Publications by authors named "Helene Raskin White"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

J Res Adolesc 2014 Jun;24(2):235-251

Cambridge University.

Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4060635PMC
June 2014

Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2013 Feb;41(2):211-22

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001, USA.

Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9673-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548983PMC
February 2013

Racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for adolescent and young adult depression, heavy drinking, and violence.

J Adolesc Health 2012 May 4;50(5):443-9. Epub 2012 Feb 4.

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001, USA.

Purpose: This study examined racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for depression, heavy drinking, and violence during adolescence and young adulthood among black and white young men.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of urban males (N = 971, 56% black). Childhood maltreatment was defined as substantiated physical or sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional maltreatment, or moral/legal/educational maltreatment, with the first referral before 12 years of age. Self-reports of depressive symptoms and heavy drinking (consuming more than six drinks on a single occasion) and official, parent, and self-reports of violent offending were assessed between 12 and 17 years of age (adolescence) and at 24/25 years of age (young adulthood). Regression analyses were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment and race, as well as maltreatment-by-race interactions, as predictors of the three outcomes.

Results: Prevalence of childhood maltreatment was higher for black than for white boys; however, there were no racial differences in timing, type, severity, and chronicity of maltreatment. When socioeconomic status and cohort were controlled, childhood maltreatment significantly predicted depressive symptoms and violence in adolescence but none of the outcomes in young adulthood. Race was a significant predictor of heavy drinking and violence during adolescence, and of all three outcomes in young adulthood. No significant race-by-maltreatment interaction effects were found.

Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment has similar negative consequences for black and white male youth during adolescence. Extending intervention efforts through adolescence is important to alleviate these problems among victims.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3336090PMC
May 2012

Anxiety as a predictor of age at first use of substances and progression to substance use problems among boys.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2010 Feb;38(2):211-24

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ 08102, USA.

This study examined associations of generalized and social anxiety with (1) age at first use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana and (2) interval from first use to first problem use of each substance. Participants were 503 males who comprised the youngest cohort (first assessed in the first grade) of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal community-based study of boys. Annual assessments of generalized and social anxiety, delinquency, and substance use from first grade through high school were included. Both types of anxiety predicted earlier first use of alcohol and tobacco, and generalized anxiety predicted earlier first use of marijuana. Both types of anxiety predicted the progression from first use to problems related to marijuana. The effect of generalized anxiety tended to be significant above and beyond the effect of delinquency, while the effect of social anxiety on risk for first use of substances was not. Overall, the associations between anxiety and substance use and related problems depend on the class of substance and the type of anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9360-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857386PMC
February 2010

Ethnic differences in positive alcohol expectancies during childhood: the Pittsburgh Girls Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2008 Jun 26;32(6):966-74. Epub 2008 Apr 26.

Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

Background: Positive expectancies about alcohol's effects are more likely to be endorsed with increasing age through adolescence, and the strength of positive alcohol expectancies in children appears to differ by ethnicity. Little is known about the extent to which differences in a measure's psychometric properties as a function of development and ethnicity may account for changes that are observed over time and ethnic differences. This study used measurement invariance methods to examine ethnic differences in the development of alcohol expectancies, and examined risk factors associated with girls' positive expectancies.

Methods: African-American (56%) and Caucasian (44%) girls (n = 570) in the age 7 cohort of the Pittsburgh Girls Study, and the girl's primary caretaker, were followed annually for 4 years (ages 7-10). Girls reported on alcohol expectancies at each wave, and physical aggression at Year 1. In Year 1, caretakers reported on neighborhood drug use, their own substance-related problems, and depression in the girl. Structural equation modeling was used to examine measurement invariance of positive alcohol expectancies, and to test associations of risk factors to initial level and change in expectancies.

Results: Five of 8 positive alcohol expectancy items showed measurement equivalence for African-American and Caucasian girls in cross-sectional, but not longitudinal, analyses. Measurement equivalence over ages 7-10 was demonstrated for Caucasian girls, and over ages 7-8 and 9-10 (i.e., a two-part model) for African-American girls. Risk factor analyses indicated that, for Caucasian girls, greater physical aggression was associated with higher initial positive expectancies.

Conclusions: Some developmental change and ethnic differences in the performance of positive expectancy items were identified, highlighting the utility of measurement invariance methods. Risk factor analyses suggest the potential benefit of targeted alcohol prevention interventions for certain girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00651.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583330PMC
June 2008

Three potential mediators of the effects of child abuse and neglect on adulthood substance use among women.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2008 May;69(3):337-47

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8001, USA.

