetaceae or Hymeneliaceae. However, we can reject a sister group relationship to Ostropales with high confidence. Our data also shed light on several long-standing questions, recovering Anamylopsoraceae nested within Baeomycetaceae, elucidating two major monophyletic groups within trapelioids (recognized here as Trapeliaceae and Xylographaceae), and rejecting the monophyly of the genus . We transfer eleven species of the latter genus to and describe the genus to accommodate a previously misunderstood species of . Past phylogenetic studies in Ostropomycetidae have invoked "divergence order" for drawing taxonomic conclusions on higher level taxa. Our data show that if backbone support is lacking, contrasting solutions may be recovered with different or added data. We accordingly urge caution in concluding evolutionary relationships from unresolved phylogenies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-015-0332-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746758PMC
May 2015

Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley 'Ochsental' (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria).

Fritschiana (Graz) 2014 Dec;78:47-51

Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, NAWI Graz, Karl-Franzens-Universität, Holteigasse 6, A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA.

A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley 'Ochsental' is presented. is new to Austria. , , and the lichenicolous fungus are new to the province of Vorarlberg.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747088PMC
December 2014

Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

Phyton 2014 Nov;54(2):245-250

Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria, Europe.

The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Hedl. () is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12905/0380.phyton54(2)2014-0245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746750PMC
November 2014

Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

Acta Zoobot Austria 2014;150-151:197-202

University of Graz, Institute of Plant Sciences, NAWI Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4813759PMC
January 2014

Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species.

Acta Univ Ups Symb Bot Ups 2014;37(1):1-87

Science & Education, The Field Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, U.S.A.

The ascomycete genus includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to and , as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: T. Sprib., T. Sprib., T. Sprib., T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, T. Sprib., T. Sprib., T. Sprib. & Resl and T. Sprib. The combinations (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747110PMC
January 2014

Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria).

Phyton 2014;54(2):235-243

Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria, Europe.

The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12905/0380.phyton54(2)2014-0235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747090PMC
January 2014

Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro).

Acta Bot Croat 2013 Oct;72(2):337-346

Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on . The recently described is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus growing on is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/botcro-2013-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746756PMC
October 2013

Hitchhiking with forests: population genetics of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in primeval and managed forests in southeastern Europe.

Ecol Evol 2012 Sep 1;2(9):2223-40. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Availability of suitable trees is a primary determinant of range contractions and expansions of epiphytic species. However, switches between carrier tree species may blur co-phylogeographic patterns. We identified glacial refugia in southeastern Europe for the tree-colonizing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, studied the importance of primeval forest reserves for the conservation of genetically diverse populations and analyzed differences in spatial genetic structure between primeval and managed forests with fungus-specific microsatellite markers. Populations belonged to either of two genepools or were admixed. Gene diversity was higher in primeval than in managed forests. At small distances up to 170 m, genotype diversity was lower in managed compared with primeval forests. We found significant associations between groups of tree species and two L. pulmonaria genepools, which may indicate "hitchhiking" of L. pulmonaria on forest communities during postglacial migration. Genepool B of L. pulmonaria was associated with European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and we can hypothesize that genepool B survived the last glaciation associated within the refuge of European Beech on the Coastal and Central Dinarides. The allelic richness of genepool A was highest in the Alps, which is the evidence for a northern refuge of L. pulmonaria. Vicariant altitudinal distributions of the two genepools suggest intraspecific ecological differentiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488673PMC
September 2012

Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia).

Herzogia 2011 Dec;24(2):315-324

A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13158/heia.24.2.2011.315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430848PMC
December 2011

Molecular support for the recognition of the Mycoblastus fucatus group as the new genus Violella (Tephromelataceae, Lecanorales).

Lichenologist (Lond) 2011 Sep;43(5):445-466

Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, A-8010 Graz, Austria.

