Publications by authors named "Helene Massinet"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hepatitis B virus HBx protein impairs liver regeneration through enhanced expression of IL-6 in transgenic mice.

J Hepatol 2013 Aug 28;59(2):285-91. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Inserm, U845, Pathogenèse des hépatites virales B et immunothérapie, Paris, France.

Background & Aims: Conflicting results have been reported regarding the impact of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) expression on liver regeneration triggered by partial hepatectomy (PH). In the present report we investigated the mechanisms by which HBx protein alters hepatocyte proliferation after PH.

Methods: PH was performed on a transgenic mouse model in which HBx expression is under the control of viral regulatory elements and liver regeneration was monitored. LPS, IL-6 neutralizing antibody, and SB203580 were injected after PH to evaluate IL-6 participation during liver regeneration.

Results: Cell cycle progression of hepatocytes was delayed in HBx transgenic mice compared to WT animals. Moreover, HBx induced higher secretion of IL-6 soon after PH. Upregulation of IL-6 was associated with an elevation of STAT3 phosphorylation, SOCS3 transcript accumulation and a decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the livers of HBx transgenic mice. The involvement of IL-6 overexpression in cell cycle deregulation was confirmed by the inhibition of liver regeneration in control mice after the upregulation of IL-6 expression using LPS. In addition, IL-6 neutralization with antibodies was able to restore liver regeneration in HBx mice. Finally, the direct role of p38 in IL-6 secretion after PH was demonstrated using SB203580, a pharmacological inhibitor.

Conclusions: HBx is able to induce delayed hepatocyte proliferation after PH, and HBx-induced IL-6 overexpression is involved in delayed liver regeneration. By modulating IL-6 expression during liver proliferation induced by stimulation of the cellular microenvironment, HBx may participate in cell cycle deregulation and progression of liver disease.
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August 2013

Antiviral activity of Bay 41-4109 on hepatitis B virus in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice.

PLoS One 2011 5;6(12):e25096. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

INSERM, National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Unit 845, Paris, France.

Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC(50) of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy.
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July 2012

A primary defect in glucose production alone cannot induce glucose intolerance without defects in insulin secretion.

J Endocrinol 2011 Sep 23;210(3):335-47. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Medicine, Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, University of Melbourne, 300 Waterdale Road, Heidelberg Heights, Melbourne, Victoria 3081, Australia.

Increased glucose production is associated with fasting hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes but whether or not it causes glucose intolerance is unclear. This study sought to determine whether a primary defect in gluconeogenesis (GNG) resulting in elevated glucose production is sufficient to induce glucose intolerance in the absence of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Progression of glucose intolerance was assessed in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) transgenic rats, a genetic model with a primary increase in GNG. Young (4-5 weeks of age) and adult (12-14 weeks of age) PEPCK transgenic and Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG/c) control rats were studied. GNG, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance were assessed by intraperitoneal and intravascular substrate tolerance tests and hyperinsulinaemic/euglycaemic clamps. Despite elevated GNG and increased glucose appearance, PEPCK transgenic rats displayed normal glucose tolerance due to adequate glucose disposal and robust glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Glucose intolerance only became apparent in the PEPCK transgenic rats following the development of insulin resistance (both hepatic and peripheral) and defective glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Taken together, a single genetic defect in GNG leading to increased glucose production does not adversely affect glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance and impaired glucose-mediated insulin secretion are required to precipitate glucose intolerance in a setting of chronic glucose oversupply.
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September 2011

Inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA replication by a thermostable interferon-γ variant.

Antivir Ther 2010 ;15(6):861-9

INSERM U, Paris, France.

Background: Treatment of HBV chronic carriers using interferon (IFN)-α or nucleoside/nucleotide analogues fails to suppress viral infection. Type-II IFN-γ has been shown to inhibit HBV replication. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the antiviral efficacy against HBV of a thermostable IFN-γ variant isolated using Massive Mutagenesis and thermoresistant selection (THR) technologies.

Methods: The thermostability of wild-type (wt) and S63C IFN-γ was determined in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the IFN-γ responsive element by wt and S63C IFN-γ was tested using a luciferase assay. HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV were used to analyse the antiviral activity of wt and S63C IFN-γ against HBV replication. Intracellular HBV DNA was detected by Southern blot and quantified by real-time PCR analyses.

Results: S63C IFN-γ was shown to be more thermostable and had a longer half-life than wt IFN-γ. Both wt and S63C IFN-γ displayed a similar capacity to activate the IFN pathway. The treatment of HepG2.2.15 cells with wt or S63C IFN-γ induced the inhibition of HBV viral replication. After heating, S63C IFN-γ displayed better conservation of its antiviral activity against HBV when compared with wt IFN-γ.

Conclusions: These results confirm that the THR method can be used to isolate mutants with enhanced thermostability and demonstrate that a thermostable IFN-γ variant presents antiviral properties against HBV replication. This molecule could provide a new strategy to treat patients who do not respond to antiviral therapy.
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December 2010

Expression of human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver of transgenic mice results in increased glycerol gluconeogenesis.

Endocrinology 2006 Jun 23;147(6):2764-72. Epub 2006 Feb 23.

Department of Medicine (Austin Health and Northern Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria 3081, Australia.

In type 2 diabetes, increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) as a result of elevated gluconeogenesis contributes to hyperglycemia. An increase in glycerol gluconeogenesis has led to the suggestion that, in obese human subjects with type 2 diabetes, there may be an increase in the activity of the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). The aim of this study was to generate transgenic mice that overexpress human liver FBPase in the liver and assess the consequences to whole-body and hepatic glucose metabolism. FBPase transgenic mice had significantly higher levels of transgene expression in the liver and, as a result, had increased FBPase protein and enzyme activity levels in the liver. This resulted in an increase in the rate of glycerol conversion to glucose but not in EGP. The increased expression of FBPase in the liver did not result in any significant differences compared with littermate control mice in insulin or glucose tolerance. Therefore, it appears that, on its own, an increase in FBPase does not lead to impaired regulation of EGP and hence does not affect whole-body glucose metabolism. This suggests that, for EGP to be increased, other factors associated with obesity are also required.
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June 2006