Objective: This study examined mechanisms that might account for the association between early childhood abuse and neglect, and substance use and related problems in adulthood for women.

Method: Women with documented cases of early childhood abuse and/or neglect and matched controls were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age=29 years) and again in middle adulthood (mean age=40) (n=582). We examined the mediating effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, stressful life events, and delinquent and criminal behavior measured in young adulthood on substance use-related problems and illicit drug use measured in middle adulthood.

Results: We found that all three potential mediators mediated the effects of abuse and neglect on substance-use problems and illicit drug use. When all three mediators were considered simultaneously, only stressful life events mediated the effects of child abuse and neglect for substance use-related problems and PTSD mediated for illicit drug use. These relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity, although the effects of abuse and neglect on the mediators differed for white and non-white women.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions are needed with maltreated girls to recognize and attend to their PTSD symptoms and to assist them in developing coping strategies to deal with stressful life events in an attempt to reduce risk of subsequent substance use and related problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2008.69.337DOI Listing
May 2008

Congruence between adolescents' self-reports and their adult retrospective reports regarding parental discipline practices during their adolescence.

Psychol Rep 2007 Dec;101(3 Pt 2):1079-94

Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001, USA.

The congruence between adolescents' self-reports and their adult retrospective reports of parental discipline practices and physical abuse in adolescence was examined. A community sample of adolescents was recruited in 1979 through 1981 by a randomized telephone screening for a longitudinal study of adolescent development. These 104 men and 190 women (N = 359) were interviewed in person five times between the ages of 12 and 30 to 31 years about a variety of topics, including parental discipline and physical abuse. Analysis indicated only fair agreement on reports of discipline practices and physical abuse (most kappas between .2 and .4). Current life status, including depression, drug problems, and life dissatisfaction, was related to adult retrospective reports of physical abuse for both men and women. Research is needed to identify how best to obtain accurate histories of childhood maltreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.101.4.1079-1094DOI Listing
December 2007

Do brief personalized feedback interventions work for mandated students or is it just getting caught that works?

Psychol Addict Behav 2008 Mar;22(1):107-16

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001, USA.

Studies evaluating the efficacy of brief interventions with mandated college students have reported declines in drinking from baseline to short-term follow-up regardless of intervention condition. A key question is whether these observed changes are due to the intervention or to the incident and/or reprimand. This study evaluates a brief personalized feedback intervention (PFI) for students (N = 230) who were referred to a student assistance program because of infractions of university rules regarding substance use to determine whether observed changes in substance use are attributable to the intervention. Half the students received immediate feedback (at baseline and after the 2-month follow-up), and half received delayed feedback (only after the 2-month follow-up). Students in both conditions generally reduced their drinking and alcohol-related problems from baseline to the 2-month follow-up and from the 2-month to the 7-month follow-up; however, there were no significant between-group differences at either follow-up. Therefore, it appears that the incident and/or reprimand are important instigators of mandated student change and that written PFIs do not enhance these effects on a short-term basis but may on a longer term basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.1.107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804481PMC
March 2008

Inattention as a key predictor of tobacco use in adolescence.

J Abnorm Psychol 2007 May;116(2):249-59

Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

The authors examined the prediction from inattention to tobacco use among 2 cohorts (ages 7 and 13) of a community sample followed to young adulthood. Changes in self-reported tobacco use were tested with marginal transitional regression models, using parent and teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and other psychopathology, along with other factors, as predictors. Inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, significantly predicted adolescent tobacco use and young adult daily tobacco use. Peer substance use, parental substance use, and conduct disorder also predicted increases in tobacco use. African American ethnicity was strongly protective against later tobacco use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.116.2.249DOI Listing
May 2007

Developmental trajectories of male physical violence and theft: relations to neurocognitive performance.

Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007 May;64(5):592-9

Research Unit on Children's Psychosocial Maladjustment, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Context: Neurocognitive mechanisms have long been hypothesized to influence developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. However, studies examining this association tend to aggregate a variety of problem behaviors that may be differently affected by neurocognitive deficits.

Objective: To describe the developmental trajectories of physical violence and theft from adolescence to adulthood, their associations, and the neurocognitive characteristics of individuals following different patterns of trajectory association.

Design: Accelerated cohort-sequential, longitudinal design.

Setting: Rutgers Health and Human Development Project.

Participants: Six hundred ninety-eight men.

Main Outcome Measures: Self-reports of physical violence (ages 12-24 years) and theft (ages 12-31 years) were collected across 5 waves. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with executive function and verbal IQ tests between late adolescence and early adulthood.