The crustose lichen genus Mycoblastus in the Northern Hemisphere includes eight recognized species sharing large, simple ascospores produced 1-2 per ascus in strongly pigmented biatorine apothecia. The monophyly of Mycoblastus and the relationship of its various species to Tephromelataceae have never been studied in detail. Data from ITS rDNA and the genes coding for translation elongation factor 1-α and DNA replication licensing factor mini-chromosome maintenance complex 7 support the distinctness of Mycoblastus s. str. from the core of the Tephromelataceae, but recover M. fucatus and an undescribed Asian species as strongly supported within the latter group. We propose accommodating these two species in a new genus, Violella, which is characterized by its brownish inner ascospore walls, Fucatus-violet hymenial pigment granules and secondary chemistry, and discuss the position of Violella relative to Calvitimela and Tephromela. We describe the new species Violella wangii T. Sprib. & Goffinet to accommodate a new species with roccellic acid from Bhutan, China, India and the Russian Far East. We also exclude Mycoblastus indicus Awasthi & Agarwal from the genus Mycoblastus and propose for it the new combination Malmidea indica (Awasthi & Agarwal) Hafellner & T. Sprib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282911000478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428935PMC
September 2011

A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2011 Jun 30;59(3):603-14. Epub 2011 Mar 30.

Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, A-8010 Graz, Austria.

Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093615PMC
June 2011

Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro.

Herzogia 2010 Dec;23(2):249-256

Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

A list of 120 taxa of lichens (117 species) and three species of lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro is presented. The lichens Biatora chrysantha, Caloplaca monacensis, Candelariella efflorescens, Loxospora elatina, Micarea adnata, Ochrolechia arborea, O. microstictoides, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physconia enteroxantha, Ph. grisea, Rinodina capensis, R. polysporoides, R. pyrina, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Xanthoria candelaria, X. ulophyllodes and the lichenicolous fungi Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Telogalla olivieri, and Xanthoriicola physciae are new to Montenegro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13158/heia.23.2.2010.249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272433PMC
December 2010

Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina.

Hladnikia (Ljubl) 2010 Nov;26:15-20

Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, AUSTRIA; ;

A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272437PMC
November 2010

Additional lichens and some lichenicolous fungi from the Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

Fritschiana (Graz) 2010 Sep;67:27-32

Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA.

A list of 62 taxa (61 species) of lichens and 7 species of lichenicolous fungi from the Una National Park in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. The lichens Caloplaca crenulatella, Dimerella pineti, Lecanora expallens, Lopadium disciforme, Placynthiella icmalea, Toninia athallina and the lichenicolous fungi Abrothallus bertianus, A. parmeliarum, Cornutispora lichenicola, Endococcus rugulosus, and Sphaerellothecium parmeliae are new to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3217254PMC
September 2010

A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Rinodina (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycotina) using combined ITS and mtSSU rDNA data.

Lichenologist (Lond) 2010 Sep;42(5):521-531

M. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Tereschenkivs'ka 2, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine.

To test the phylogenetic position of phenotypically peculiar species in the Physciaceae we generated 47 new sequences (26 of nrITS region and 21 of mtSSU rDNA) from 19 crustose taxa of Physciaceae mainly from the genus Rinodina. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Buellia and Physcia groups. The analysis revealed a considerable variability of characters traditionally used for classification, especially in the delimitation of the genera Buellia and Rinodina. While ascus types agree well with the distinction of the Buellia and Physcia groups, none of the other traditional characters, including excipulum type and ascospore thickening, were consistent within subclades of the Physcia group. We suggest that both excipulum type and ascospore characters are rather dynamic in the evolution of Rinodina species and only appear consistent in morphologically more complex foliose and fruticose groups, which are characterized by thallus characters not present in the crustose groups. Two recent taxonomic changes are supported by molecular characters: Endohyalina insularis (syn. 'Rinodina' insularis) and Rinodina lindingeri (syn. 'Buellia' lindingeri). In addition Rinodina parvula (syn. 'Buellia' parvula) is reinstated. New records for Endohyalina brandii, E. diederichii, E. insularis and Rinodina albana are presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282910000186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3223597PMC
September 2010

Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Phyton 2010 Jun;51(1):1-67

Mag. Dr. Peter O. Bilovitz, Ao. Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Helmut Mayrhofer, Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria, Europe; ,

The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3223598PMC
June 2010
-->