Results: The majority (55%) of subjects showed an increased frequency of theft during the study period, while only a minority (13%) evinced an increasing frequency of physical violence. Executive function and verbal IQ performance were negatively related to high frequency of physical violence but were unrelated to theft [corrected].

Conclusions: Developmental trajectories of physical violence and theft during adolescence and early adulthood are different and differently related to neurocognitive functioning. Global indexes of antisocial behavior mask the development of antisocial behavior subtypes and putative causal mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283575PMC
May 2007

Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use and excessive drinking in middle adulthood.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2007 May;68(3):317-26

Department of Psychiatry, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use in middle adulthood.

Method: Individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 500) and matched controls (n = 396) from a metropolitan county in the Midwest were followed and interviewed in middle adulthood. Outcomes were Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, diagnoses of alcohol abuse or dependence in young adulthood (age 29) and excessive drinking in middle adulthood (age 40).

Results: Women with documented histories of child abuse or neglect reported higher past-year typical quantity (p < .01) and past-month number of days drinking eight or more drinks (p < .05) than nonabused/nonneglected women. Controlling for parental alcohol/drug problems, the effect of child maltreatment on excessive drinking in middle adulthood was not significant for women. For women, the final structural equation model revealed an indirect path through alcohol diagnosis in young adulthood (p < .05) to excessive drinking in middle adulthood (p < .001) but no direct path from child abuse and neglect to excessive drinking in middle adulthood. For men, there were no significant paths from child abuse and neglect to alcohol diagnosis in young adulthood or excessive drinking in middle adulthood. For men and women, parental alcohol/drug problems had a significant indirect effect on the offspring's drinking in middle adulthood (p < .001) through young adult alcohol diagnosis (p < .001).

Conclusions: Consequences of abuse and neglect persist into middle adulthood for women, through continuation of earlier alcohol problems, suggesting the need for interventions throughout the life course. The influence of parental alcohol and drug problems warrants further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2007.68.317DOI Listing
May 2007

Adolescent risk factors for late-onset smoking among African American young men.

Nicotine Tob Res 2007 Jan;9(1):153-61

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001, USA.

This study examined adolescent risk factors for late-onset cigarette smoking among African American males. Data came from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of young men followed from age 13 to age 25. Individuals who began smoking at age 17 or older were compared with those who began smoking by age 16 and with those who never smoked in terms of risk factors measured in middle (at age 16) and late adolescence (from age 17 to 19). The study included 281 African American young men. A total of 18 psychological, behavioral, and environmental risk factors were measured at age 16, and 19 risk factors were measured between ages 17 and 19. Several risk factors at age 16 differed between early-onset and late-onset smokers or nonsmokers; however, in multivariate analyses, only peer drug use and truancy were significant. Among the age 16 risk factors, only truancy differentiated late-onset smokers from nonsmokers. Late adolescence behavioral risk factors were significantly related to late-onset smoking. However, only smoking marijuana and highest grade completed differentiated late-onset smokers from nonsmokers in multivariate analyses. Well-established predictors of cigarette smoking assessed in middle adolescence could identify individuals who already smoked but could not distinguish between those who would and would not begin smoking later. Late adolescence life transitions were not related to late-onset smoking. More research is needed to examine contextual factors in late adolescence and early adulthood that protect against and precipitate late-onset of smoking for African Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200601078350DOI Listing
January 2007

Early adolescent psychopathology as a predictor of alcohol use disorders by young adulthood.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2007 Apr 25;88 Suppl 1:S38-49. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 201 N. Craig St., Sterling Building Suite 408, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Few prospective studies have examined the relation between early adolescent conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) by young adulthood. The relative contribution of other forms of adolescent psychopathology (i.e., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety/withdrawal) to the development of AUD also remains poorly understood. There is some suggestion that the co-occurrence of conduct disorder symptoms with other forms of psychopathology may interact synergistically in predicting later alcohol use problems. The current study explores these issues using data on 506 boys from the oldest sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS). Consistent with prior research, early conduct disorder symptoms emerged as a consistent predictor of increased AUD symptoms and an alcohol dependence diagnosis by young adulthood. In contrast, adolescent boys with high levels of anxiety/withdrawal had lower levels of AUD symptoms and were less likely to develop alcohol dependence by young adulthood. Increased depression in early adolescence was associated with higher AUD symptoms and alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses by young adulthood, but only for boys with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms. No evidence was found for a relation between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and AUD symptoms or diagnoses after controlling for co-occurring psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.12.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2034413PMC
April 2007

An examination of pathways from childhood victimization to violence: the role of early aggression and problematic alcohol use.

Violence Vict 2006 Dec;21(6):675-90

John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Psychology Department, City University of New York, NY 10019, USA.

Using prospective data from a cohort design study involving documented cases of child abuse and neglect and a matched control group, we examine two potential pathways between childhood victimization and violent criminal behavior: early aggressive behavior and problematic drinking. Structural equation models, including controls for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental alcoholism, and parental criminality, revealed different pathways for men and women. For men, child maltreatment has direct and indirect (through aggressive behavior and problematic alcohol use) paths to violence. For women, problematic alcohol use mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and violence, and, independent of child maltreatment, early aggression leads to alcohol problems, which lead to violence. Interventions for victims of childhood maltreatment need to recognize the role of early aggressive behavior and alcohol problems as risk factors for subsequent violence.
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December 2006

Childhood victimization and illicit drug use in middle adulthood.

Psychol Addict Behav 2006 Dec;20(4):394-403

Department of Psychiatry, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989-1995 and again in middle adulthood (mean age = 40 years) during 2000-2002. In middle adulthood, abused and neglected individuals were about 1.5 times more likely than controls to report using any illicit drug (in particular, marijuana) during the past year and reported use of a greater number of illicit drugs and more substance-use-related problems compared with controls. The current results reveal the long-term impact of childhood victimization on drug use in middle adulthood. These new results reinforce the need for targeted interventions with abused and neglected children, adolescents, and adults, and particularly for women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.20.4.394DOI Listing
December 2006

Increases in alcohol and marijuana use during the transition out of high school into emerging adulthood: The effects of leaving home, going to college, and high school protective factors.

J Stud Alcohol 2006 Nov;67(6):810-22

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8001, USA.

Objective: This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college.

Method: Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project.

Results: Leaving home and going to college were significantly related to increases in the frequency of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking from high school to emerging adulthood but not to changes in marijuana use. Having fewer friends who used each substance protected against increases in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use. Higher religiosity protected against increases in alcohol-and marijuana-use frequency. Higher parental monitoring protected against increases in heavy episodic drinking and moderated the effect of going to college on marijuana use. Lower sensation seeking lessened the effect of going to college on increases in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking.

Conclusions: To prevent increases in substance use in emerging adulthood, interventions should concentrate on strengthening prosocial involvement and parental monitoring during high school. In addition, youths with high sensation seeking might be targeted for added intervention.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2314672PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsa.2006.67.810DOI Listing
November 2006

The self and mental health: self-salience and the emergence of internalizing and externalizing problems.

J Health Soc Behav 2005 Dec;46(4):323-40

Department of Sociology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA.

How do schemas about self-salience--the importance of the self versus the collective in social relations--affect mental health? We propose that self-salience shapes the likelihood of experiencing internalizing or externalizing problems. Schemas that privilege others over the self increase the risk of internalizing symptoms, including depressive symptoms and anxiety, whereas those that privilege the self over others predispose individuals to externalizing behaviors of antisocial behavior and substance abuse. Furthermore, we propose that these schemas contribute to the gender differences that exist in these problems. We test these predictions with data from adolescents, the stage at which these problems and the gender differences in them arise. Results show that self-salience underlies both internalizing and externalizing problems. In addition, schemas about self-salience help explain the gender differences found in mental health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650504600402DOI Listing
December 2005

Does childhood victimization increase the risk of early death? A 25-year prospective study.

Child Abuse Negl 2003 Jul;27(7):841-53

Center for Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Background: Abuse and neglect have been shown to influence the mental and physical health of children; however, few studies have examined whether childhood victimization leads to an increased risk of early death.

Purpose: This paper compares mortality data and examines cause of death for a sample of 908 abused and/or neglected individuals and 667 matched controls who were followed up into young adulthood.

Methods: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, a large group of children with substantiated cases of abuse (physical and sexual) and/or neglect approximately 25 years ago were matched with a control group of children and both groups were followed up into adulthood. The National Death Index was searched twice and official death certificates were collected for most individuals who had died.

Results: Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in rates of mortality for the two groups (abuse and neglect = 3.5%, controls = 3.0%). Furthermore, victims of child abuse and neglect were not more likely to experience a violent death.

Conclusions: Our results do not provide support for a heightened rate of early death in abused and neglected children followed up into young adulthood. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as potential reasons for these unexpected findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(03)00110-8DOI Listing
July 2003

Trajectories of gender role orientations in adolescence and early adulthood: a prospective study of the mental health effects of masculinity and femininity.

J Health Soc Behav 2002 Dec;43(4):451-68

Department of Sociology, Florida State University, 573 Bellamy, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2270, USA.

Adolescence is the segment of the life course when gender differences in mental health emerge and gender becomes a more salient factor shaping orientations toward oneself and views of one's place in the social world. This study uses mixture modeling, to identify trajectories of masculinity and femininity between ages 12 and 25, and OLS regression, to examine the effects of those trajectories on mental health in young adulthood (measured as depressive symptoms and alcohol problems at age 25). Four waves of prospective data from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project are used; respondents (n = 447) are age 12 at Wave 1 (1979-81), 15 at Wave 2 (1982-84), 18 at Wave 3 (1985-87), and 25 at Wave 4 (1992-94). Results indicate that having relatively high and increasing levels of masculinity over adolescence decreases depressive symptoms in early adulthood for both males and females. Reflecting the privileging of males over females, the findings suggest that masculinity, but not femininity, is a central axis on which advantages and disadvantages across some dimensions of mental health accumulate over adolescence.
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December 2002

Diverse research on alcohol and aggression in humans: in memory of John A. Carpenter.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003 Feb;27(2):198-208

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0044, USA.

This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium, chaired and co-organized by Helene Raskin White and co-organized by Peter R. Giancola, that was presented at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco. The goal of this symposium was to integrate findings from methodologically divergent studies on the topic of alcohol-related aggression in humans. The investigators focused on isolating mediators and moderators of the alcohol-aggression relationship. Peter R. Giancola presented laboratory data demonstrating how alcohol's acute effects on aggression are moderated by individual difference and contextual factors. Mitchell E. Berman presented laboratory data on alcohol's acute effects on self-induced aggression. Helene Raskin White reviewed prospective data on how alcohol affects the intergenerational transmission of family violence. Stephen Chermack reviewed data on the impact of a family history of alcoholism and a family history of violence on the development of childhood behavioral problems and adult problems with drugs, alcohol, and violence. Finally, Kenneth E. Leonard presented data on personal and contextual factors influencing alcohol-related barroom violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000051024.18538.F0DOI Listing
February 2003

Problem drinking and intimate partner violence.

J Stud Alcohol 2002 Mar;63(2):205-14

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8001, USA.

Objective: This study examined the role of problem drinking in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization for men and women. We assessed (1) whether the relationship between problem drinking and IPV was spurious and (2) if relationship dissatisfaction and partner drinking mediated the effects of problem drinking on IPV.

Method: Five waves of longitudinal data from a nonclinical sample (N = 725; 400 women), aged 12 through 31 years, were analyzed to determine the effects of problem drinking on IPV after controlling for eight common risk factors. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether relationship dissatisfaction and partner drinking patterns mediated the effects of problem drinking on IPV after controlling for these same risk factors.

Results: With controls, problem drinking significantly predicted perpetration and victimization for men and women. Partner drinking was not related to perpetration or victimization for men. For women, partner drinking was strongly related to perpetration and victimization. It fully mediated the effects of problem drinking on perpetration, but did not mediate these effects on victimization. Relationship dissatisfaction fully mediated the effects of problem drinking on male and female perpetration and partially mediated the effects on male victimization. Relationship dissatisfaction did not mediate the effects of problem drinking on female victimization.

Conclusions: The relationship between problem drinking and IPV was not spurious for men or women. Heavier drinking by partners put women at greater risk for perpetration and victimization and mediated the effects of their own problem drinking on perpetration. Programs that prevent and treat problem drinking among young men should have a beneficial impact on reducing IPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsa.2002.63.205DOI Listing
March 2002

Developmental trajectories of cigarette use from early adolescence into young adulthood.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2002 Jan;65(2):167-78

Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001, USA.

This study identified developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking from early adolescence into young adulthood, and delineated whether risk factors derived from a social learning-problem behavior framework could differentiate among trajectories. Participants (N=374) were interviewed five times from age 12 until age 30/31. Using growth mixture modeling, three trajectory groups were identified--heavy/regular, occasional/maturing out, and non/experimental smokers. Being a female, having higher disinhibition, receiving lower grades, and more frequent use of alcohol or drugs significantly increased the probability of belonging to a smoking trajectory group compared with being a nonsmoker. Higher disinhibition and receiving lower grades also differentiated regular smokers from the rest of the sample. None of the risk factors distinguished occasional from regular smokers. When models were tested separately by sex, disinhibition, other drug use, and school grades were associated with smoking for both sexes. On the other hand, environmental factors, including socioeconomic status, parent smoking and friend smoking, were related to smoking for females but not for males. Sex differences in developmental trajectories and in smoking behavior among regular smokers were notable. Future research should examine transitions and turning points from adolescence to adulthood that may affect cessation and escalation differently for males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0376-8716(01)00159-4DOI Listing
January 2002